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Amazing Chess Game : Bobby Fischer vs Mikhail Tal 1961 - Sicilian Defense - Einstein's theory!
The development of theory in all of these areas has been assisted by the vast literature on the game. The earliest printed work on chess theory whose date can be established with some exactitude is Repeticion de Amores y Arte de Ajedrez by the Spaniard Luis Ramirez de Lucena, published c. Fifteen years after Lucena's book, Portuguese apothecary Pedro Damiano published the book Questo libro e da imparare giocare a scachi et de la partiti (1512) in Rome. These books and later ones discussed games played with various openings, opening traps, and the best way for both sides to play. Damiano's book was followed by general treatises on chess play by Ruy LA?pez de Segura (1561), Giulio Cesare Polerio (1590), Gioachino Greco (c. According to Hooper and Whyld, the various editions of Modern Chess Openings, the last edition of the Handbuch, and the fourth edition of Ludvig Collijn's Larobok (in Swedish), with groundbreaking contributions by Rubinstein, Reti, Spielmann and Nimzowitch "were the popular reference sources for strong players between the two world wars."[35] In 1937-39 former World Champion Max Euwe published a twelve-volume opening treatise, De theorie der schaakopeningen, in Dutch.
In the late 1930s to early 1950s Reuben Fine, one of the world's strongest players,[44] also became one of its leading theoreticians, publishing important works on the opening, middlegame, and endgame. In 1966, the first volume of Chess Informant was published in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, containing 466 annotated games from the leading chess tournaments and matches of the day.[48] The hugely influential Chess Informant series has revolutionized opening theory.
One of the earliest theories to gain attention was that of William Steinitz who posited that a premature attack against one's opponent in an equal position could be repelled by skillful defence, and so a player's best bet was to slowly maneuver with the goal of accumulating small advantages. Leading player and theorist Aron Nimzowitsch's[65] influential books My System (1925),[66] Die Blockade (1925) (in German),[67] and Chess Praxis (1936)[68][69] were, and remain, among the most important works on the middlegame.[64] Nimzowitsch called attention to the possibility of letting one's opponent occupy the centre with pawns while you exert control with your pieces as in the Nimzo-Indian or Queen's Indian defences. Another key turning point in middlegame theory came with the release of Alexander Kotov's book Think like a Grandmaster in 1971. There are also many books on specific aspects of the middlegame, such as The Art of Attack in Chess by Vladimir VukoviA‡,[80] The Art of Sacrifice in Chess by Rudolf Spielmann,[81] The Art of the Checkmate by Georges Renaud and Victor Kahn,[82] The Basis of Combination in Chess by J. Many significant chess treatises, beginning with the earliest works, have included some analysis of the endgame.
The second edition (1777) of Philidor's Analyse du jeu des A‰checs devoted 75 pages of analysis to various endgames.[86] These included a number of theoretically important endings, such as rook and bishop versus rook, queen versus rook, queen versus rook and pawn, and rook and pawn versus rook.


In recent years, computer-generated endgame tablebases have revolutionized endgame theory, conclusively showing best play in many complicated endgames that had vexed human analysts for over a century, such as queen and pawn versus queen.
Those who write about chess theory, who are often but not necessarily also eminent players, are referred to as "theorists" or "theoreticians". Its great innovation was that it expressed games in languageless figurine algebraic notation and annotated them using no words, but rather seventeen symbols, whose meanings were explained at the beginning of the book in six different languages.
These include both comprehensive openings encyclopedias such as the Encyclopedia of Chess Openings and Modern Chess Openings; general treatises on how to play the opening such as Mastering the Chess Openings (in four volumes), by International Master John L. Emanuel Lasker in Lasker's Manual of Chess and Max Euwe in The Development of Chess Style outlined theories that they attributed to Steinitz. He pointed out how in positions with interlocking pawn chains, one could attack the chain at its base by advancing one's own pawns and carrying out a freeing move (pawn break). Kotov outlined how a player calculates by developing a tree of variations in his head, and recommended that players only examine each branch of the tree once.
Certain positions in the endings of rook and bishop versus rook, rook and pawn versus rook, and queen versus rook have all become known as Philidor's position. Maizelis,[92] Queen and Pawn Endings by Averbakh,[93] Bishop Endings by Averbakh,[94] Knight Endings by Averbakh and Vitaly Chekhover,[95] Bishop v. They have also overturned human theoreticians' verdicts on a number of endgames, such as by proving that the two bishops versus knight ending, which had been thought drawn for over a century, is normally a win for the bishops (see pawnless chess endgame#Minor pieces only and Chess endgame#Effect of tablebases on endgame theory). 137 (the book "became the standard reference work for English club players down to the end of the century, with twenty-one reprints by 1935").
After Alekhine's death in 1946, Fine was invited to participate in the match-tournament to select the new champion, but declined in order to pursue his study of psychoanalysis. This enabled readers around the world to read the same games and annotations, thus greatly accelerating the dissemination of chess ideas and the development of opening theory. He also drew attention to the strategy of occupying open files with one's rooks in order to later penetrate to the seventh rank where they could attack the enemy pawns and hem in the opponent's king. He also noted how some players seem to fall victim to what is now known as Kotov's Syndrome: they calculate out a large range of different lines, become dissatisfied with the result, and realizing that they are short on time, play a completely new candidate move without even checking whether it is sound.


Wood, "Books About Chess", Illustrated London News, 1949, reprinted in Fred Reinfeld (editor), The Treasury of Chess Lore, Dover, 1959, pp. The editors of Chess Informant later introduced other publications using the same principle, such as the five-volume Encyclopedia of Chess Openings and Encyclopedia of Chess Endings treatises. Another of his key concepts was prophylaxis, moves aimed at limiting the opponent's mobility to the point where he would no longer have any useful moves. More recently, Jonathan Tisdall, John Nunn and Andrew Soltis have elaborated on Kotov's tree theory further.
Four years after the first edition of the Handbuch was published, Howard Staunton in the preface to The Chess-Player's Handbook, discussed below, called the Handbuch "a productiona€”whether considered in reference to its research, its suggestiveness, or the methodical completeness of its arrangementa€”which stands unrivalled and alone". Chess Informant was originally published twice a year, and since 1991 has been published thrice annually. Volume 100 was published in 2007.[49] It now uses 57 symbols, explained in 10 languages, to annotate games (see punctuation (chess)), and is available in both print and electronic formats. Henkin.[98] These books by Averbakh and others were collected into the five-volume Comprehensive Chess Endings in English.
Wood opined that the number had increased to about 20,000.[8][9] David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld wrote in 1992 that, "Since then there has been a steady increase year by year of the number of new chess publications. White Collection[10] at the Cleveland Public Library, contains over 32,000 chess books and serials, including over 6,000 bound volumes of chess periodicals.[11][12] Chess players today also avail themselves of computer-based sources of information. Staunton was arguably the strongest player in the world between 1843, when he won a match against the French champion Pierre Charles Fournier de Saint-Amant, and 1851, when he finished fourth in the London 1851 knock-out tournament, won by Anderssen.



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