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Zillah Byng-Maddick, the boss of media-publishing firm Future, explains how she stepped up to executive level and juggles a busy family life alongside work and a passion for running marathons. Previously, I was chief executive of Trader Media and chief financial officer of Fitness First among other senior roles. We are currently going through the transition from a magazine business to a global media company. The challenge is to think about the future like an entrepreneur while respecting the brilliance from the past.
It was an absolutely critical event for my career, someone taking a chance on me and being willing to support me in the step up to executive level. I have three boys aged six to 11 and two stepsons of 13 and 15, so that’s a busy family life. It’s important to get organised, and not beat yourself up for not being able to attend all the school stuff. As a chief executive you’re never really not working, as often my best thinking is when I’m out for a run or playing with my kids.
Having said that, I’m a morning person and like to get in early while I’m fresh and get the day started. As well as having worked in the fitness industry, I also try to keep fit and last year I ran 12 half-marathons in 12 months.
Be passionate about what you want to do as making it requires a lot of hard work, and if you don’t love what you do then it’s really hard to stay motivated.
Barry Williams, chief customer officer at Asda, shares the secrets to his success including keeping things simple, combining work and family and not taking himself too seriously. It’s a grand title but basically I represent the customer within our business and give them a seat at the board table.
I’ve been doing it for 12 months and have had a lot of opportunity to get my teeth stuck into the role as well as have real fun with it — it makes you very conscious of the customers’ perspective and gives you licence to throw the challenges they make to us out to our teams across the business. It gives me the freedom to express an opinion on behalf of our customers on all aspects of our business. The trick is being able to do that in a way that is sustainable for your business and shareholders.
It’s also important to keep it simple — we’re trying to sell stuff and I have to make sure it appeals. As Steve Jobs said, it’s easy to over-complicate things, so if I sit in a room and can’t decipher what is being said because of a tonne of buzzwords, it’s my aim to get the teams to keep it simple and customer-focused. I fell into retail, but what I didn’t realise when I took that job was that I had just set foot on the first rung of a long ladder within an industry that is a real meritocracy. How does a kid from Liverpool with two O-Levels get to sit on the board of one of the biggest retailers in the country? I won’t lie, there’s been a lot of hard work and a genuine willingness to learn at every level: enthusiasm, dedication and perhaps some luck along the way somewhere.
I think people who compartmentalise their personal and private lives are often unhappy with one or the other of them. Yes I’ve had setbacks, we all have… but they never got me down and I never over-analysed them. Ok, so this might be some of the most boring stuff in the world, but it might be of interest to some of you who have very boring lives.
I majored in Marketing Management in college and spent the better part of my working life starting and running businesses. When I ran my wholesale and my retail businesses, I focused on every item as a standalone profit center. I was lucky in that I had done numerous home construction activities with my dad and knew how to use certain tools. One of the quality experiences of growing up was growing a garden directed by our wanna-be farmer - Dad. When we sold out, we would head home, count up our take, divide it up among each other, and deposit it in our college piggy banks. Now it was true that there were stores that sold doormats, but mine were a€?high qualitya€? rubber mats that were personalized with their names on them, such as a€?Welcome to the Rumplestiltskina€™sa€?. This went pretty well and many were sold, but in order to keep my source confidential it was necessary for me to have them shipped to me and then deliver them. Buying into this scheme, I was selling Christmas cards in March, and by early fall had managed to sell enough to get the radio I wanted. During our years of grade school, my sisters and I usually took 1st and 2nd place and walked away with nearly all the Virgin Mary statues and second place prizes. Once again I engaged in child labor by bringing my sister along for these sales expeditions. We quickly found that we had excellent results if we went to the village and called on businesses. It was during this business venture that our nation experienced a traumatic event, the shooting of our 43rd President, John F.
When this large company started to experience a profit squeeze, the geniuses at the top decided the best place to cut expenses was the sales people. I would knock on the door of every business in my village and when I ran out of potential customers I took the bus to the city and started there. What made this story interesting was when he called me wanting to buy calendars to give out at Christmas. I showed up with a few discretely hidden samples and my catalog, which would be revealed after the hook and pitch. Now came the really tricky part, the fruits of the dangerous creativity of the depths of my brain. I started noticing ads in the newspaper by coin dealers in the city where they were buying silver certificates for $1.05 each. On Friday nights I would race to get my newspapers delivered, hurry to the bank, ask the teller for several hundred one dollar bills and start sorting through them picking out all the older silver certificates.
Saturday morning began my journey to the city coin dealer where my $500 would miraculously become $525.
Eventually the silver coins became relatively scarce and the sorting became more like panning for gold in a river - more work than the time justified. Having never taken a college marketing class yet, at 13 I was about to discover a classic fact of marketing. There were more wedding customers, and then when I moved on to college my mom continued the business.
A great profit was made by the merchant ships that returned to the Italian port cities of Venice, Pisa, and Genoa filled with the greatly sought-after goods from Asia. In addition to Venice, Genoa developed into a major port city for ships that carried the new goods to the rest of Europe.
According to the accounts published years later by Marco Polo, son of Niccolo, arriving in China in 1265 A.D.
They also brought back from the Khan a request to the pope for 100 Christian missionaries to teach the Chinese the Christian faith. In their travels along the Silk Road, the Polos saw many strange animals, heard numerous strange languages, tasted exotic foods, and experienced other sights in a long and difficult three-year trip eastward. Whether or not Marco embellished his stories with exaggeration, he recorded that the Khan took a strong liking to the young Venetian and sent him on many official tours of his vast kingdom as his representative on commercial and political business.
They left China in an entourage of 14 ships and 600 people, most to serve the princess and to impress her new husband.
While in prison Marco dictated to another prisoner an account of his travels and experiences in the advanced civilization of the Yuan Dynasty.
The account, published under the title, Il Milione, was widely read in Europe and stimulated an even greater interest in the wonders of the Far East. An extensive world of trade had existed in the Indian Ocean for centuries, to the virtual exclusion of Europe. Although trade and travel between China and Europe existed even during the Roman Empire, the rise in power of the Ottoman and Persian empires from the 12th century on made travel and trade increasingly difficult for the Europeans.
The Persians, as was the case also with the Ottomans, extracted heavy taxes from merchants traveling through their territories. The Ottoman interference in the Mediterranean threatened the commercial survival of Venice, Genoa, and Milan.
Of great concern was the increasing blockage of the important slave trade that existed between the Mongols in the Balkans and Eastern Europe who were shipping European slaves to Africa and the Middle East. A new religious fervor spread throughout Europe in reaction to the rapid expansion of Islam into North Africa and the Christian Balkans. A whole generation of young, highly trained soldiers in Spain, after the defeat of the Moors was completed in 1492, were looking for new campaigns.
New technology in ship building created faster, sleeker ships (the caravel), the sternpost rudder which made steering ships much more accurate and easy, arming of ships with the new canon, the magnetic compass, the astrolabe (which enabled captains to plot their travel using latitudinal and longitudinal readings), and more accurate charting methods drove the desire of Europeans to new areas of exploration. The bankruptcy of Spain caused by the long campaign to drive the Moors from Spain, made exploration to find new routes to the Spice Islands and new deposits of gold and silver necessary. The loss of financial revenue in Portugal, the leading merchant fleet linking the Spice Islands to Europe, due to the new Ottoman dominance in the Indian Ocean forced new alternatives to be obtained.
And when these factors resulted in two actual, successful trips to be achieved in 1429 A.D. They traded porcelain, lacquerware, silk, and cotton in exchange for gold, silver, and ivory. Had the Chinese emperors in the 15th century continued in their quest to develop world trade, the history of the world would be radically different. However, increasing pressure from the Mongols to the north diverted the attention of the emperors away from trade expansion to defense of the dynasty, and Chinese naval explorations inexplicably ceased. The Ottoman Empire relied upon Greek sailors and captains from Ottoman-controlled Greece to conduct most of their sea trade during the 15th and 16th centuries. They found something other than shipping to be much more profitable -- the capture of ships, crews, captains and cargo. Their piracy continued on into the 18th century when the Barbary pirates were finally defeated by the fledgling navy of the United States under President Thomas Jefferson. From the 15th century onward ships sailed from Europe in search of not only new routes to Asia, but also to find the cities of gold that were featured in the fables of European sailors. The Dutch sailed successfully around the tip of Africa into Asian waters and there they competed with the Portuguese and English for control of the spice trade. The Dutch also made a brief attempt to colonize North America where they founded New Amsterdam (now New York), but were soon driven out by the English. The Portuguese were the first to find a route around the tip of Africa to India and then to Asia. To settle the conflict between the two Catholic countries, Pope Alexander VI in May 1493 drew an imaginary line down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean 480 km (298.25 miles) west of the Cape Verde Islands. At the time of Alexandera€™s initial intervention, little land in the Americas had been discovered or explored. The major sponsor and encourager of the Portuguese explorations was Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460), son of the Portuguese king. With Henrya€™s funding and encouragement over 50 expeditions were sent out, including Vasco da Gama, who in 1498 became the first European to sail around the tip of Africa to India. Several enduring Portuguese colonies were established in Brazil (where the national language is still Portuguese), the Spice Islands (Portuguese East Timor), Macao (a neighbor of Hong Kong), the Portuguese Azores, and the African colonies of Portuguese Angola and Mozambique. England under Queen Elizabeth I developed an expansive trade and exploration campaign, supported by the worlda€™s largest and most powerful navy.
One of Elizabetha€™s favorites at the royal court was Sir Walter Raleigh, a daring sea captain who consistently thwarted and badgered the Spanish by seizing Spanish galleons filled with gold and silver on their way to Spain from the colonies in Peru and Bolivia.
One hundred years earlier John Cabot, a Venetian seaman and explorer, sailed under the sponsorship of King Henry VII, Elizabetha€™s grandfather.
His son, Sebastian Cabot, was later commissioned to find a Northwest Passage through present-day Canada to the Orient.
Sir Francis Drake (1545-1596) was selected by Queen Elizabeth to lead a sailing expedition around the world. John Cook was a late 18th century English explorer and navigator who sailed three times to the Orient, was the first European to touch Australiaa€™s eastern shore, discovered many Pacific islands, and was the first to sail around present-day New Zealand.
During his travels, Cook created the first accurate maps of the Pacific Ocean and the first accurate maps of the coastlands of Europe. Under Queen Elizabeth I and James I, the first English colonies in the New World were established.
Queen Elizabeth I also founded the East India Company in 1600 for the purpose of developing trade with the Dutch East Indies. The Italian, da Verrazano, sailing under the French flag was the first European to locate the bay of New York, reaching it in 1524.
In 1603 Samuel de Champlain explored the Saint Lawrence River, traveled south into New England, and in 1609 established the colony of Quebec in the newly formed New France.
By the early 17th century French fur trappers and missionaries traveled as far west as Wyoming, established bases throughout the Great Lakes region, including present-day Chicago and Michigan, and conducted fur-trade along the Mississippi River as far south as present-day New Orleans, establishing there an important trade base and French colony. About a century later, France was defeated by Britain in the Seven Yearsa€™ War (1754-1763), known to Americans as the French and Indian War. The last chapter of the Reconquista was written in 1492 when the last of the Moors were driven from Grenada in southern Spain. The article below, a€?Why Did Columbus Sail?,a€? further points out the major events of 1492 in Spain. In 1492, six years before Vasco da Gama of Portugal made his historic trip around the tip of Africa to India, opening up a new sea route to Asia, a sea captain from Genoa, Italy, Christopher Columbus, was commissioned by the king and queen of Spain to explore a new route westward to the Spice Islands. From childhood he was fascinated by the sea and dreamed of becoming a sailor--maybe even one day becoming the captain of his own ship!
When he was about twenty years of age, his dream of going to sea was finally realized and saw many different peoples and lands on his voyages around the Mediterranean.
After escaping a pirate attack at sea, Columbus settled in the Portuguese city of Lisbon, Europe`s most important center of world navigation.
After his marriage to a Portuguese woman, and fathering several children, Columbus became convinced he could reach Asia by sailing westward from Europe across the Atlantic Ocean. A fervent Christian, Columbus also had a burning passion to evangelize peoples along his route to Asia. Columbus took his plan to Henry VII of England, Francis I of Spain, to the king of Portugal, and was turned down by all three monarchs. Three swift ships were purchased and stocked with supplies for the voyage -- the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria.
For the rest of his life Columbus believed that he had landed on perimeter islands of either India or a€?Cathaya€? (the 15th century name for China). Columbus on this first trip to the New World visited numerous nearby islands, including Cuba, which he made his main base of operations and center of the new colony established. Why does history say that Columbus a€?discovereda€? the New World, when other peoples had already inhabited North and South America for thousands of years before his a€?discoverya€?? The a€?Ba€? people, however, came to South America probably from Japan and the South Pacific islands via boats.
And to complicate the matter further, a fifth haplogroup, labeled a€?X,a€? has been identified, and a€?Xa€? is not found anywhere in Asia! Recent finds in Oregon (2012) also have located a distinct, heretofore unknown, people who migrated into North America along land bridges that connected Siberia to North America during the Ice Age. Other finds also point to early arrivals in Latin America that pre-date the arrival of migratory peoples from Asia.
A skull was found in 1999 in South-Central Brazil by archeologists and numerous skeletons in a nearby burial site that seem to indicated that these were people with Negroid features.
Therefore, the settling of North and South America probably was done in numerous waves of migration into the two continents and from different places in Asia and perhaps the South Pacific and even Europe. If you are interested in DNA studies and current thinking about how and when the ancestors of the Native Americans came to the Americas, see the following articles and videos. If Columbus was a€?the first Europeana€? to have a€?discovereda€? the Americas, why are they called the a€?Americasa€? and not the a€?Columbiasa€?? Between 1497 and 1507 an Italian explorer, Amerigo Vespucci, made six trips to South America. Although his actually landings were few and brief, he later recounted his journeys to a friend, Lorenzo de Medici, who was so fascinated by the stories that he personally published what became very popular and widely-read accounts.
The anti-Columbus authors point to the introduction of European diseases into the Americas that decimated whole populations of original inhabitants, that Columbus seized slaves, not only to work for the Spanish but were sent back to Spain for exhibit much as one would an animal, and that he ruled over the new colony as a despot. Political correctness tends to see any claims by any particular religion to be a€?the only waya€? to be absolutist and arrogant.
Furthermore, the argument goes, Columbus opened the door to centuries of ill-treatment of the Meso-Americans, as they were to be referred to rather than the supposedly demeaning term a€?Indian.a€? The ill-treatment continued not only through the later Spanish conquistadors, but also through the American settlement of the West and the disruption of the native American cultures. And so, his detractors maintain, Columbus stands for everything that went wrong as a result of the invasion by Europeans into the Americas. There were no existing university courses or books available on a€?how to best contact a foreign culturea€? or a€?how to best evangelize another people.a€? Columbus and the Spanish put into practice what was common to all European nations at the time. European diseases carried by explorers into the New World was hardly a planned attack on the native population, since there was no knowledge in that day about germs or how contagions developed. The Spanish and Columbus viewed themselves as possessors of a superior Christian culture who had an obligation to treat the native inhabitants more as children to be protected and instructed than as slaves.
Columbus showed a great compassion for the peoples he encountered and saw his trips as designed by God for their evangelism. Columbus did sign an agreement with the monarchs of Spain which guaranteed him 10% of the profits from not only his own trips but for all those that followed. The entry of Columbus into the New World opened two continents to European and Asian cultures, civilizations, technologies, medicine, trade, and eventually united an entire southern American continent with one language. The next morning, Friday, August 3, 1492, at dawn, the Santa MarA­a and its companion caravels caught the ebb tide and drifted toward the gulf. In that Ocean of Darkness, some feared, the water boiled and sea monsters gulped down sailors so foolish as to sail there.
Commander Cristoforo Colombo (as he was known in his hometown of Genoa, Italy) was taller than most men; so tall, in fact, he couldna€™t stand inside his cabin on the Santa MarA­a. The textbook answer, as any schoolchild could recite, is that Columbus wanted to find a trade route to the Orient. Columbus was visibly and verbally a€?an exceptionally pious man,a€? writes historian Delno C. His son Ferdinand wrote, a€?He was so strict in matters of religion that for fasting and saying prayers he might have been taken for a member of a religious order.a€? He knew his Vulgate Bible thoroughly, and he probably took it (or a collection of Scriptures) on his voyages.
A main source for information about Columbus is his contemporary Bishop Bartolome de Las Casas. But only in the last 40 yearsa€”and particularly in the last 10 have scholars examined Columbusa€™s religious motivations.
But why explain away his intense religious devotion, when it was obvious to those who knew him and persistent throughout his writings?
On September 23, the ship hit a calm, causing the seamen to complain theya€™d never be able to get back to Spain.
At daylight, the wide-eyed Europeans saw people a€?as naked as their mother bore thema€? and many ponds, fruits, and green trees. Las Casas agreed that a€?Columbus showed the way to the discovery of immense territoriesa€? and many peoples a€?are now ready and prepared to be brought to the knowledge of their Creator and the faith.a€? As a sign of that work, on every island he explored, Columbus erected a large wooden cross.
After ten weeks of exploring the coastline of Cuba and Hispaniola, continually trading trinkets for gold, Columbus and his men hit a problem. But what most would have viewed as a calamity, Columbus did not: a€?It was a great blessing and the express purpose of Goda€? that his ship ran aground so he would leave some of his men.
Although the words are recorded only indirectly, God spoke to Columbus and assured him that God would take him to safety. The next day Columbusa€™s men spotted an island in the Azores; less than three weeks later they landed triumphantly on the Iberian peninsula.
When Columbus anchored the NiA±a in Palos, seven months after hea€™d left, shops closed and church bells rang.
According to Las Casas, a€?The King and Queen heard [Columbusa€™s report] with profound attention and, raising their hands in prayer, sank to their knees in deep gratitude to God.
Columbus thought that Ferdinand and Isabella were Goda€™s chosen instruments to recapture Jerusalem and place the Holy City under Christian control. As soon as Columbus had returned to Spain, he told Ferdinand and Isabella he would provide 50,000 soldiers and 4,000 horses for them to free Christa€™s Holy Tomb in Jerusalem. But much to Columbusa€™s disappointment, the longed-for crusade to recapture the Holy City was never undertaken.
In 1499, he said, a€?When all had abandoned me, I was assailed by the Indians and the wicked Christians the Spanish settlers who were rebelling against his inept administration]. In 1518 Carlos of Spain, who was to become Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, signed an agreement to sponsor a journey by Magellan to seek a route around the world, but primarily a route to the Spice Islands in the East Indies from the Pacific side, so as to avoid the confrontations with Islamic pirates in the Mediterranean.
His journey around the tip of South America and across the uncharted Pacific Ocean included many dangerous and threatening situations and his crew threatened mutiny on numerous occasions. Several weeks later Magellana€™s crew continued their trip west, eventually visited the Spice Islands, and then continued their journey westward to Europe.
Ponce de Leon in 1513 explored the east coast of Florida for Spain in search for gold and what was rumored to be the fountain of youth.
Vasco de Balboa in 1513 sailed along the northern coast of South America, and landed in present-day Central America.
Hernan Cortes in 1519 landed on the coast of present-day Mexico with a small band of 600 men. The introduction of European diseases whcih wiped out a vast majority of the native people, the introduction of guns, and mounted soldiers on horseback with their war dogs, resulted in a speedy and complete conquest of the Aztec Empire and surrounding tribes. Francisco Pizarro in 1531 set out from Central America with only 200 soldiers to locate the rumored Inca Empire. The gold and silver from Peru and Bolivia filled the Spanish treasuries with immense wealth and created the numerous routes between South America and Spain. De Soto landed at present-day Bradenton, Florida, just south of Tampa, and began his journey northward.
De Soto traveled up the present-day Route US 10 to Tallahassee, Florida where he made camp for about a year. The survivors eventually decided to attempt to reach Mexico City, first by foot, and then, returning to the shores of the Mississippi, to build rafts to sail down the river, into the Gulf , and on to Mexico City. He then continued to the west until he reached the Mississippi River, the first European to reach that river.
Viceroys: Spanish elite who were appointed by the monarchy to run the five separate regions of New Spain.
Creoles: people born in the colonies to Spanish parents, and considered inferior or a€?hicksa€? by the colonists who came to the colonies from Spain.
Native Americans: these people had little freedom or were forced into labor on plantations and in mines.
Their appeals for change were heard by many, but the change that was instituted was not a response of Christian compassion and love for those they sought to convert, but was rather the decision to ease their work load by bringing into the colonies a larger work force.
The clergy fired back with accusations against the viceroys and peninsulares--that they could not care less about the souls of the native Americans and threw them aside when ill or dead as one would trash. Native Americans and African slaves both occupied the very bottom of the social chain in Spaina€™s Ecomienda. De Sotoa€™s expedition contributed to the founding of what became known as the Columbian Exchange, the exchange of people, animals, foods, plants, and technology between Europe and the New Spain (the Americas).
From Europe and Africa pigs, horses, goats, sugar cane, paper, guns, and technology crossed the Atlantic to the America. The introduction of corn and potatoes into Europe produced a fairly rapid growth in population, which had declined because of the a€?Little Ice Agea€? that began around 1350 A.D.
Sugar beets and sugar cane that came to the America from India with Columbus, soon became a huge industry in the Americas, especially in the Caribbean. Beyond a new commercial exchange between Europe and Africa and the Americas, the gold and silver flowing to Spain opened up new and expanded doors for trade across the Pacific with the Ming Dynasty in China (whose economic system was based on gold and silver) and with the Spice Islands of the Philippines and Indonesia.
In Africa the Portuguese had established economic ties with strong African kings who provided the Portuguese with large numbers of conquered slaves. As has been the case throughout human history, in general, the treatment of the native and African workers was brutal, harsh, and inhumane. And Islam was presented with a major problem in Africa in a dispute between the Muslim missionaries and Muslim slave traders. Therefore, Islamic trade traders justified their behavior in Africa by declaring the tribal groups living south of an arbitrary line drawn across the African continent as sub-humans, pagans eligible for death or slavery!
For this reason, today the continent of Africa is composed of a solidly Islamic north and a majority Christian south where the conversion rate to Christianity is progressing faster than the birth rate. The system of joint stock companies emerged, in which merchants and investors pooled their resources, sold stock in the new companies, reduced the risk to individual investors, and made available vast amounts of working capital for investments in mining and agriculture, as well as the many ships required to transport goods.
A new population of middle class merchants arose, acting as middle men in the new system of trade.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony, and the colonies planted at Plymouth and Jamestown were all made possible by joint stock companies, who expected a return on their investments through new trade for goods and natural resources with the native peoples and the colonists in those areas.
By 1510 50% of all silver from the mines in Bolivia were being shipped to India to purchase tea and cotton and to China for silk and porcelain. Contacts between Europe and Asia--especially China, the Spice Islands, and India--greatly increased in the late 13th century, producing important merchant cities in Venice, Milan, Genoa, Lisbon, and Madrid. Formerly most trade routes were overland, but beginning with the 13th century naval shipping became the major means of trade. The Persians, Ottomans, and North African Muslims, through harassment, heavy import and export taxes, and seizing of cargo forced Europeans to find new routes to Asia.
Between 1450-1650 several countries became leaders in naval shipping: China, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, England, and France, and others, like India and Italy, served as middle men in the expanded trade. New technologies in the construction of ships and navigation instruments made long sea journeys possible. The Treaty of Tordesilla in 1491 was negotiated by Pope Alexander VI between Portugal and Spain in an attempt to settle their growing dispute over creating trade routes to the Spice Islands.
Prince Henry the Navigator encouraged and funding trade between Portugal and others countries and continents, leading to new routes to India and the Spice Islands, as well as opening the door to trafficking in slaves from Africa.
Queen Elizabeth and James I were English monarchs who sponsored a great growth in naval power, shipping, and establishing colonies in the New World. Christopher Columbus in 1492 was the first European to set foot in the New World since early attempts by the Norsemen in the 9th and 10th centuries. Columbus was commissioned by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella in 1492 to find a new sea route westward to the Spice Islands.
Columbus was a Christian who desired to reach unknown people groups with the Gospel of Christ. The Americas were named for Amerigo Vespucci, an Italian explorer who sailed six times to the east coast of South America and made fairly accurate maps of the coastline.


Ferdinand Magella sailed for Portugal in 1519, successfully made his way around the tip of Africa, across the Pacific, and although he, himself, died in the Philippines, his crew continued the trip westward to Portugal, arriving in 1521, the first known humans to circle the earth by ship.
Other Spanish explorers claimed vast areas of North and South America for Spain and established the Columbian Exchange between Europe, Africa, and New Spain.
Large gold and silver deposits in New Spain created great wealth in Spain, but ultimately led to its economic decline. The rapid expansion of shipping, plantation building, and trade produced a new system of joint stock companies to fund the new ventures.
Explain the reasons for and the success of the Ottoman Empire in restricting European trade with Asia. Describe the cultural and military collision between the Spanish and the Aztec and the Inca empires and analyze why these empires collapsed.
Explain the founding and organization of Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires in the Americas and assess the role of the Catholic Church in the colonial administration and policies regarding indigenous populations.
Assess ways in which the exchange of plants and animals around the world in the late 15th and the 16th centuries affected European, Asian, African, and American Indian societies and commerce. Analyze why the introduction of new diseases in the Americas after 1492 had such devastating demographic and social effects on American Indian populations, not only in South America but also in Florida and the Caribbean.
Assess the effects that knowledge of the peoples, cultures, geography, and natural environment of the Americas had on European religious and intellectual life.
How did the Crusades and the Renaissance open up Europe for an awakened interest in other lands?
What light, fast vessel was popular with the early explorers of the late fifteenth century? What were maps and other navigational aids like during this period, and how did sailors find their way? What is not found in the textbook: the motivation of Ferdinand and Isabella to fund the voyage by Columbus during the two years prior to 1492 Ferdinand and Isabella has used all their resources to drive the remaining Islamic forces and citizens from Spain. According to the author of the textbook, why had Europeans not discovered the New World sooner?
By the time Magellan was ready to begin his journey in 1519, what had everyone realized about Columbusa€™ earlier trip?
Tell the story of what happened when Magellan with his remaining crew finally reached the Philippine Islands. Tell the story of the miraculous healing of the chief of the island on which Magellan landed.
I never left school saying I wanted to work in food retail — I actually wan ted to be a professional footballer or the next Paul Weller — and became a trader instead. Work takes me all over the country and the world and I have a group of friends who share the same interests as me including music, clothes, sport and scooters (Lambrettas for me, I go to the Isle of Wight rally every year). I combine speaking with my wife and kids with the working day — technology has changed everything, making it a lot easier.
Bartha€™s Mini Autobiography - written several year back as a class activity where students and teacher all engaged in reviewing their past. If an item did not produce a profit or contribute to drawing customers to buy other products, something needed fixed.
I was involved in the unsavory business of child labor, and to make matters worse it involved my little sister. I dona€™t suggest most 7 year olds be allowed to use a box cutter with a razor blade, but it worked exceptionally well for cutting the string and producing nice clean cuts dividing the wooden slats. When I was a kid there were some older men who had converted old school busses to traveling produce stands. There was something about our soil and the upstate New York weather that made for some great produce. So on Sunday we would load up the trunk, go to church, and then head off to apartment complexes (where people didna€™t have gardens) and sell our fresh produce.
They were somewhat heavy and hard to balance on my bike, so I started looking for other ventures to pursue. Suddenly there were new radios coming on the market with 12 transistors and I was craving one. Dad convinced me to hold off purchasing anything until after Christmas (when prices would come down), and then offered to give me his old 12 transistor radio. One of dada€™s customers was a ham radio operator with one of those hundred foot tall antennas in his back yard. I noticed an ad for litti??le plastic needle threaders in which you would insert a needle, lay the thread across the top, push this little button, and just like that the needle was threaded! This has some unfortunate similarities to the preponderance of young women found in trade show booths.
They found it interesting that we were so enterprising and were more that happy to buy our wares. My dad, who had fought in World War II in Germany, went to teachera€™s college for a year dropping out to become a very successful salesman for a large company, and started a family with four kids, lost his job. I would open a bank savings account at banks so I could pester the tellers and manager to get their business.
You see, Mauera€™s Funeral Home bought these really fancy desk calendars that looked like they were made of genuine leather (they werna€™t) and were mailed out to the over 6,000 residents of our town of Liverpool, NY.
This is where the brainstorming occurred that led me to the idea of Ayer Funeral Home Flyswatters. I started by making the argument that with his limited financial resources he would have to make optimal use of whatever advertising specialty he purchased. I pointed out that he would need to target those people that were most likely to be good customers in the not too distant future. This not only entailed selling people on the idea that they should have the afternoon paper delivered to their door come sunshine (a rarity in upstate NY), rain, or snow, but also involved the collection of money for the subscription.
The US Treasury had discontinued printing Silver Certificates about a decade earlier and began circulating Federal Reserve Notes. My $20 give or take profit might not seem like much, but it was very significant at the time.
My competitors were the department stores in the city that had dozens of catalogs that were nearly a half foot thick.
There was a reason Elmcraft was successful with this concise catalog of above average invitations.
Moma€™s have a thing for weddings, so she really enjoyed working with the young girls (although probably not as much as me) and it became almost like a hobby for her that she could make money at.
His timing was pretty good since his early working years coincided with the United States becoming the dominant player in the world economy following World War II and the advent of the Marshall Plan.
Stock commissions were high, one could only buy in blocks (100 shares), and the only people who could get live prices were those who had a seat at the brokerage. Instiller of standardized test taking instincts to students in order that they might please state bureaucrats and convince them of their educational prowess and worth to society. I noticed an ad for little plastic needle threaders in which you would insert a needle, lay the thread across the top, push this little button, and just like that the needle was threaded! Dad saw these pens that wrote in either red or blue, somewhat similar to the one you see here. Venice grew to become one of Europea€™s largest and most prosperous cities, largely as a result of its trade in luxury goods from the Far East. Milan became a major trade center for goods that were carried by land over the Alps into central Europe.
Arriving in China, the Polos were welcomed back by the Mongol troops of their old friend, the Khan. Finally, after nearly two decades in the service of the Khan, the Polos were permitted by the Khan to return home, if they would agree to accompany a Yuan princess who had been promised in marriage to a Persian king (probably to create stronger trade ties between Persia and the Yuan Dynasty). They traveled through Indonesia to Sri Lanka and India and then to their destination in the Persian Gulf.
They arrived during a time of warfare between Genoa and Venice and, probably because they were viewed as possible spies, were imprisoned in Venice.
In it he described such Chinese inventions as the magnetic compass, movable type printing, paper making, and the use of paper currency.
Il Milione was translated into several European languages, including English (The Travels of Marco Polo).
China, India, and the African kingdoms regularly trades silk, slaves, spices, gold, silver, metalwares, and ivory. The Ottomans controlled all trade in the Eastern Mediterranean Ocean, North Africa (most countries in North Africa by this time had converted to Islam), and the Spice Islands (Indonesia had also converted from Hinduism to Islam).
The growing demand for silk, cotton, gold, silver, ivory, textiles, spices, and gun powder became a major concern for European rulers. The Mongol Empire traded European slaves and guns to Venice for trade with Africa for gold, silver, and ivory. A new passion to a€?get there before the Muslims doa€? motivated exploration and discovery of new peoples.
The Chinese were poised technologically to sail around the tip of Africa and to sail westward in search of new trade centers.
Trading partnerships between Venice and the Ottomans established shipping lanes across the Adriatic Sea from Greece to Italy.
The semi-autonomous Ottoman states of Algiers, Morocco, Tunis, and Tripoli made sea traffic through the Mediterranean a dangerous business for European shipping. They also raided the coastal areas of Spain, Southern France, and East Africa to seize slaves for the slave markets in the Middle East. They colonized what became known as the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia) in the mid-16th century and held that colony until 1948. In 1609 an English explorer, Henry Hudson, who was under the employment of the Dutch Republic, reached the harbor of present-day New York, and sailed up the river that now bears his name.
Portugal was granted free access to all sea routes to Africa, India, and Asia east of that dividing line, and all previously unclaimed lands east of that line. But when the Portuguese realized the great advantage Spain gained through Alexandera€™s arrangement in potential land in the Americas, they petitioned for an adjustment to Alexandera€™s solution. Because the boundaries of Brazil were poorly defined, the Portuguese pushed for expanded borders without significant opposition from the Spanish. Henry was the prime mover in developing trade between Portugal and other countries and continents. By 1452 the Portuguese had so successfully developed trade routes circumventing the Ottoman-controlled trade routes, that Portugal became the European trade center for gold and slaves. They competed with the Dutch and the Portuguese for trade with the Orient, leading to their eventual colonization of India, and, in the 19th century, port cities in China. Raleigh also forced Phillip II to postpone launching the Armada by raiding the coast of Spain and destroying the seasoned wood that was necessary to construct the water kegs needed by the sailors of the Armada. In 1497 his ships landed in North America, the first Europeans to do so since the Vikings. Setting sail from Plymouth, England in December 1577 with six ships, Drake sailed to Brazil, then through the dangerous Magellan Straits at the southern tip of South America, up the coast to Panama, then reached as far, possibly, as California, or even Vancouver Island.
He later was the first European to discover Lake Champlain, Lake Huron, and Lake Ontario, all components of the Great Lakes. Although best known as the year in which Columbus sailed to the New World, several other events also made 1492 A.D. In fact, Columbus had to use the port of Palos instead of the larger port of Cadiz because Cadiz was flooded with ships carrying thousands of Jewish refugees fleeing to the Middle East, North Africa, Italy, and Greece. And with that voyage Columbus changed the world -- as the Europeans had known it --for all time. It is perhaps no accident that some of the foremost explorers of the late 1400s and early 1500s were Italians, men who were exposed to the far-reaching cultural awakening that was the Renaissance. He listened eagerly to tales told by seafarers who had sailed the length and breadth of the Mediterranean Sea, bringing back rich cargoes for Genoa`s wealthy merchants.
At the age of twenty-five, he had the most exciting time of his life when he sailed aboard a ship that sailed out onto the immense Atlantic Ocean. Columbus spent eight years in Lisbon, working as a mapmaker and receiving the greater part of his education.
Most with whom he shared his ideas dismissed him as an idle dreamer, but Columbus was determined and ambitious in his quest.
His journals expressed his belief that God had chosen him to carry the Gospel of Christ to the people of Asia.
The royal riches had been depleted by the military efforts to drive the Muslim Moors from Spain.
The next day, October 12, 1492, Columbus was the first European to set foot on an island in the present-day Bahamas. He immediately referred to the islandsa€™ inhabitants as a€?Indians.a€? However, he also sent men inland on one larger island to look for the capitol city of a€?the Khana€? (the term used in Spain for the Chinese emperor).
We now know from DNA test results that the Siberian people who settled and today live in South America are distinct from the Siberian people who settled and live today in North America. The a€?Ba€? DNA is found today only in aboriginal people in Japan, Southeast Asia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. A trawler in the North Atlantic pulled up a mastedon skeleton, and with it a stone spear head or cutting tool probably used to butcher the mastedon.
Speculation is that they may have been related to the early Aborigines of Australia who traveled across the Pacific. And archeologists have long wondered at the great similarities between the pyramids of Egypt and those constructed in Central and South America. His major contribution to Europea€™s knowledge of the New World were his very accurate maps, primarily of the eastern South American coast. A German mapmaker, Martin Waldseemuller, published Vespuccia€™s map of South America in 1507 and labeled it a€?Americaa€? in honor of Vespucci.
Is he a hero or a villain, a Christian missionary or a slave trader, an explorer in search of souls or a merchant in search of financial profits?
Who is to say, they maintain, that the original inhabitants Columbus encountered were any less ignorant of a true God than he? Columbus must be viewed, not through 20th century eyeglasses, but t as a man who lived in a 15th century culture. In fact, on returning to Spain, the explorers, including Columbusa€™ crews and those that came after, carried back new diseases to Europe contracted in the Americas. His diaries and letters written both before and after his historic trips contain personal compassion for the natives he encountered and his zeal to seek their conversion to Christ. Such an agreement does not make him necessarily a despicable exploiter but a typical businessman. Hea€™d had a€?very reda€? hair in his younger years, but since hea€™d passed age 40, it had turned prematurely white.
He had sailed the Mediterranean and traveled to parts of Africa, to Ireland, and probably even to Iceland.
Writer Robert Hughes expressed the conventional wisdom: a€?Sometime between 1478 and 1484, the full plan of self-aggrandizement and discovery took shape in his mind. Whenever he faced a storm, a waterspout (tornado-like whirl of seawater), or rebellious crewmen, he made vows to God. In 1501 Columbus wrote, a€?I am only a most unworthy sinner, but ever since I have cried out for grace and mercy from the Lord, they have covered me completely.
He died more than a decade before Martin Luther would post his 95 Theses protesting the abuse of indulgences. Not until last year was his most important religious writinga€”the Libro de las profecA­as, or Book of Propheciesa€”translated into English. Some scholars attribute his recurring encounters with a heavenly voice to mental instability, illness, or stress. The voyage was immediately beset by calamities a broken rudder, leaks so bad they needed immediate repair, and threatened capture by the Portuguese. But on October 11, the shipa€™s log records, they began seeing signs of shore: seabirds, bits of green plants, stacks that looked they had been carved, a small plank. Columbus and his captains went ashore in an armed launch and unfurled the royal banner and two flags. As he wrote to Ferdinand and Isabella late in his life, a€?I spent six years here at your royal court, disputing the case with so many people of great authority, learned in all the arts.
So he called the Taino-speaking peoples of the Arawak tribes a€?Indians.a€? The name, though flatly wrong, stuck. They had coarse black haira€”a€?almost like the tail of a horsea€?a€”with a€?handsome bodies and good facesa€? painted with black, red, or white paint.
In the wee hours of Christmas morning, a sailor decided to catch some sleep and left the tiller in the hands of a boy.
Yes, the ship was wrecked beyond repair, but now he had lumbera€”lots of ita€”for building the necessary fort. On February 14th, Columbus gathered his crew on the heaving and rolling deck to pray and make vows. In his youth, he felt God had promised him that his name would be proclaimed throughout the world. Ferdinand and Isabella, who had just united their kingdoms, soundly defeated the Moors, signaling the end of an Islamic presence in Europe.
A new country, militantly united behind Christianity, had arisen and would dominate the world for a hundred years. Zion will come from Spain.a€? For hundreds of years, the holy sites of Jerusalem had been held captive by the infidel Muslims. Augustinea€™s teaching, Columbus knew that all history fell into seven agesa€”and he was in the sixth, the next to last. When he says sincerely,a€?Our Lord in his goodness guides me so that I may find this gold,a€? we cringe. Although Ferdinand and Isabella made military strikes into Muslim-held North Africa, they never mounted a grand crusade. He took three more voyages across the Atlantic, each lasting several years and filled with harrowing storms, crew rebellions, illnesses (at one point his eyes bled), and encounters with native Americans.
In May 1493, he asked Ferdinand and Isabella to set aside 1 percent of all gold taken from the islands to pay for establishing churches and sending monks. Columbus became absolutely wealthy, a€?a millionaire by any standard.a€? But he had driven such a hard bargain with the crowna€”hereditary titles and a€?the tenth part of the wholea€? of gold he founda€”that the monarchs continually had to limit his power and wealth.
I found myself in such a pass that in an attempt to escape death I took to the sea in a small caravel. Late in life, with the help of a friend, a monk, Columbus assembled excerpts from the Bible and medieval authors. But he wasna€™t the first or last Christian to read his personal destiny into a Scripture verse.
It was the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan who in 1519 embarked on a trip which would be the first to sail across the Pacific Ocean--and all the way around the world. He and his crew made a great friendship with their early contacts on the islands and were persuaded to stay several months to recuperate and replenish their supplies of food and water. Whether urged on by the now Christian chief or due to a threatened invasion, Magellan set sail for their island with 40 of his men.
They had completed their journey around the world, proving once and for all that the earth was a sphere and that trade with Asia was possible via a route across the Pacific.
In 1539 De Soto returned to the New World, this time as leader of an expedition of nine ships, 620 men, 220 horses, and numerous priests, craftsmen, engineers, and farmers who came from Cuba and various sections of Spain. Hearing of gold deposits in the north, in 1540 De Soto made his way north through Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Tennessee, seeking gold. They distributed land to the peninsulares, who, in turn, were expected to protect the native Americans as parents would their children, and instruct them in the Christian faith. Because not born in Spain, they were refused access to leadership positions in the government, but because born to Spanish parents, had full access to education and business.
They were at the bottom of the pecking order, and were especially mistreated by the creoles, mestizos, and mulattos.
In many cases they were treated worse than animals, because they were replaceable while animals like horses were less so. What they had in mind was not more colonists from Spain, but, rather, the introduction of slave workers from Africa! The clergy were accused of attempting to create a Church-dominated kingdom with the clergy in charge of the kingdom.
From the Americas corn, potatoes, yams, squash, beans, cocoa, peanuts, gold, and silver flowed to Europe. The earlier supply of Islamic slaves from Spain and Christian slaves from Eastern Europe in the slave markets of Europe and the Middle East dried up after the fall of Constantinople in 1453 and the expulsion of the Moors from Spain in 1492. Up until this time slavery was identified with conquest and victory in war -- not ethnicity or skin color. Increasingly African slaves were identified as descendants of Ham, one of the sons of Noah.
In England the Muscovy Company for trade with Russia and the East India Company for trade with India were created. The easy acquisition of silver and gold from Peru and Bolivia resulted in a major miscalculation that severely damaged the economic future of Spain.
What five groups of people from Europe gradually made their way along the coasts of Africa, Asia, and the New World? In the East Indies, now know as Indonesia, were spices, coffee, rubber and Portugal got there first. If you were looking t the map in 1493 instead of 2008, who would you have thought got the better of the deal, Spain or Portugal?
Why did he go to his death with only a few soldiers and refuse the help of the friendly chiefs? This is my version of a€?no child left behind.a€? The only difference is that with students, I cana€™t fix everything. We had some old wood blinds on several windows in our basement, which my dad decided to throw away and replace with something more modern.
The box cutter was out of site and after teaching my 5 year old sister how to weave these slightly over 10a€? slats together, I resorted to child labor for the real work. We had tomatoes that made anything I have seen since seem dry, flavorless and ridiculously pathetic.
If you wanted something not sold in a local store, you could usually find it in a magazine somewhere. For those of you who ever find yourselves involved in the business of sales, you must find a way to create excitement or romance in your product. Transistors were actually the beginning of the technology revolution that got us where we are now. He slowly convinced me that the radio they were offering was not worth the amount of money I could get paid if I took the cash instead. I was able to buy these for something like 15 cents in quantity, and the selling price was either 49 or 59 cents, so the profit margins were nice. Fortunately I was using this as another teaching and learning experience by having my sister act as bookkeeper and counting peoplea€™s change.
Many people would give us a quarter and after my sis pulled out their nickle and penny change, they would just tell her to keep the change. John Kennedy had impacted the country and the world by providing inspiration, hope and challenge. At some point he needed some business cards and was looking for somewhere to get a better deal and stumbled across this company out of Chicago, called National Press. You name it, if a company could have its name printed on it and give it away to lure new customers, I sold it.
The owner had appeased me with a tiny order - probably to be a€?nice to the kid.a€™ My newspaper route ended at the funeral home doorstep, and on cold winter days I would sometimes go in to warm up and see if I could use the phone to get a ride home rather than walking. He had calculated his expenses and knew he would have to undercut Mauera€™s prices if he expected to get any customers.
While calendars at that time could cost from thirteen cents to a half dollar, plastic flyswatters could be had for as little as a five cents complete with company name and all.
There were a lot of people in town and he couldna€™t afford to purchase one a€?whatever it would bea€™ for everyone.
And old people had a particular disdain for flies and all kinds of free time to pursue them to their untimely death match with a flyswatter!
The older silver certificates were redeemable for actual silver dollars (about an ounce worth) and silver was rising in value. I always expected them to tell me to get lost since this was somewhat of a nuisance for them, but since I had an account there and was always nice to them they continuously accommodated me.
To give a sense of this, a gallon of gas cost 33A?, so $20 was more like $200 in todaya€™s money. However I was able to adapt to the market since the dealers began buying up the silver coins in circulation at the time. I spent some time with her and mom explaining how the pricing worked and then left my catalog with her for several days. Needless to say, his portfolio benefited and in doing so perked the interest of me in my youth. However, the ships traveled back and forth between Europe ferrying the Crusaders to the Holy Land brought back to Europe many new and exciting products from Asia through the Middle East.
Silk, porcelain, and metalware from China, spices and coffee from Indonesia and the Philippines, tea and spices from India, and a variety of rare new woods never seen before in Europe, were but some of the goods that excited Europe. It was also a description of the cultural practices, the languages, and religious practices of China.
It fueled the interest and imagination of soon-to-be explorers, including John Cabot of England and Christopher Columbus, a native of Genoa who would sail to the New World under the sponsorship of the king and queen of Spain. European industries that produced textiles, wool, and German metalware needed to find new routes to their customers in Africa and Asia.
Genoa dominated trade in the Black Sea and Western Mediterranean areas, but were increasingly harassed by the Ottomans.
Marco Polo described huge five-masted ships that regularly traded with Ceylon, India, the Philippines, and Indonesia.
Because most of the raiders were from the Berber tribes of North Africa, the north coast of Africa was called the Barbary Coast and the Islamic raiders became known as the Barbary Pirates.
Their raids were so frequent that parts of the coastal areas of southern Spain were abandoned by their original inhabitants. This enabled them to control the production and trade of three crucial spices: nutmeg, cloves, and mace, as well as controlling the exporting of precious woods from Indonesia. Spain had free access to all routes to the Americas, Asia, and India, and all previously unclaimed lands west of that line.
Thus, in June 1494 the line was re-negotiated westward to a new distance of 1,770 km (1,099.83 miles) through the Treaty of Tordesilla, so named for the Spanish town of Tordesilla where the treaty was signed. The company soon controlled the production and exportation of Indian cotton, indigo dye, saltpeter ( nitrate needed in the production of gunpowder), tea, and opium.


In 1629 he persuaded Cardinal Richelieu, French regent who served the young king Louis XIII, to encourage French nobility to fund the new colony of Quebec.
In 1803, France also lost its land possessions west of the Mississippi River through a sale made by Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte to the American President Thomas Jefferson.
Little by little the control of the Moors was eroding, beginning in the north of Spain where the Kingdom of Asturias was overthrown in 718 A.D. So, there was evident confusion on Columbusa€™ part about where his ships had actually landed. Original studies indicated that four distinct haplogroups migrated into North and Central America in waves across the Bering Sea bridge. It has been found, for instance, in the ancient ancestors of the Basque people in northern Spain. It closely resembles tools made by a migratory group whose remain have been found in Spain and Portugal.
The name stuck and the two continents have been known as the Americas from that point forward. He urged the king and queen of Spain to send priests to work with the people and to instruct them in the Christian faith. After all, he was the one who took the greatest of risks in making his initial trips across the Atlantic. Inside, in the cool quiet, knelt CristA?bal ColA?n, captain general of three small ships anchored in the towna€™s inlet below. Their missiona€”the wild-eyed idea of their foreigner captaina€”was to sail west, away from all visible landmarks.
There, in the land of the Great Khan, houses were roofed with gold, streets paved with marble.
He boasted later in life, a€?I have gone to every place that has heretofore been navigated.a€? He knew the Atlantic as well or better than anyone, and he probably knew more about how to read currents, winds, and surfaces of the sea than do sailors today. He would win glory, riches, and a title of nobility by opening a trade route to the untapped wealth of the Orient. He saw them as the fulfillment of a divine plan for his lifea€”and for the soon-coming end of the world. I have found the most delightful comfort in making it my whole aim in life to enjoy his marvelous presence.a€? He constantly associated with reform minded Franciscans and spent perhaps five months at the white-walled monastery of Santa MarA­a de La Rabida. Others complain that Columbusa€™s biographers described him as more religious than he really was.
A week after losing sight of the Canary Islands, the pilots discovered to their consternation that the compasses no longer worked right. This a€?astonished them,a€? and Columbus compared it to the miracles that accompanied Moses. Each was white with a central bright green cross flanked by a green F and Y for a€?Ferdinanda€? and a€?Isabella.a€? Columbus declared that these obviously inhabited lands now belonged to the Catholic sovereigns. In a sense, he would be like the legendary giant Christopher, who carried Christ on his back across a wide river. Waves broke over the ships, sails had to be lowered, and soon they were driven by the wind until they were wildly lost. They put chick-peas in a cap and had sailors draw to see which one picked the chick-pea with a cross cut into it. And at age 25, he had survived a shipwreck and six-mile swima€”a sign, he told his son Ferdinand, that God had a plan for him. Columbus had used the port of PalA?s, in fact, because the larger CA?diz was flooded with thousands of fleeing Jewish refugees. The Crusadersa€™ Book of Secrets, written in the early fourteenth century, said it would take 210,000 gold florins to mount a crusade. They instructed him a€?to win over the peoples of the said islands and mainland by all ways and means to our Holy Catholic Faitha€? and sent 13 religious workers on his second voyage. As a colonial governor, he ruled the farmers and settlers with such a heavy hand they rebelled. Columbus spent his last years in legal battles and worries that his estate would be whitled away.
Then the Lord came to help, saying, a€?O man of little faith, be not afraid, I am with thee.a€™ And he scattered my enemies and showed me the way to fulfill my promises. The unfinished work, titled Book of Prophecies, uses Scriptures to show that God had ordained his voyages of discovery and that God would be doing further wonderful things for the church.
Although their commander, Magellan, died in battle in the Philippines, a handful of survivors of Magellan`s well-planned voyage returned home in 1522 after three grueling years at sea. The Christian chief pleaded with Magellan to accompany him with his warriors, but Magellan refused, stating that if God could raise one chief from the death bed, he could deliver Magellan and prove His power. The intention was to explore the west coast of Florida and the middle of the newly discovered continent. De Soto took male slaves from each area and forced them to carry cargo until they could continue no longer.
Frustrated with the results, the expedition headed south to meet two supply ships in the Gulf of Mexico, but they were attacked by the Mobila tribe (present-day Mobile, Alabama). Those who did remain were introduced to European feudalism by means of the Spanish Encomienda System. This caused Catholic missionaries to complain to the viceroys, the monarchy, and even to the Pope in Rome, requesting intervention to make life more humane for the native Americans. The viceroys and peninsulares dismissed the complaints brought by the clergy as coming from biased, self-seeking opponents. Increasingly Spain depended on native American slaves to work the gold and silver mines and to serve on the sugar plantations.
The Dutch East India Company funded and controlled shipping to the Spice Islands (Indonesia) and led to the colonization of Indonesia by the Dutch. Because of the new wealth Spain did not engage in new methods of production as did other nations in Europe, relying instead on its wealth to purchase the goods demanded by its people. We had those incredible tomatoes, green peppers, onions, carrots Bugs Bunny would die for, cantalopes, and lots more. People buy things because they become emotionally attached to the product or the idea of having the product.
Just as I had saved enough free money (Dad insisted we save 9 of every 10 dollars for college, so that left one free dollar for spending), my dad had a brilliant idea. He said this way I could keep my money, have my own slightly dated 12 transistor radio, and use his new one when I was in the house.
This was a philanthropic endeavor without a profit motive (so I wasna€™t totally greedy) although there was an element of school guilt and competitiveness involved. Two of our best were going to bowling alleys in the late evening after the bowlers had imbibed a few drinks and were a little loose with their money, and hitting office buildings. The sales pitch was that it would save your eyes - a strong selling point for elderly people!
After a while she tired of this process and decided to cut to the chase and just ask if they wanted their change.
I was growing up in what I considered a slightly boring town in upstate NY, and was always sending off for anything that would produce a flow of mail. It was he who challenged America to go to the moon by the end of the decade - which we did!
There is a lesson here for kids who have a great plan to be a sports star or something else, but dona€™t think your education is essential for long term success. The problem is that when you cut the sales force, you not only cut expenses, but you cut off your income. At about 14 years old I got in to see the President of Syracuse Savings Bank on the top floor of one of the most prestigious buildings in Syracuse, NY. One evening I didna€™t find anyone upon entering so I walked around and ended up walking in on the assistant fixing up a body.
Ayer pulled me aside and told me he had been waiting for me to come by and dropped the big bombshell on me.
Sooner or later in most cases it would pay off, when someone would die and the a€?who ya gonna calla€? phone number was right there by the telephone on the desk.
He certainly couldna€™t afford to replace a calendar every year, along with the necessary postage which could double the costs.
It was being used more in industry as electronics became more popular(remember the transistor radio) and as people started taking more and more pictures with the arrival of the Kodak Instamatic camera (film was made with silver). I would go around to shop at the department stores, have lunch (which always included a milkshake) at one of the little luncheonettes that were popular back then, and a visit to the Lowea€™s Theater for the latest movie (hopefully a James Bond feature). At the very least I could get to spend a little time soliciting her (to buy my wedding invitations). The next time I saw them they gave me the dreaded news that they were making a weekend trip to the city department stores to see what they had to offer. My potential customer and her mom thought they would spend a few hours in the city and it turned into nearly a weekend. I would observe dad monitoring his stocks in the newspaper, recording their values and dividends on paper spreadsheets, and reading Fortune and Forbes magazine business articles. Genoa provided the sailors, ship captains, and the know-how for the later Portuguese and Spanish explorations. Food that was spoiled or even rotten became palatable when the rich spices of the Orient were added. They were four to five times larger than European ships and possessed a technology not known to Europeans. At other times they extorted large payments in order to allow merchant ships to pass through their waters. He was especially interested in exploring the west coast of Africa, which became the key area for providing African slaves to Portugal -- now the key European slave market. Some believe it was in Nova Scotia, others in Newfoundland, and some believe it might have been in Maine. He then successfully sailed across the Pacific Ocean to the Indonesian islands, westward through the Indian Ocean to the tip of Africa, and then northward to England where he arrived in 1580.
Later colonies were established at Plymouth (1620) by Pilgrim settlers, the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629, and the Connecticut Colony in 1636. Because India had traditionally served as a middle man in trading Chinese products, especially porcelain and silk to Africa and Italy, the company gained control of that industry as well. Columbus seemed to them to be a means by which new wealth could be acquired from a new route to the Spice Islands as well as confiscation of the fabled gold deposits in the New World. They were offered one alternative to emigration, and that was conversion to the Christian faith. He and the crew immediately gave thanks to God for a safe arrival in a worship service and he planted both the royal banner of Spain and a wooden cross on the beach of the island he named a€?San Salvadora€? -- Holy Savior.
Walter Neves, an anthropologist at the University of Sao Paulo, who made the initial discovery along with an Argentine colleague, Hector Pucciarelli. Not to mention Egyptian mummies and German skeletons that show strong amounts of nicotine in their remains, people who died long before the European voyagers of the 16th century began shipping tobacco from the New World to Europe. But we do know that from the traditional European perspective, the explorer who first a€?discovereda€? the New World in modern times was Christopher Columbus. However, towards the end of the 20th century other voices began to question and attack his motives and his treatment of the islandsa€™ original inhabitants. Did not Christ die for their salvation as well as for the Spanish, Portuguese, and Italians?
With Columbus saying confession and hearing mass, were some ninety pilots, seamen, and crown appointed officials. They would leave behind Spain and Portugal, the a€?end of the world,a€? and head straight into the Mare Oceanum, the Ocean Sea.
And most bizarre of all, we dona€™t knowa€”and will probably never knowa€”the spot where he came ashore. As he put it in 1500, a€?God made me the messenger of the new heaven and the new earth of which he spoke in the Apocalypse of St. He read from the Vulgate Bible and the church fathers but, typical for his era, mingled astrology, geography, and prophecy with his theology. Some protest that Columbus was greedy and obsessively ambitious, so he couldna€™t have been truly religious, as if competing qualities cannot exist in one person.
Few took it as a sign of land, but when the crew gathered to sing Salve Regina (a€?Hail, Queena€?), Columbus instructed his men to keep careful lookout. In spite of that it later came to pass as Jesus Christ our Savior had predicted and as he had previously announced through the mouths of His holy prophets.a€¦ I have already said that reason, mathematics, and maps of the world were of no use to me in the execution of the enterprise of the Indies. He also, a Christopher, a a€?Christ-bearer,a€? would carry Christ across the wide Ocean Sea to peoples who had never heard the Christian message. That sailor would go on a holy pilgrimage to a shrine of the Virgin Mary if they landed safely. That was a mere 155 years away, and much had to happen: all peoples of the world would convert to Christianity, the Holy Land would be rescued from the infidels, the Antichrist would come. If Columbus could find enough gold in the Indies especially if he could find the lost mines of Solomon, which were known to be in the Easta€”he could pay for a Holy Land crusade.
Columbus wanted gold not only for himself, but also for a much larger reason: to pay for the medieval Christiana€™s dream, the retaking of the Holy Land.
In his will, Columbus instructed his son Diego to support from his trust four theology professors to live on Hispaniola and convert the Indians. Some have criticized Columbus for the a€?providential and messianic delusions that would come to grip him later in lifea€? and accused him of megalomania. Magellan spent several days with the man and prayed for him, asking God to heal him and to show the islanders His power. He then had them killed and took slaves from the other peoples through whose territories he passed.
Rather than covering him and hiding the event, Ham told his brothers, who then went in to cover their father. The steady use of silver and gold by Spain greatly increased the amount available in Europe, drove the value of silver and gold down, and resulted in Spain becoming one of the least financially healthy nations in Europe.
Everything is based on learning, and therefore talk, mindless work and fluff activity, etc. She must have felt this was just like a kindergarden activity, and I may have offered some small pittance for her effort, so she willingly became my production grunt. He then pointed out that with Christmas coming, there would be new and more incredible radios being sold, another advantage of waiting a while.
The only downside is that I didna€™t learn enough languages to appreciate everything at my disposal. I had to explain that that was bad business, and she would have to continue going through the ritual. As a young person who had experienced his passion and inspiration, I was very saddened by our loss of his leadership. I didna€™t sell him anything since he said they were contracted with some other company (interesting how the top guy in the bank had no power). He was going to open his own funeral home and wanted me to help with ALL his printing needs. The payoff for my consulting was one of the biggest printing orders yet - everything he needed - business cards, stationary, envelopes, announcement cards, etc.
After the nickle bus ride, lunch and a movie, I still usually had 95% of my profit when I got home. Interestingly, the current price of silver is around $30 an ounce and at one point peaked at around $50 a few years back. Unfortunately I already knew, since I had already done my research and checked out my competition. One only needs to look at the bureaucracies in education from the federal and state DOE, down to the district level to see how out of control top down complexities do not lead to better performance, but rather inefficiencies. I subsequently emulated him by scouring through these looking for little hidden entrepreneurial gems I could utilize in my own pursuits.
The largest ships were over 400 feet long and 150 wide and were protected by a fleet of military vessels manned by over 20,000 soldiers. A second exploratory journey in 1498 was ill-fated and probably returned to England by 1500.
Drake was the second European to successfully sail around the world, and achieved what Magellan did not -- he personally completed the entire trip (Magellan died in the Philippines). The establishment of these colonies resulted in a great wave of English settlers arriving in North America during the decade 1630-1640. Quebec remained the only significant French land holding in North America, which was quickly engulfed by large numbers of English who founded and settled British Canada. Thus, in seventy days Columbus completed an historic transatlantic voyage that eventually led to European settlement in what would later be called the New World. The term a€?Indiana€? was decried as a demeaning term, and Columbus was described as a slave trading, gold seeking, ego-maniac. Later that day they would row to their ships, ColA?n taking his place on the Santa MarA­a, a slow but sturdy flagship no longer than five canoes.
But even if they reached the Indies, how would they get back, since currents and winds all seemed to go one way?
At least once he appeared in public wearing a Franciscan habit and the ordera€™s distinctive cord.
Even when Columbus forcibly subjugated Hispaniola in 1495, he believed he was fulfilling a divine destiny for himself and for Aragon and Castile and for the holy church. Feverish and in deep despair, he wrote, a€?I dragged myself up the rigging to the height of the crowa€™s nest.a€¦ Still groaning, I lost consciousness. Fearing his men would tell the story of the Spanish losses to the Spanish ships, in 1541 he turned westward into Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas, then to the banks of the Mississippi River in present-day Mississippi where De Soto died if a high fever. They would roll up on a cylinder when closed and unroll to keep the light out of the window when lowered. I didna€™t really think about the fact that wood can burn, and I didna€™t have a product liability lawyer at the time. I was not into bookkeeping at the time so I dona€™t really remember how much profit this venture made for me, but it certainly inspired my appetite for future ideas and making money. So this idea was that I could sell Christmas cards for this company he came across, and they had all these toys and electronics you could get if you sold enough boxes. Admittedly that was a major enticement, and my craving for the latest technology allowed me to postpone immediate gratification for the promise of something better later on.
Like I said - dad was an incredible salesman, and I was still a pretty gullible eight year old.
Needless to say that sold me on the idea of starting my own business after seeing that people who work for organizations frequently become little puppets with no control of their destiny or ability to make their own decisions.
I didna€™t point out the irony of the funeral director needing to utilize his competitora€™s services after the suicide.
I then questioned him on the demographics of these people as a group (ignoring things like auto accidents and stupid teenage stunts gone badly). They could be given to local businesses to give away as a courtesy to their customers at checkout.
This cycle repeated itself on most weekends for several months creating more money for college. This was a lot more work, especially once the half dollars and quarters were gone and only dimes were left. Despite the fact that I had some of the best quality invitations at extremely competitive prices, I feared the immense selection would win out. Then look at the most successful company in the world right now, Apple which now is worth more than any other company in market capitalization, a company that does not have one committee, that simplifies its products into three or four models of each item. Somewhere during this process I got the bug to invest in other companies other than merely my own inventions. Four priests eventually volunteered to travel to China but soon returned to Rome after experiencing culture-shock along the Silk Road.
Drake was also a major participant in the active slave trade in which England was a main competitor with the Spanish and Portuguese in the lucrative slave trade which dealt with not only African slaves, but also slaves taken from the Caribbean Islands. This is considered to be the first Christian victory over the Islamic Moors in Spain, in the long struggle called the Reconquista.
How could the Spanish Catholic determine who truly converted and who did so outwardly simply to avoid emigration? I heard a voice in pious accents saying, a€?O foolish man and slow to serve your God, the God of all!
Church leaders began to identify this curse with skin color -- dark slaves taken from Africa. She was very interested in early explorers and told her children many of these stories over and over again. Hence, with rumors of vast supplies of gold and silver in the New World, and even the possibility of reaching the Spice Islands from the opposite direction taken by the Portuguese had great promise. Since they were headed for the trash anyway, any money I could get for them would be all profit! I do recall setting the price at $1.00 which was a tidy sum in that day - it would have bought 4 gallons of gas. We would go to the village dump and scavenge for bigger speakers from old TVa€™s or radios that we could hook up by splicing the connections on our old headphones.
I sent away for their kit and they really did have a great radio in their catalog of gifts you could earn.
Ironically this is the decision we must continually confront when making technology purchases today.
One thing I will say about back then, our candy bars were a decent value unlike many of the overpriced things being peddled today.
I realized that if I built up a subscriber base of customers, it would produce a regular income flow as long as I delivered the paper to my customers. I dona€™t think I raised all that much, but did receive a very nice thank your from the First Lady, Jacqueline Kennedy.
There were many more buildings and doors knocked on - lawyers, accountants, medical offices - and many items sold.
Here was someone preparing to go up against one of the most established businesses in a small town, where a sizable investment and large stately home was required. The greatest part was that although the silver certificates were becoming more scarce, the price being paid for them kept increasing. When I was reading an article involving marketing concepts back in high school, I remember reading that if you are going to sell ties, you should have a variety of low priced ones, medium priced ones, and high priced ones.
The continents of North and South America were so large almost anyone could land there sailing from Europe.
I think we discounted some, but nonetheless, had I pursued this idea further I could have been the first person to open one of the many successful varieties of dollar stores in existence today!
I learned that if I took my radio out to the street in front of our house and held it next to some of the wires running down the telephone pole, I could pick up some radio stations from all over the country. This is a critical rule of marketing which many companies never get - no amount of gimmicks and salesmanship can overcome a crappy product or poor value.
I did just that and also became an avid reader of the news that Grit saw fit to print at the time.
This led to numerous discussions about the logistics involved in this brazen attack on Mauera€™s business. They left bewildered and confused, returning to the comfort of my simple but beautifully presented products and good value pricing.
If there are too many price points the customer usually gets confused and walks away empty handed. But to find his way back again to his home port in Spain -- that was a demonstration of his advanced sailing skills. From the hour of your birth he has always had a special care of you.a€™ a€? The voice continued at length and closed with a€?Be not afraid, but of good courage. He was nicknamed Henry the Navigator because when he became an influential prince, he spear headed the drive for Portugal to hit the seas and travel to Asia.
So I employed a little 3rd-5th grade mathematics (remember I was only seven so I was still in 2nd grade) and measured the slat length, calculating how long they would need to be to get three segments out of each.
Although I was not a paid consultant, it really meant a lot to me that this guy in his thirties valued the advise of this kid who was only 13, even though admittedly I had a lot more experience starting businesses, small as they were. Due to the sorting challenge, it I usually fell fairly short of my goal so lugging all 28 pounds didna€™t happen too often.
I got the order for invitations, reception cards, response cards, all the envelopes, engraved champaign glasses, personalized matchbooks & cocktail napkins, engraved cake carving knife, and more!
Once this was accomplished, the slats were marked for cutting prior to the connecting string being cut. Once your reputation is established it is exponentially (a math term) more difficult to fix than to merely start over from scratch! What is it that old people have in nearly every room of their house (unlike a calendar), and in fact frequently deem so important that they might carry it around with them to have instantly handy at a moments notice? The good part was that the price rose up to over 15A? an ounce, which more than made up any difference and boosted profits. They were a little concerned doing business with a 13 year old, but I assured them that since we were ordering so far in advance of the wedding, they would have plenty of time to order elsewhere if the a€?kid didna€™t come through.a€™ I never realized people spent so much on weddings, and this might have even conditioned my thinking towards not getting married too young.
The Spanish take credit for naming the Philippine Islands for Philip II of Spain, but their competitor, Portugal, claimed that they named the islands for Philippa, the mother of Henry the Navigator.
There haven't been enough days to complete some of the yearly maintenence chores, so before we get "crazy busy" again, we decided to take a day to do them. This is Starfighter, Rick Svedcoff, his wife Brenda and son Rick (Comrade Jr.), Rick's brother. I pointed out that he would never get the uppity clientele that was the usual Mauer customer anyway and therefore had nothing to lose. The slogan would have people talking and could even generate free publicity like newspaper articles. Fear of the unknown is a very powerful human emotion not easily overcome, even by a great 14 year old salesman. Her she is with Gwen and ChefLarryshowing off one of her secrets to a long, healthy 100 year young life.
Chip Gillespie and date, Jessica before their very elegant evening at at an art and symphony event in Deland. Besides just dining on ChefLarry's RibEye with Caramelized Onions, Mona tells us just loving life makes her happy. Ben Peyet will be their server and sing a great big JOYEUX ANNIVERSAIRE in French and the entire Cafe' will do it again , in English.A Mr.



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