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Rabat- A secret communication from Algerian authorities to the Polisario Front has come to light.
The document, which was sent during an Egyptian media delegation’s visit to the Tindouf camps, says that Algeria will finance the efforts of the Polisario in leading a media campaign against Morocco. According to the document, Algerian authorities emphasized that they would bear the expenses and requirements of a media campaign using the Egyptian media to “break the silence imposed on this conflict” in Arab countries. Following the attacks exchanged between the Moroccan and Egyptian media, the Egyptian media responded in a diplomatic fashion, describing the Moroccans and Egyptians as brothers, saying they should not be weak victims for those who want to create problems between the two countries. A few below are clerics or preachers, but ita€™s not clear if they are recognized Sharia scholars, so I list them here as politicians. 1) Recep Tayyip Erdogan - Turkish prime minister since 2003, former mayor of Istanbul, was #4 in the book co-authored by John Esposito featuring the world's 500 most influential Muslims.
In August 2014 as the new Islamic State butchers Kurds and Iraqis, Erdogana€™s Foreign Minister defended ISIS against accusations of Terrorism.
Here is a chronological listing of stories since his imprisonment showing his rise to power, and Turkeya€™s slide into sharia today. It is of the utmost significance that the booka€™s Foreword was written by Muhammad Zia ul-Haq, the then-President of Pakistan and Army Chief of Staff [1924-1988 and greatly influenced by Maududi], and the Preface by Allah Bukhsh K. For tactical reasons, Jordan, which is a sovereign state with defined borders, cannot raise claims to Haifa and Jaffa, while as a Palestinian, I can undoubtedly demand Haifa, Jaffa, Beer-Sheva and Jerusalem. 8) Sayyed Ayad Jamal Al-Din - Shiite, former Iraqi MP, in November 2010, said Western human rights a€?do not exist in Islama€?. 9) Benazir Bhutto (1953-2007) - Harvard and Oxford educated, 1st woman elected to lead a Muslim state, PM Pakistan in 1988 & 1993.
10) Note the first 2 are not extreme enough within Islam to be disciplined, replaced, or declared non-Muslim. 12) Sheikh Abdullah Nihari - Raymond Ibrahim wrote a€?One need not understand Arabic to appreciate the intensity of Nihari's hatea€? in this clip.
13) Muammar Gaddafi (1942-2011) - Believed to be the richest man in the world when he died.
Very soon, Allah willing, Rome will be conquered, just like Constantinople was, as was prophesized by our prophet Muhammad. 16) Ali Akabar Hashemi Rafsanjani (1934- ) - President of Iran 1989-1997, often called a Moderatea„?, was a pupil of Ayatollah Khomeini at Qom theological seminary reaching the rank of Hojjatoleslam, which is not that high, so not really a sharia scholar. 17) Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (1956- ) - President of Iran 2005-2013, Civil Engineering degree, Iran U.
18) Mohammad Hassan Rahimian - the representative of the Iranian Supreme Leader, who stands higher in the Iranian hierarchy than Ahmadinejad. You already saw Sheik Qaradawi, Egypta€™s Grand Mufti Goma€™a, Sheikh Ibrahim Madhi, and Mufti Muhammad Hussein quote it on the 45 Modern Sharia Scholar page. 22) Muhammad Osama - Egyptian child preacher repeats same hadith on Al-Rahma TV MEMRI (transcript) Jan. The same hadith was on the Muslim American Society (MAS) website, but after Americans Against Hate reported it, they took it down. 29) Sheikh Omar Bakri Mohammed (1958 - ) - Syrian, in 1986 was expelled from Saudi Arabia and granted asylum in UK where he established 2 major orgs - Al-Muhajiroun, the now-banned group tied to suspects in the 2005 London bombings, and Hizb ut-Tahrir, still a legal political party in UK. 30) Anjem Choudary - English cleric and Omar Bakri Mohammeda€™s successor, co-founder of the banned Al Muhajiroun, said in an interview that only Muslims are innocent, killing non-Muslims is legitimate. 2) Muhammad Rashid Rida (1865-1935) - From what is now Lebanon, wanted to rejuvenate the Ottoman caliphate.
He made no statements opposing Islamic supremacism, but he is called a Reformera„? for denying the way things are like so many today. 3) Muhammad a€?Inayat Allah Khan (1888- 1963) - Born in Punjab, founded the Khaksar Movement, a Muslim separatist group. The astonishing similaritiesa€”or shall we say the unintentional similarity between two great mindsa€”between Hitlera€™s great book and the teachings of my Tazkirah and Isharat embolden me, because the fifteen years of a€?strugglea€? of the author of a€?My Strugglea€? [Mein Kampf] have now actually led his nation back to success.
Mashriqi emphasized repeatedly in his pamphlets and published articles that the verity of Islam could be gauged by the rate of the earliest Muslim conquests in the glorious first decades after Muhammada€™s death - Mashriqia€™s estimate is a€?36,000 castles in 9 years, or 12 per daya€?. 4) Hajj Amin al-Husseini (~1896 - 1974) - Studied Islamic law briefly at Al-Azhar University in Cairo and at the Dar al-Da'wa wa-l-Irshad under Rashid Rida, who remained his mentor till Ridaa€™s death in 1935.2 3 Perhaps more a politician than a sharia scholar, he is on this page because of his authority and longtime influence as Grand Mufti of Jerusalem beginning in 1921. 5) Sheikh Muhammad Mahawif - was Grand Mufti of Egypt, in 1948 issued a fatwa declaring jihad in Palestine obligatory for all Muslims. 6) Sheikh Hasan Maa€™moun - Grand Mufti of Egypt in 1956 issued a fatwa, signed by the leading members of the Fatwa Committee of Al Azhar, and the major representatives of all four Sunni schools of jurisprudence.
There are hundreds of other [Koranic] psalms and hadith urging Muslims to value war and to fight. 10) Sheik Muhammad Sayyid Tantawi (1928 - 2010) - Grand Sheik Al-Azhar University, Cairo 1996 - 2010. BBC said Tantawi a€?is acknowledged as the highest spiritual authority for nearly a billion Sunni Muslimsa€?.
He devotes a chapter to the various ways Allah punished the Jews, among them changing their form. 1996 - 30 years later was appointed Grand Imam at Al-Azhar U., then met in Cairo with the Chief Rabbi of Israel. President of many influential orgs, founder and president of the International Association of Muslim Scholars which issues many fatwas.
During the Arab Springa„? in February 2011, after Mubarak's fall his return to Egypt for the 1st time since he was banned 30 years before drew the largest crowd since the uprising began - over 2 million. He said he worked with and was influenced by Hasan al-Banna, founder of the Muslim Brotherhood, where he is a longtime spiritual advisor, and in 1976 and 2004 turned down offers to be the Brotherhooda€™s highest-ranking General Leader. Report on Goma€™a: a€?A fatwa issued by Egypta€™s top religious authority, which forbids the display of statues has art-lovers fearing it could be used by Islamic extremists as an excuse to destroy Egypta€™s historical heritage.
15) Sheikh Gamal Qutb - The one-time Grand Sheik of Al-Azhar on K- 4:24, and sex with slave girls. 19) Sheikh 'Ali Abu Al-Hassan - Al-Azhar University Fatwa Committee Chairman on suicide bombing in 2003. 21) Sheikh Hassan Khalid (1921 - 1989) - Sunni jurist, elected Grand Mufti of Lebanon in 1966 where he presided over Islamic courts for 23 years.
Tibi said, "First, both sides should acknowledge candidly that although they might use identical terms these mean different things to each of them. Muslims frequently claim that a€?Islam means peace.a€? The word Islam comes from the same three-letter Arabic root as the word a€?salaam,a€? peace. 23) Majid Khaduri (1909-2007) - Iraqi jurist, Ph.D International law University of Chicago in 1938, member of the Iraqi delegation to the founding of the United Nations in 1945. 25) Hatem al-Haj - Egyptian, leading American Muslim jurist, MD, PhD, fellow at the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the author of this revealing 2008 Assembly of Muslim Jurists of America paper, which says the duty of Muslims is not to respect the laws of the country where they live, but rather do everything in their power to make the laws of Allah supreme. Warraq says the main arguments of his book are few, since more than fifty percent of it is taken up by quotations from the Koran, from scholars like Ibn Taymiyya, from the Hadith, from Koranic commentators like Ibn Kathir, and from the four main Sunni schools of Law. Defensive Jihad: This is expelling the Kuffar from our land, and compulsory for all individuals. 28) Grand Ayatollah Ali Khamenei (1939 - ) - Shiite jurist, Supreme Leader of Iran, he was #2 in a 2009 book co authored by Esposito featuring the world's 500 most influential Muslims. 30) Sheikh Ahmed Kuftaro (1912-2004) - Grand Mufti of Syria, after the 2003 invasion of Iraq, yes to suicide attacks against Americans there. Grand Ayatollah Sistani (1930 -) - Shiite jurist and marja, the a€?highest authority for 17-20 million Iraqi Shia€™a, also as a moral and religious authority to Usuli Twelver Shia€™a worldwidea€?.
32) Saudi Sheikh Abdul Aziz al-Sheikh (1940- ) - Saudi Grand Mufti, the leading religious figure of Saudi-based Salafi Muslims. 33) Saudi Sheikh Saleh Al-Lehadan, Chief Justice of the Saudi Supreme Judiciary Council, and a member of Council of Senior Clerics, the highest religious body in the country, appointed by the King. 34) Saudi Sheikh Wajdi Hamza Al-Ghazawi - preacher started a popular new website "Al Minbar. 35) Saudi Sheik Muhammad al-Munajjid (1962 - ) - well-known Islamic scholar, lecturer, author, Wahhabi cleric.
36) Saudi Sheikh Abd al-Rahman al-Sudayyis - imam of Islam's most holy mosque, Al-Haram in Mecca, holds one of the most prestigious posts in Sunni Islam.
The Saudis boasted of having spent $74 billion a€?educatinga€? the West that Islam is a Peaceful Tolerant Religiona„?. 43) Mazen al-Sarsawi - popular Egyptian TV cleric comments in 2011 on what Muhammad said about IS&J. 46) Sheik Taj Din Al-Hilali - Sunni, Imam of the Lakemba Mosque, former Grand Mufti of Australia & New Zealand, Ia€™m not sure of his education but he is on this page because he was the highest religious authority there for almost 20 years. 47) Imam Anwar al-Awlaki - American imam, became a leading figure in Al Qaedaa€™s affiliate in Yemen. Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi (1971- ) - First Caliph of the new Islamic State (ISIS, ISIL) created in 2014. If youa€™ve been through this site then you dona€™t need Raymond Ibrahima€™s explanation why the a€?religious defamationa€? laws being called for internationally in 2012 would ban Islam itself and its core texts (One & Two) if they were applied with the same standard to all religions.
If Islamic doctrines are inherently violent, why isna€™t every single Muslim in the world violent? 10) Sheik Muhammad Sayyid Tantawi (1928 - 2010) - Grand Sheik Al-Azhar University, Cairo 1996 - 2010.A  Grand Mufti of Egypt 1986 - 1996. Much of what we know about early Italy come from the Histora Naturalis by Pliny the Elder which was published around 77-79 A.D. Many people groups possess mythological descriptions of their origins, often contained in the form of totems -- ancient heroes, animals, or even plants and trees, from which that group of people emerged at first on earth.
According to legend, the king of a small community in Italy ordered his twin sons to be thrown into the Tiber River. Romulus (hence the name a€?Romea€?) forged numerous alliances with neighboring peoples in order to fortify and protect a€?for eternitya€? the city which eventually gained the name, a€?The Eternal City.a€? The time period for this story is not ancient.
They established an absolute monarchy with a Senate, a constitution, and a popular assembly.
It was early Rome and not Athens that was to lay the greatest amount of groundwork for later democracies. To ensure that a dictatorship or absolute ruler could not emerge, the Republic developed a series of assemblies, assuring that every class within society would have representation.
The Senate, however, endured through the several sacks of Rome by the barbarians, and even functioned under several Germanic emperors. Plebian Council: each of the 35 tribes selected representative to the Council, which passed most laws, and served as a court of appeals.
Magistrates: served as judges, overseers of legal affairs, enforces of an early form of habeas corpus (an accused persona€™s right to be heard and not held without sufficient evidence) were selected by the Assembly of the Centuries.
Consuls: were elected by the populace annually from among the magistrates, presided over the Senate and the Assemblies, had supreme civil and military powers, were heads of the Roman government, and when outside of Rome commanded an army. Roman society in the Republic developed a hierarchical format, dividing the people into two classes: the patricians (land-owning aristocracy) and plebians (eveyone else -- until slavery developed).
As the Republic took on a more military-expansionist quality, success in warfare became connected with advancement in politics. Rome was originally a land army, but copied the ships of the Carthaginians, who at the time were masters of the Mediterranean Ocean. In addition, Antiochus ordered all Jewish worship to cease, killed those who disobeyed, and profaned the temple by offering pigs on the holy altar.
The unrest in Rome due to massive unemployment and the influx of new people led to the rise of radical rivalries. The appointment of Julius Caesar as dictator for life for all practical purposes marked the end of the Republic. Having arrived in Rome Octavian, aided by Marc Antony, then pursued Julius Brutus the assassin of his uncle to Greece, where two battles at Philippi in northern Greece took place, Octavian defeated and killed Brutus. The three members of the second triumvirate agreed to divide the Republic among themselves -- Octavian took the West, Antony took the East, including Egypt, and Lepidus took Spain and North Africa. Marc Antony, now residing in Egypt, soon made a romantic friendship with Cleopatra with whom he produced several children.
Octavian and Anthony despised each other and Lepidus, the third member of the triumvirate, was too weak a character to stand up to either.
Following the death of Julius, six emperors from his family line ruled successively from 27 B.
Claudius was a respected older Senator leader when he succeeded Caligula, his nephew, in 47 A.D.
For instance, during one part of the siege laid by the Romans, the Zealots destroyed food supplies that were stored in the city in order to gain an advantage over their rival factions.
Vespasian gained control of the Roman wheat supply in Egypt and North Africa and thereby announced his intentions.
When Vespasian left with his troops to go north, the Jews, and especially the Zealots, saw this as a sign of weakness. Prior to the arrival of Vespasian, civil war was taking place inside of Jerusalem The Hellenized Jews, the Pharisees, the Zealots, and the ordinary people were locked in a chaos of robbery, intrigue, murder, and assassination. For three generations the high priest selected to lead temple worship did not come from the line of Aaron, as prescribed in Scripture. These high priests were rejected by the conservative, religious party as political stooges of the Romans and certainly not lawfully selected high priests. Things became so desperate in the city that people resorted eating animal manure, and there is even a reported case of cannibalism. Finally, after months of siege, the Romans managed to scale the walls, burn the temple and burn the city.
Jesus instructed his disciples and they in turn the other Christians in Jerusalem about this impending terror. The Christians were warned by the prophecy of Jesus to flee the city when they saw wars, rumors of wars, earthquakes and the other accompanying events. The temple worship in Jerusalem came to an end, as did the priesthood and the sacrificial system.
It was Goda€™s final statement in the destroying of Jerusalem that the new Sacrifice had come, Jesus, the Lamb of God, He was now the High Priest. This dynasty brought excellent administrative leadership to the Empire through the absolute rule of Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. A large system of aqueducts, sewer systems, and medicine improved the health of the empire.
Julius Caesar developed a calendar containing 12 months and 365 days which was universally adopted in the domains of the Empire.
The Gregorian calendar has four months with a length of 30 days and seven months that are 31 days long.
Central heating in homes was developed in construction methods that allowed for air spaces under houses through which hot air from furnaces could circulate.
Concrete was invented by the Romans, making possible the large construction projects--stadiums, theaters, basilicas, aqueducts, basilicas. Roman architecture first used domes in constructing temples, which made possible larger unsupported ceilings in public buildings.
Latin became the a€?lingua francaa€? throughout the empire and produced the foundation for the a€?Romance languagesa€? -- Italian, Spanish, French, Romanian. A successive line of emperors ruled absolutely from Rome over an empire that covered most of the known world. The Christian Church grew rapidly throughout the empire and very little opposition to the Church was experienced after the time of Trajan.
The elevation of Constantine marked the beginning of a new Empire, an Empire to be greatly impacted by the Christian Church. There will certainly be emperors who would be disappointed that they are not included in the chart below. Due to a variety of factors, including geography, military strength, and leadership, the city of Rome was over time able to gain control over central and southern Italy. Rome was first governed by a monarchy which was replaced by a Republic -- the Republic provided a separation of powers and responsibilities, primarily concentrated in the Senate and among several important assemblies. Tensions and conflict between the Patricians and the Plebeians escalated and broke out into hostilities which threatened the peace and security of Rome.
A first triumvirate was formed (Julius, Pompey, Crassus), seeking leadership and resolution to the conflict and granting authority.
Juliusa€™ assassination on the floor of the Senate by Brutus resulted in the formation of the second triumvirate composed of Octavian, Marc Anthony, and Lepidus. Although married to Octaviana€™s sister, Marc Anthony lived openly with Cleopatra in Alexandria, Egypt. The clash between Octavian and Anthony was settled at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, with Anthony and Cleopatra driven back to Alexandria where both committed suicide.


The last of the Julian line, Nero, was emperor who killed the two apostles, Peter and Paul, in Rome in 67 AD. Rome grew to a huge empire that controlled almost all of the lands bordering the Mediterranean Sea from the Euphrates on the East to the Atlantic Ocean on the west, as well as Gaul (France), Spain, and England.
Most roots of Western civilization can be traced to elements that existed in the Roman Empire from about 27 B.C. Rome contributed roads, bridges, architecture, citizenship, language, republicanism, and culture to Europe -- producing the famed Pax Romana. The rise of the Roman Empire was foretold in the dream of the Persian king, Nebuchadnezzar, as interpreted by Daniel in his prophecy 2:1-45. The Roman Empire provided the environment (language, roads) that enabled the Christian Church to grow throughout the known world. Ultimately, the Christian Church conquered the Roman Empire through the faithful witness of Christians throughout the empire and with the conversion of the Emperor Constantine to the Christian faith. Describe the interaction between the Goths and the Romans, resulting ultimately in the sacking of Rome in 476 A.D. The small town was established on the banks of the Tiber River on an elevated site to give protection. Jerusalem had been under Seleucid control for many years.A  When they heard a false rumor in 167 BC that Antiochus Epiphanes IV, king of the Seleucids, had been killed in battle in Egypt, a rebellion broke out in the city. While in Egypt Julius developed a relationship with Cleopatra, teenage ruler of Egypt, who subsequently bore him a son.
Octavian, nephew of Julius, was appointed by the Senate to a new triumvirate togetherA  with Marc Antony and Lepidus in 43 B.C. Having arrived in Rome Octavian, aided by Marc Antony, then pursued Julius Brutus the assassin of his uncleA  to Greece, where two battles at Philippi in northern Greece took place, Octavian defeated and killed Brutus.
The documents includes an alleged request by Algeria to the Polisario’s militias to speak to the Egyptian media for the purpose of disseminating false information about Morocco and its southern provinces, the so-called Western Sahara.
Turkey is seen by many as a model Muslim country for the Middle East, worthy of being in NATO and EU, and also a prime example of how a state with strong measures in place to hold political Islam in check with a secular military, can slowly become an Islamic state non-violently. In July 2011, the mass resignation of the top military leadership stunned the nation and opened new possibilities for Mr.
Brohi [a€  1987], the Advocate-General of Pakistan, and one-time Pakistani Ambassador to India.
The creation of a Palestinian state is only a means for continuing our struggle against the state of Israel for our Arab unity. In 2010 he was convicted in absentia of terrorism related charges in Lebanon, arrested 3 days later and a€?jailed for lifea€?. He was among 9 arrested in London September 2014 in a counter terrorism sweep as the new Islamic State grows in popularity. We shook hands and Hitler said, pointing to a book that was lying on the table: a€?I had a chance to read your al-Tazkirah.a€? Little did I understand at that time, what should have been clear to me when he said these words! But only after leading his nation to the intended goal, has he disclosed his movementa€™s rules and obligations to the world; only after fifteen years has he made the means of success widely known. In 1922 he became President of the Supreme Muslim Council where he had the power to appoint personally loyal preachers in all of Palestinea€™s mosques, making him indisputably the most powerful Muslim leader in the country.2 Exiled, eventually to Germany from 1937 - 1945 where he was Hitlera€™s close associate. He founded the political party Hizb ut-Tahrir in 1952 as an alternative to the MB, and remained its leader until he died in 1977. 90-91), Irana€™s Ayatollah Khomeini himself married a ten-year-old girl when he was twenty-eight.
English translation in Barry Rubin and Judith Colp Rubin, Anti-American Terrorism and the Middle East (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), pp. The 2 largest standing Buddha carvings in the world from the 6th century were blown up by the Taliban in 2001. Ahmad AlA­Tayyeb - Grand Sheik of Al-Azhar University, was President of Al Azhar for 7 years, was Grand Mufti of Egypt. Career spanned more than 65 years, joined SAIS faculty in 1949, then created the first graduate program in the U.S on the modern Middle East. Islamic Education, Darul Uloom, Karachi, now hadith and Islamic economics instructor, sat for 20 years on Pakistani Supreme Court, he is one of the most respected Deobandi scholars in the world who authored over 60 books, an expert in Islamic finance who was quietly terminated or resigned in 2008 from the Sharia Supervisory Board of the Iman Fund, formerly the Dow Jones Islamic Index Fund (sharia finance). Al-Azhar University in The Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence, Shariah degree Damascus University, influenced by Sayyid Qutb and knew his family while in Egypt, lectured for years at Saudi Arabiaa€™s King Abdul Aziz University in Jeddah until 1979.
Although acquitted by an Egyptian court for complicity in the 1981 slaying of Egyptian president Anwar Sadat, he has bragged about issuing the fatwa that approved the killing. He meets frequently with Crown Prince Abdullah and other senior members of the ruling family. But if the standard is how violent a reaction it provokes from the offended people, then only a€?defaminga€™ Islam will be banned.
Including all his references, they amount to a mountain of evidence that shows the consensus on IS&J in all 5 schools since the 7th century, especially in the absence of any book full of contrary opinions from authorities with the stature of the examples you have seen.
If they had, it would be easy to demonstrate with the kind of evidence you see here, from whatever era that was. He founded the political party Hizb ut-Tahrir in 1952 as an alternative to the MB, and remained its leader until he died in 1977.A  Its stated goal is jihad a€?in clearly defined stagesa€? against existing political regimes, and their replacement with a caliphate. According to such mythologies the Germans emerged suddenly from a crack in the eartha€™s surface. As with the story of Cronos and his son Zeus, the king feared that when they reached adulthood the twins would seize his position. Natural resources in the area provided timber, clay, straw, and abundant fish for the construction of houses and protective walls and for food. They migrated into northern Italy and in the 6th century moved south from Tuscany northern Italy to the Tiber.
The Senate functioned as an advisory council to the king, and the assembly had matters referred to it for popular input, which the king could accept or ignore.
The citizens were divided into centuries (100 citizens) and 35 tribes, 4 major tribes in the city of Rome (urban dwellers) and 31 rural tribes (farmers, landowners). The Senate began during the Roman monarchy, then gained additional power in the Republic, but with the advent of the Empire, declined in its power and influence. In two months they amazingly built over 300 war ships and trained 10,000 marines to combat Carthage.
A series of heartless and corrupt kings led to a social and political chaos so bad that in 64 BC Rome had to step in and conquer the area in order to quell the confusion. A series of assassinations, grabs for power, and appointments of individuals by the Senate outside the normal rules of the constitution, caused a crisis. When Pompey landed in Alexandria, he was killed by Egyptians who thought they were being loyal to Julius and would find favor with him. Cleopatra presumed that after Julius returned to Rome he would call for her and her son to join him there.
This action by the Senate and the perceived arrogance of Julius greatly alarmed a group in the Senate led by Julius Brutus.
It was not simply because of his personal attributes or that he was the nephew of Julius that caused the Senate to include Octavian.
Perhaps the geographic separation would enable the second triumvirate succeed where the first had failed. To make matters worse, Antony was married to the sister of Octavian and Octavian, in turn, was married to the sister of Marc Antony!
The countryside was divided between several factions.The Hellenized Jews had become European in their dress, language, and culture. The Zealots also dressed as women to disguise themselves and plunged daggers into rivals on the streets of Jerusalem.
Furthermore, Jewish worship had so declined that prostitutes, according to Josephus the Jewish historian of the Roman Empire and school mate of Titus, were plying their trade inside the temple walls! He placed three legions around the western sides of the city and a fourth on the east on i??the Mount of Olives.
Josephus states that the stench of the dead on crosses was so great that legionnaires became sick at the odor. This was Goda€™s judgement upon a people who rejected him, although he presented himself to them as their Messiah. The Julian Calendar provided the names of the months used world-wide and served as Europea€™s unified calendar until 1582 when Pope Gregory XIII developed the Gregorian Calendar. February is the only month that is 28 days long in common years and 29 days long in leap years.
Public restrooms and public baths were also introduced by the Romans, although public toilets were present earlier in Greece, also. Arches could support heavier loads than columns and flat roofs by distributing the weight downward through each segment of the archa€™s construction. Most famous of Roman domed buildings was the Pantheon in Rome, the temple dedicated to the worship and honoring of a€?all the gods,a€? which is what the word a€?pantheona€? means in Greek.
After Trajan, Christians became progressively accepted and many were appointed to positions in government and the military, and many others held important positions as teachers and professors.
Marc Anthony despised Octavian and spent most of his time in Egypt with the Eastern troops.
He became the first bona fide Emperor and the second of six in the Julian line to rule Rome. When Pompey landed in Alexandria, he was killed by Egyptians who thought they were being loyal to Julius and would find favor with him.A  However, Julius had a personal rule -- no leader defeated by Julius would be put to death. Actium was a naval battle, pitting the forces of Octavian and Rome against those of Marc Antony and the Egyptian forces of Cleopatra.
As Poole and Hanna emphasize, a€?Their respective endorsements of the book established Malika€™s views on jihad as national policy and gave his interpretation official state sanction. Current leader of Bangladesha€™s largest Islamic party Jamaat-e-Islami, and author of 54 books. In reality today there is no difference between Jordanians, Palestinians, Syrians and Lebanese.
May he inflict you with cancer and allow you no reprievea€¦ Allah, strike them with all sorts of disease, afflictions and pain! Strike them with evil, or at the very least freeze the blood in their veinsa€”until they pray for death, but do not receive it!! After the war he was wanted for crimes against humanity, but returned as a war hero to the Middle East, and remained Grand Mufti at least 10 years after WWII.
Hizb reportedly now has secret cells in 40 countries, outlawed in Russia, Germany, Netherlands, Saudi Arabia and many others, but not in the USA where they hold an annual conference, and ita€™s still a legal political party in UK. Extremely influential Sunni jurist, sharia scholar based in Qatar, memorized the Koran by age ten. Chairman of the board of trustees atA Michigan-based Islamic American University, a subsidiary of the Muslim American Society, which was claimed by the Muslim Brotherhood as theirs in 1987.
Goma€™a was #7 in the book co-authored by John Esposito featuring the world's 500 most influential Muslims, and he is widely hailed as a Moderatea„?. He was the program's director until his retirement in 1980 and University Distinguished Research Professor until his death at 98 years old. Deputy Chairman of the Jeddah based Islamic Fiqh Council of the OIC, and is a member of ECFR, whose President is Sheik Qaradawi. OBL was enrolled there from 76-81 where they probably first met; Azzam eventually became his mentor. In fact 3 times Pulitzer Prize winner and Middle East Experta„? Thomas Friedman wants to give a Nobel prize to him even though he is an Islamic supremacist. There is much more than those 2 books, here are reading lists with books full of more evidence from Muslim and non-Muslim accounts of institutionalized IS&J for over 1300 years. University Dogma takes for granted that a majority of jurists and ulama scholars, past and present, taught against IS&J, but no one says who and where these people are, and exactly what they said about relations between Muslims and non-Muslims.
Many primitive tribes believe that a totem animal was their ancient ancestor, hence the totem poles among the Alaskan tribes.
When they arrived at the Tiber and the early settlements around present-day Rome, they cleared the mud huts of the original inhabitants, dug canals for irrigation and draining of swamps, and organized cattle herding into a sustainable industry.
Rome with its navy invaded Carthage, burned it to the ground, and poured salt onto the soil so that a city could never again be built there.
To the south in Attica and the Peloponnese the Attican League rose in rebellion against the Roman invaders, but were quickly defeated. This is but one of several times that God used pagan armies as his tool to bring justice to evil kings and kingdoms.
Brutus was a close friend of Julius and had fought with him at Pharsalus against Pompey, but he was alarmed at the power grab by Julius To protect the Republic against a dictatorship, Brutus and others in the Senate made a bloody plan.
Roman culture had so idealized the military that it was inconceivable for anyone but military leaders to be appointed to the triumvirate. The fact was that Octavian had marched on Rome and demanded that the Senate appoint him as one of the consuls! He was a well-qualified leader and was the emperor who ordered the census which caused Joseph and Mary to travel to Bethlehem. He was then succeeded by his brother, Domitian, who many saw as a weaker candidate because he lacked the military zeal of his father and brother.
Vespasian with 60,000 Roman legionnaires worked his way south through Syria, Samaria, and northern Judah, systematically wiping out all resistance to Romea€™s authority.
In protest, many of the faithful, a probably led by the men who should legally have become high priest, left Jerusalem for Masada in the south east. When the Passover season arrived, Titus a€?politelya€? allowed the thousands of pilgrims to enter the city, but then refused to allow them to leave.
When it was discovered that some attempted to escape after having swallowed the gold jewelry and coins, the Romans hired Arabs to slit the stomachs of those who attempted to flee in order to seek for the hidden gold. But it was a further evidence of the truthfulness of the message of Jesus, that in him alone is found the forgiveness of sins and the free gift of eternal life.
Some were fed by manmade reservoirs, one of the earliest, large scale attempts to manage natural resources.
There are at least 333 terms that are literally the same in spelling and meaning in both Latin and English.
He placed two other men under Maximian and himself as junior partners, so-to-speak -- Constantius in Gaul as a junior partner under Maximian, and Galerius in the east under Diocletian, giving to them the title Augustus. But for this study, the following are listed as emperors and lines of emperors that are worth remembering. Lepidus foolishly attempted to take authority over Octaviana€™s troops and was expelled by Octavian from the triumvirate. US military officials are finding summaries of it in various languages on captured and killed jihadists in Afghanistan. General Zia embraces Malika€™s expansive understanding of jihad as a duty extending to individual citizens as well as soldiers; and Brohi, drawing an explicit distinction between Dar-al-Islam [The House of Islam] and Dar al-Harb [the House of War], accepts the redefinition of defensive jihad to include the removal of any obstacles and countering any resistance to the spread of the message of Islam and the institutionalization and governance according to sharia€?a. In July 2011 Nizami and 3 other senior JI leaders were arrested in connection with war crimes. He is remembered as the godfather of Palestinian terrorism nationalism - Professor Edward Said praised him as a€?the voice of the Palestinian people.a€? The History Channel made a film about him.
Former Hizb-ut-Tahrir member Ed Husain, in his 2007 book The Islamist, says: The difference between Hizb ut-Tahrir and jihadists, is tactics, not goals. Qaradawi was #6 in the book co authored by Esposito in 2009 featuring the world's 500 most influential Muslims. Similarly, when Muslims and the Western heirs of the Enlightenment speak of tolerance they have different things in mind.
Internationally recognized as one of the world's leading authorities on Islamic law and jurisprudence, modern Arab and Iraqi history, and politics. Even though he is not a sharia scholar, he is on this page because that is mostly what his The Calcutta Qur'an Petition (1986) is - quotes of Koranic commentaries by famous sharia scholars, in an attempt to ban the Koran in India. If you have any examples, please send documentary evidence so I can add it to the Tiny Minority of Extremists page, coming up next. The leading city of the rebellious Attican League, Corinth, was burned to the ground by the Romans. For many years the plebians, out of loyalty to the Republic, overlooked the need for social reforms, but with the influx of slaves things were about to change.
The three arbitrarily chose themselves to take the power in what was basically a military coup. Hence, Julius, the last man standing of the three, returned to Rome and was declared a€?Perpetual Dictatora€? by the Senate in 44 B.C. Second, he secretly stole the private will of Anthony and made its terms known to the Senate.


They secured Roman control of Britain and strengthened the borders with the Germanic tribes.
The Zealots tended to be hot-headed nationalists bent on independence, not only from Rome, but also from what was perceived to me a corrupt priesthood.
Many citizens fled in front of the troops to the south, leaving behind burning towns and cities, and seeking the safety of the high-walled Jerusalem. Some believe these were the Essenes who kept the Dead Sea Scrolls along the shores of the Dead Sea. This put enormous strains on the food and water supplies and virtually broke down all health and sanitation systems. Expansion into the Balkans, Spain, Britain, Gaul, Persia, and North Africa produced the greatest era of Romanization. The road networks were built throughout Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, including the famed Apian Way that connected major cities and military bases in Italy with Rome.
The idea was that when either Diocletian or Maximian would die or retire, the junior partners would become the next emperors. Upon arriving in Egypt and learning about Pompeya€™s death, Julius put to death the assassins of Pompey. Hence, Julius, the last man standing of the three, returned to Rome and was declared a€?Perpetual Dictatora€?A  by the Senate in 44 B.C.
Many citizens fled in front of the troops to the south, leaving behind burning towns and cities,A  and seeking the safety of the high-walled Jerusalem. Bengalis claim the Pakistani Muslim army and local collaborators killed as many as 3 million people during the 1971 war that ended in Bangladesh's independence from Pakistan. They simply deny that it is a principle of Islam that jihad may include wars of aggression. Mashriqia€™s book Tazkirah (a commentary of the Quran) was nominated for the 1925 Nobel Prize in Literature. What is the good of us (the mullahs) asking for the hand of a thief to be severed or an adulteress to be stoned to death when all we can do is recommend such punishments, having no power to implement them? Because of his huge influence, and to understand the significance of his connections with Moderatea„? American Muslim leaders that you will see in the Muslim Brotherhood page, you must understand what believes. When they reached maturity, Romulus murdered Remus (a memory of Cain and Abel?) and formed the community of Rome. The three were Julius Caesar from his assignment in England, Pompey from his station in Spain, and Crassus in his station from Syria. In order to prevent armed revolutions in Rome, generals returning to Rome were forbidden to allow their troops to cross the Rubicon en mass.
Antonya€™s will provided for large land grants in Italy for the children he had sired with Cleopatra. The dating of the writing of the Book of Revelation by John while on Patmos determines whether the book was written prior to the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D.
They passed new tax codes to restore the Roman treasury and increased the silver base for the Roman currency. The civil war was directed not only at Rome, but was conducted within Jerusalem by one faction against the other. The goal was to prevent chaos at the death of an emperor and to provide orderly succession of leadership. Christians were required to make sacrifices to the gods or face imprisonment, exile, or death. Cleopatra, according to legend used a poisonous snake in her bed to inflict the fatal wound. The four reportedly led Islamist militias targeting independence supporters and religious minorities, mostly Hindu.
Fouad Ajami said "Professor Khadduri was one of the pioneers of Middle Eastern studies in the United States. The king was replaced by two consuls who were elected by the populace annually (the idea was you cana€™t trust one ruler or hea€™ll attempt to rule absolutely, and cana€™t allow him to serve for long periods of time or he will rule forever!), and the Senate was given expanded powers (rather than being merely an advisory group as they were under the former monarchy). General Hannibal of Carthage, during the second of the three Punic Wars invaded Italy, crossing the Alps with his troops, including a unit of 37 elephants. Crassus had earlier gained fame for having defeated the slave revolt in Italy led by the slave Spartacus.
I tell you the truth, this generation will certainly not pass away until all these things have happened. Her death placed the vast wealth of Egypt at Romea€™s disposal and Egypt voluntarily became a province of the Roman Empire. In 1930 I sent him my Isharat concerning the Khaksar movement with a picture of a spade-bearer Khaksar at the end of that book. According to prosecutors, the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center (WTC), which killed six people, was part of the conspiracy.
First, it filled the tribes and Council with newcomers who were not content to allow the status quo to continue. Those who accept the early date under Nero interpret Revelation to apply primarily to the destruction of Jerusalem, the temple and sacrificial system, and ultimately the downfall of the Roman Empire, and do not see the book addressing primarily things which are to happen wo thousand or more years in the future.
But I know enough about chemistry to know that a chemical by itself may be poisonous but not poisonous when in a compound with other chemicals. The intention of Mohammed, in what he said of jihad, may have been misunderstood and misrepresented. All officials served one-year terms, except during times of emergency, so that no one person could gain power over his fellow citizens. So angered were they that they declared war on Cleopatra -- knowing that this would bring Antony into the conflict also, but avoiding, technically at least, a Roman civil war. Some believe also that Nero was the emperor who sent John the Apostle to exile on the island of Patmos where he composed the Book of Revelation. Those who accept the late date for the book view it as a prophecy about things to happen at the end of the age. So angered were they that they declared war on Cleopatra -- knowing that this would bringA  Antony into the conflict also, but avoiding, technically at least, a Roman civil war.
Islam says: Whatever good there it exists thanks to the sword and in the shadow of the sword! Founded the Shaybani Society of International Law, and was a founder of the Middle East Institute, and the University of Libya, where he became dean in 1957.
Over time a constitution was adopted that featured an early form of separation of powers and a system of checks and balances. Until the newer conceptions, as to what the Koran teaches as to the duty of the believer towards non-believers, have spread further..
But you should be aware that the story of Chicken Little is notA  a "fable character." While he did say "The sky is falling" quite a bit, this was only because he had difficulty making contact the his agent provocateur whose actual physical appearance had changed over the years. The video faculty includes Eric Hulsizer, a former Channel 8 cameramanA who photographed "Channel 8 On Your Side," and Lisa Inserra of Cox Media (the company that owns Valpack) who is active in producing television commercials for her company's clients.az?i»? In my program, I've studied drawing, camera operation, scripting, digital imaging, programming basics, copyright law, video editing, website design, sound production and editing.
One of myA professors says the program is the best of its kind in the Tampa Bay area and I think he's right.az?i»?i»? Please, please, put the word out to others so that this fine program will be better known. It doesn't matter what your heritage is or whether you are still in high school or old enough for Medicare. Petersburg Collede digital arts program is filled with both talented professors and students. In your story on stadium horns, you called them vuvuzwelas, what is that funny looking symbol after the photo credits. The image can be used freely, subject to some restrictive terms in the license, including crediting the photographer. It looks to me like he called on Curtis LeMay, Colonel Clearwater - and then realizing he had made a mistake - schluffed it into Colonel Kilgore. Here's a photo of American school children using the original Bellamy salute:A I think the photo speaks for itself. Colonel Clearwater Dear Colonel Clearwater: What do you think about the Egyptian revolution?
Fundamentalists, in any religion, are usually a reaction to what the followers perceive as injustice. This doesn't mean Egyptian society and culture will necessarily change; it is still their culture and values. But in the long run any thing they make of it will be for their benefit (and not the benefit of the United States). Not by rampeling down the side of the building like Tom Cruise, but by sliding in with a tourist visa when it was not open to tourists. Clearwater: Republicans are betting that your readers don't care - that after all you did to beat them in 2006 and 2008, you're going to sit this one out. So they're whipping up their base by blocking help to unemployed workers, blocking summer jobs for teens, apologizing to the big companies that gave us the spill in the Gulf, and doing anything else they can do to stop progress. Yes, that Rand Paul, who says freedom means a private business can discriminate against African-Americans, and that President Obama holding polluters accountable for the mess in the Gulf is "un-American." And he's not alone. One candidate calls Social Security "horrible policy," while another has said that Americans will turn to "Second Amendment remedies" against Democrats. In New Hampshire, Paul Hodes is running neck-and-neck with his Republican opponent to take this seat for the Democrats. We've just started to turn our country around, passing healthcare reform, working to hold the big banks accountable for the Wall Street meltdown, pushing legislation to address climate change and end our addiction to oil. The GOP is betting big that saying "no" and blocking progress is a path to success in November.What bet will you make? I think the Republicans should adopt as their emblem the condom because it more clearly reflects the party's political stance.
A condom stands for inflation, halts production, destroys the next generation, protects a bunch of pricks, and gives one a sense of security while screwing others. Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater, Last week, my friend and colleague, Congressman Anthony Weiner, did something very good, and very gutsy.
Weiner's report showed that this firm, which sells gold coins, rips off its customers while benefiting directly from Beck's Chicken Little lunacy about the economy. Every time Beck screams that there is an impending Obama-led government takeover of the economy and your savings aren't safe, he's making a sales pitch for this sleazy advertiser. You see, Beck's ratings have recently crashed, and most of his reputable advertisers have deserted him. Now that he's been exposed, Beck has spent the last week using his big media platform to attack and undermine Weiner - he even set up an attack website designed to damage Weiner's political standing. This collusion between big media, conservative commentators, and quack economics is a scam, but it is powerful if it remains unopposed. And we need to support people like Weiner, who have the guts to go after right-wing lunacy at the source.
Consider his statement: "I beg you, look for the words 'social justice' or 'economic justice' on your church Web site. That oil disaster must be stopped, and a way must be found."I am not the original author of that sensible thought, but it has been my favorite definition of faith for a while.
While we have no way of certainty for moving past them, working to find a pathway that takes us beyond our doubts is the best option in my view. Then how come Congress starts each session with a prayer and the president is sworn in on a Bible? Wants to KnowDear Wants to Know, As I said in an earlier reply, our countrys laws and structure are not based on the God of the Bible and the Ten Commandments, as Sarah Palin and others claim. So most of us do not work on Sunday and some businesses are not open for business on Sunday. So we have a religious custom of not working on Sunday and a secular custom of watching football on Sunday.
The Constitution states that the president must take an oath, but it does not mention anything about a Bible.
Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater, I understand you answer, but you say customs and traditions. Wants to Know MoreDear Wants to Know More, It is important to realize the difference between a custom and a tradition.
It is a custom at my house that every year we watch football on Thanksgiving Day after we eat. A tradition is a ceremony invented for the purpose of commemorating some historical event or to develop a sense of binding in a community or religious group. Thanksgiving Day is a tradition in America that serves the purpose of reminding us of what we have from God for which to be thankful and is loosely based on the first harvest feast of the Pilgrims to celebrate their first year of survival in the New World. It is a tradition; a ceremony we use to create a common bond among Americans by commemorating our heritage.
When Congress meets, the first thing that happens is that the designated speaker calls the group together. Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater, I have just seen a video about an organization called the Council on Foreign Relations.
This organization has members who were past Presidents and past Secretary of States of the United States, plus leaders in the fields of finance, industry, and other important positions in society. The spokesman on the video has concluded that this organization must be a part of world conspiracy to take over the world and put the entire world under a one-world socialist government and I agree with him.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an organization of foreign policy experts, people concerned with international trade, prominent historians and writers, as well as others who are involved with foreign policy and international affairs.
The CFR hold speaking events with question-and-answer periods which are usually televised on CSpan or other cable stations. The speakers are usually world leaders, historians, writers, or others involved in international affairs. Some of the speakers have included such figures as Nelson Mandela, George Soros, Thomas Friedman, Mikhail Gorbachev, and Ronald Reagan. The journal, which I have subscribed to and read for over 25 years (plus you can buy it at the newsstands in Borders or Barnes and Noble) provides a forum for contrasting views and opinions regarding issues affecting foreign policy. Some people have made a nice living scarring others with conspiracy theories about the CFR.
My advice to you is to go to the store, buy and read their journal, watch their events on CSpan, and be wary of people who wish to sell you on the idea that other people are out to get you.
Colonel Clearwater________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Dear Colonel Clearwater: Cancel my subscription to your liberal rage. And no matter how great the obstacles may seem, we must never stop our efforts to reduce the weapons of war.
We must never stop at all until we see the day when nuclear arms have been banished from the face of this earth." Ronald Wilson Reagan, 1984 Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater: Liberals?
I realize that there is collateral damage in war, but this is no less than cold-blooded genocide. They were shooting at insurgents who, upon later investigation, turned out to be civilians.
By saying the soldiers were shooting civilans implies that they knew they were shooting civiliansj.
The real guilty party are those who convinced the American public that this war was necessary and just.
Can you tell me how the "Smallest of the World's Leading Newspapers" managed to scoop "Florida's Best Newspaper?" Pedro TechadorDear Pedro, Always nice to hear from one of the Techadors.This was a WikiLeak scoop.
Palin:Your statement reminds me of what Republican Congressman, Devin Nunes said during the health care vote. And now you are bringing the ghosts back into this chamber." There is no polite way to get around this. Tea Party Patriots are morons when it comes to history, economics, and how to run a society.
Much like the resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan after World War I, the Tea Party Patriots are people who believe they have lost their privileged status in American society and wish to thwart others hopes for the American dream. Unfortunately, or fortunately (depending on which editor yells loudest) President Obama considers Wall Street, the banks, the Republicans in congress, and those with tea party policies as necessary players in the solution when they are, in fact, part of the problem.
Both the Senior Citizens' Right to Work Act and the Family Medical Leave Act were passed this way.



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