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An unauthorized ad using the image of the First Lady, and a campaign poster from Cleveland’s re-election bid. First Lady Frances Folsom Cleveland in a medicine ad – the unauthorized use of her image infuriated the president.
Grover Cleveland on board the private yacht Oneida, site of his secret cancer operation during his second term as president. Evangeline Marrs Simpson Whipple and Rose Elizabeth Cleveland, who served as her brother’s First Lady from March 4, 1885 to June 2, 1886.
The boys of the Buffalo Orphan Asylum, where Grover Cleveland’s illegitimate son, Oscar, was taken. Cancerous growth removed during a secret operation on President Cleveland, now preserved at the Mutter Museum in Philadelphia. The Providence Lunatic Asylum, later renamed the Providence Retreat, where Maria Halpin was taken by force.
That’s the diet of one of these two women, believed to be the only in the world born in the 1800s who are still alive. WHEN SUSANNAH MUSHATT Jones and Emma Morano were born in 1899, there was not yet world war or penicillin, and electricity was still considered a marvel. Jones, who lives in New York, currently tops a list of supercentenarians, or people who have lived past 110, which is maintained by Los Angeles-based Gerontology Research Group. She is cared for by her village: The mayor gave her a TV set, her niece stops in twice a day and her adoring physician of more than 25 years checks up on her regularly.
My father brought me to the doctor, and when he saw me he said, ‘Such a beautiful girl. Italy is known for its centenarians — many of whom live in Sardinia — and gerontologists at the University of Milan are studying Morano, along with a handful of Italians over age 105, to try to figure out why they live so long. And even though her movements now are limited — she gets out of bed and into her armchair and back again, her eyesight is bad and hearing weak — she does seem to sneak around at night. Now 115 years old, Jones spends her days in her one-bedroom apartment in a public housing facility for seniors in Brooklyn, where she has lived for more than three decades. She sticks to a strict daily routine: Every morning she wakes up around 9 am, takes a bath and then eats several slices of bacon, scrambled eggs and grits.
On a recent day, Jones said little, but family members said she spends her days reflecting on her life and embracing what’s left of it — one day at a time. Jones, who wears a yellow turban on her head and a nightgown most days, watches the world from a small recliner.
Judge said she also believes her aunt’s longevity is thanks to growing up on a rural farm where she ate fresh fruits and vegetables that she picked herself.
After she moved to New York, Jones worked with a group of her fellow high school graduates to start a scholarship fund for young African-American women to go to college. Despite her age, she only sees a doctor once every four months and takes medication for high blood pressure and a multivitamin every day. The fact that homelessness is still such a big problem in Ireland makes me angry, writes Transition Year student Mark Hartery. The plan to link Child Benefit to children’s school attendance records has come under much scrutiny this week. The Secret Life of Bees - Queen Latifah, Dakota Fanning, Jennifer Hudson, Alicia Keys, Sophie Okonedo & others. Occasionally our server hiccups & emails don't get through to us - we always reply - please send your message again if we don't respond within 48 hours . Living just a few miles away from the Cycle Cafe in Cumbria's lovely northern fells we were delighted when she agreed to take some courses here in Greystoke during 2015. Participants will need to bring half a metre of both an outer fabric (heavy weight, curtain fabric is good or perhaps heavy linen)  and a lining fabric (quilt weight cotton or cotton lawn) If the outer fabric has a large pattern, a metre would be better to allow for pattern matching. Please also bring matching thread, fabric scissors, pins, ruler and a hand sewing needle also helpful. Participants will need a metre of both outer fabric (heavy weight, curtain fabric is good, heavy linen) and lining fabric (quilt weight cotton or cotton lawn) For contrasting piping a fat quarter of a contrasting fabric is needed, otherwise we can use the outer fabric.
Emma uses her own patterns, which you will be able to take away with you along with full instructions after the course. Marion is an experienced spinner, weaver, dyer, knitter and crocheter as well as being a tutor and designer. The cats always enjoy it too and can be found in a sleepy ball somewhere amongst the fleeces!
During this fascinating day , Marion will teach you all about different types of sheep along with corresponding fleeces, their various merits and different uses with many samples on hand to explore. You will sort through some fleeces and learn how to prepare the fibres using hand carders. She spends the summer painting flowers in her studio at the foot of the Cheviots Hills and is a member of the Council of the National Trust.
Emma provides traditional frames to use of 3ft x 4ft, ideal for large floor rugs and the type for which she is so well known. You can use the frame for the day and just pay Emma for the detached hessian at the end - or you may buy the frame and take it home for £40 - decide on the day.
Similarly with the hookie tool - these are completely hand made by the only man in the country who makes them.
Once booked with Emma  you could start looking out for materials to bring with you for our rug.
Notice how this accomplished rug maker manages to produce a shaded effect in her designs - this brings them to life.
They witnessed the Gilded Age, a term coined by Mark Twain, and the dawn of civil rights, the rise and fall of the fascists and Benito Mussolini, the first polio vaccines and the first black president of the United States.
The organisation tracks and maintains a database of the world’s longest-living people. Now 115, she resides in a neat one-room apartment in Verbania, a mountain town overlooking Lake Major in northwest Italy. On a recent visit, Morano was in feisty spirits, displaying the sharp wit and fine voice that used to stop men in their tracks.
He recalled that when she needed blood transfusions a few years ago, she refused to go to the hospital. Her living room walls are adorned with family photos and birthday cards made by children in the community. Posters from past birthday parties, letters from local elected officials and a note from President Barack Obama fill the surfaces.
Family members say there is no medical reason for her long life, crediting it to her love of family and generosity to others. She was also active in her public housing building’s tenant patrol until she was 106.
Marion is also a founder member of The Wool Clip co-operative, selling her fine silk and merino woven scarves, yarns and clothing. The meaning and importance of crimp and lustre , and why some fleeces are easily spun, whereas others are not.
They were among the hundreds of women who assumed male identities, put on uniforms, enlisted in the Union or Confederate Army, and went into battle alongside their male comradesA Strong-minded WomanThe Life of Mary Livermore A leading figure in the struggle for woman's rights as well as in the temperance movement, she was as widely recognized during her lifetime as Susan B. Morano, of Verbania, Italy, is just a few months younger than Jones and is Europe’s oldest person, according to the group. When she graduated from high school in 1922, Jones worked full time helping family members pick crops. Jones is blind after glaucoma claimed her eyesight 15 years ago and is also hard of hearing. Anthony, and for a time the most popular and highly paid female orator in the country The Woman in Battle: The Civil War Narrative of Loreta Janeta Velazquez, Cuban Woman and Confederate Soldier A Cuban woman fought in the Civil War for the Confederacy as the cross-dressing Harry T. She left after a year to begin working as a nanny, heading north to New Jersey and eventually making her way to New York.


As Buford, she organized an Arkansas regiment; participated in the historic battles of Bull Run, Balls Bluff, Fort Donelson, and Shiloh It is an accepted convention that the Civil War was a man's fight. Images of women during that conflict center on self-sacrificing nurses, romantic spies, or brave ladies maintaining the home front in the absence of their men. The men, of course, marched off to war, lived in germ-ridden camps, engaged in heinous battle, languished in appalling prison camps, and died horribly, yet heroically.
This conventional picture of gender roles during the Civil War does not tell the entire story. Like the men, there were women who lived in camp, suffered in prisons, and died for their respective causes. Women soldiers of the Civil War therefore assumed masculine names, disguised themselves as men, and hid the fact they were female.
Because they passed as men, it is impossible to know with any certainty how many women soldiers served in the Civil War. Sanitary Commission remembered that: Some one has stated the number of women soldiers known to the service as little less than four hundred. I cannot vouch for the correctness of this estimate, but I am convinced that a larger number of women disguised themselves and enlisted in the service, for one cause or other, than was dreamed of. Entrenched in secrecy, and regarded as men, they were sometimes revealed as women, by accident or casualty.
Some startling histories of these military women were current in the gossip of army life.Livermore and the soldiers in the Union army were not the only ones who knew of soldier-women. Mary Owens, discovered to be a woman after she was wounded in the arm, returned to her Pennsylvania home to a warm reception and press coverage. She had served for eighteen months under the alias John Evans.In the post - Civil War era, the topic of women soldiers continued to arise in both literature and the press. Frank Moore's Women of the War , published in 1866, devoted an entire chapter to the military heroines of the North.
The reading public, at least, was well aware that these women rejected Victorian social constraints confining them to the domestic sphere. Their motives were open to speculation, perhaps, but not their actions, as numerous newspaper stories and obituaries of women soldiers testified. Most of the articles provided few specific details about the individual woman's army career. For example, the obituary of Satronia Smith Hunt merely stated she enlisted in an Iowa regiment with her first husband.
She enlisted in a Pennsylvania regiment when still a schoolgirl, remained in the army two years, received several wounds, and was discharged without anyone ever realizing she was female.The press seemed unconcerned about the women's actual military exploits.
Ainsworth, the adjutant general: "I am anxious to know whether your department has any record of the number of women who enlisted and served in the Civil War, or has it any record of any women who were in the service?" She received swift reply from the Records and Pension Office, a division of the Adjutant General's Office (AGO), under Ainsworth's signature. The response read in part: I have the honor to inform you that no official record has been found in the War Department showing specifically that any woman was ever enlisted in the military service of the United States as a member of any organization of the Regular or Volunteer Army at any time during the period of the civil war. It is possible, however, that there may have been a few instances of women having served as soldiers for a short time without their sex having been detected, but no record of such cases is known to exist in the official files.
Army's archives, and the AGO took good care of the extant records created during that conflict. By 1909 the AGO had also created compiled military service records (CMSR) for the participants of the Civil War, both Union and Confederate, through painstaking copying of names and remarks from official federal documents and captured Confederate records.
Two such CMSRs prove the point that the army did have documentation of the service of women soldiers. Blaylock, Twenty-sixth North Carolina Infantry, Company F, states: This lady dressed in men's clothes, Volunteered [sic], received bounty and for two weeks did all the duties of a soldier before she was found out, but her husband being discharged, she disclosed the fact, returned the bounty, and was immediately discharged April 20, 1862. Another woman documented in the records held by the AGO was Mary Scaberry, alias Charles Freeman, Fifty-second Ohio Infantry. On November 7 she was admitted to the General Hospital in Lebanon, Kentucky, suffering from a serious fever.
She was transferred to a hospital in Louisville, and on the tenth, hospital personnel discovered "sexual incompatibility [sic]." In other words, the feverish soldier was female. Like John Williams, Scaberry was discharged from Union service.Not all of the women soldiers of the Civil War were discharged so quickly. Some women served for years, like Sarah Emma Edmonds Seelye, and others served the entire war, like Albert D. Records from the AGO show that Sarah Edmonds, a Canadian by birth, assumed the alias of Franklin Thompson and enlisted as a private in the Second Michigan Infantry in Detroit on May 25, 1861. Her duties while in the Union army included regimental nurse and mail and despatch carrier. Her regiment participated in the Peninsula campaign and the battles of First Manassas, Fredericksburg, and Antietam.
On April 19, 1863, Edmonds deserted because she acquired malaria, and she feared that hospitalization would reveal her gender.
A letter from the secretary of war, dated June 30 of that year, acknowledged her as "a female soldier who . Cashier, described as having a light complexion, blue eyes, and auburn hair, enlisted in the Ninety-fifth Illinois Infantry.
Cashier served steadily until August 17, 1865, when the regiment was mustered out of the Federal army. Cashier participated in approximately forty battles and skirmishes in those long, hard four years. After the war, Cashier worked as a laborer, eventually drew a pension, and finally went to live in the Quincy, Illinois, Soldiers' Home. A public disclosure of the finding touched off a storm of sensational newspaper stories, for Cashier had lived her entire adult life as a man.
Army did not acknowledge or advertise their existence, it is surprising that the women soldiers of the Civil War are not better known today. After all, their existence was known at the time and through the rest of the nineteenth century.
Even though some modern writers have considered Seelye and Cashier, the majority of historians who have written about the common soldiers of the war have either ignored women in the ranks or trivialized their experience. While references, usually in passing, are sometimes found, the assumption by many respected Civil War historians is that soldier-women were eccentric and their presence isolated. It is true that the military service of women did not affect the outcome of campaigns or battles. The actions of Civil War soldier-women flew in the face of mid-nineteenth-century society's characterization of women as frail, subordinate, passive, and not interested in the public realm. Simply because the woman soldier does not fit the traditional female image, she should not be excluded from, or misinterpreted in, current and future historical writings. While this essay cannot discuss all the soldier-women, their lives and military records, recent chroniclers of the Civil War and women's history have begun to note the gallantry of women in the ranks during the war. Most important, recent works refrain from stereotyping the women soldiers as prostitutes, mentally ill, homosexual, social misfits, or anything other than what they were: soldiers fighting for their respective governments of their own volition.
It is perhaps hard to imagine how the women soldiers maintained their necessary deception or even how they successfully managed to enlist. Soldier-women bound their breasts when necessary, padded the waists of their trousers, and cut their hair short.
Loreta Velazquez wore a false mustache, developed a masculine gait, learned to smoke cigars, and padded her uniform coat to make herself look more muscular.
While recruits on both sides of the conflict were theoretically subject to physical examinations, those exams were usually farcical. Most recruiters only looked for visible handicaps, such as deafness, poor eyesight, or lameness. Neither army standardized the medical exams, and those charged with performing them hardly ever ordered recruits to strip. That roughly 750 women enlisted attests to the lax and perfunctory nature of recruitment physical checks.


With their uniforms loose and ill-fitting and with so many underage boys in the ranks, women, especially due to their lack of facial hair, could pass as young men. Soldiers slept in their clothes, bathed in their underwear, and went as long as six weeks without changing their underclothes.
Thus, a woman soldier would not call undue attention to herself if she acted modestly, trekked to the woods to answer the call of nature and attend to other personal matters, or left camp before dawn to privately bathe in a nearby stream.Militarily, the women soldiers faced few disadvantages.
The vast majority of the common soldiers during the Civil War were former civilians who volunteered for service.
The women soldiers easily concealed their gender in order to fulfill their desire to fight.
An unknown number of them, like Cashier, Jenkins, and Hunt, were never revealed as women during their army stint. Of those who were, very few were discovered for acting unsoldierly or stereotypically feminine. Though Sarah Collins of Wisconsin was suspected of being female by the way she put on her shoes, she was atypical.Also unusual were the Union women under Gen. Philip Sheridan's command, one a teamster and the other a private in a cavalry regiment, who got drunk and fell into a river.
The soldiers who rescued the pair made the gender discoveries in the process of resuscitating them. Sheridan personally interviewed the two and later described the woman teamster as coarse and the "she-dragoon" as rather prepossessing, even with her unfeminine suntan. Clara Barton, attending to the wound, discovered the gender of the soft-faced "boy" and coaxed her into revealing her true identity and going home after recuperation. One anonymous woman wearing the uniform of a Confederate private was found dead on the Gettysburg battlefield on July 17, 1863, by a burial detail from the Union II Corps. Based on the location of the body, it is likely the Southern woman died participating in Pickett's charge. In 1934, a gravesight found on the outskirts of Shiloh National Military Park revealed the bones of nine Union soldiers. Further investigation indicated that one of the skeletons, with a minieball by the remains, was female. Even though her brother was killed in action at Pittsburgh Landing, Hook continued service, probably in an Illinois infantry regiment, under the alias Frank Miller. In early 1864, Confederates captured her near Florence, Alabama; she was shot in the thigh during a battle and left behind with other wounded, who were also captured. After her exchange at Graysville, Georgia, on February 17, 1864, she was cared for in Union hospitals in Tennessee, then discharged and sent North in June.
Having no one to return to, she may have reenlisted in another guise and served the rest of the war. Frances Hook later married, and on March 17, 1908, her daughter wrote the AGO seeking confirmation of her mother's military service. AGO clerks searched pertinent records and located documentation.Other prisoners of war included Madame Collier and Florina Budwin. Collier was a federal soldier from East Tennessee who enjoyed army life until her capture and subsequent imprisonment at Belle Isle, Virginia.
She decided to make the most of the difficult situation and continued concealing her gender, hoping for exchange. Another prisoner learned her secret and reported it to Confederate authorities, who sent her North under a flag of truce. Before leaving, Collier indicated that another woman remained incarcerated on the island.Florina Budwin and her husband enlisted together, served side by side in battle, were captured at the same time by Confederates, and both sent to the infamous Andersonville prison. Budwin survived until after her transfer with other prisoners in late 1864 to a prison in Florence, South Carolina. There she was stricken by an unspecified epidemic, and a Southern doctor discovered her identity.
Despite immediately receiving better treatment, she died January 25, 1865.The women soldiers of the Civil War engaged in combat, were wounded and taken prisoner, and were killed in action.
Working class and poor women were probably enticed by the bounties and the promise of a regular paycheck. Sarah Edmonds wrote in 1865, "I could only thank God that I was free and could go forward and work, and I was not obliged to stay at home and weep." Obviously, other soldier-women did not wish to stay at home weeping, either. Herein lies the importance of the women combatants of the Civil War: it is not their individual exploits but the fact that they fought.
While their service could not significantly alter the course of the war, women soldiers deserve remembrance because their actions display them as uncommon and revolutionary, with a valor at odds with Victorian views of women's proper role. Quite simply, the women in the ranks, both Union and Confederate, refused to stay in their socially mandated place, even if it meant resorting to subterfuge to achieve their goal of being soldiers. They faced not only the guns of the adversary but also the sexual prejudices of their society.
The women soldiers of the Civil War merit recognition in modern American society because they were trailblazers.
Women's service in the military is socially accepted today, yet modern women soldiers are still officially barred from direct combat. Since the Persian Gulf war, debate has raged over whether women are fit for combat, and the issue is still unresolved.
From a historical viewpoint, the women combatants of 1861 to 1865 were not just ahead of their time; they were ahead of our time.
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Area MuseumsBrownsville Museum Bemis Museum Casey Jones Museum and Home Jackson NC & STL Depot and Rail Museum The Civil War Discovery Museum of West Tennessee The Childrens Discovery Museum of West Tennessee West Tennessee Delta Heritage Center Brownsville's Blues Pioneer, Sleepy John Estes 46. Meriwether Society visit June 22, 2013 49 Denmark Presbyterian Church first Service after restoration 50 Providence Road Solar Project 51 Boy Scout visit to DenmarkThe Boy Scouts visit Denmark again 52. They were among the hundreds of women who assumed male identities, put on uniforms, enlisted in the Union or Confederate Army, and went into battle alongside their male comradesA Strong-minded WomanThe Life of Mary Livermore A leading figure in the struggle for woman's rights as well as in the temperance movement, she was as widely recognized during her lifetime as Susan B.
Frank Moore's Women of the War , published in 1866, devoted an entire chapter to the military heroines of the North. Most of the articles provided few specific details about the individual woman's army career. Army's archives, and the AGO took good care of the extant records created during that conflict. A letter from the secretary of war, dated June 30 of that year, acknowledged her as "a female soldier who . After the war, Cashier worked as a laborer, eventually drew a pension, and finally went to live in the Quincy, Illinois, Soldiers' Home. The actions of Civil War soldier-women flew in the face of mid-nineteenth-century society's characterization of women as frail, subordinate, passive, and not interested in the public realm. While this essay cannot discuss all the soldier-women, their lives and military records, recent chroniclers of the Civil War and women's history have begun to note the gallantry of women in the ranks during the war.
Philip Sheridan's command, one a teamster and the other a private in a cavalry regiment, who got drunk and fell into a river. Based on the location of the body, it is likely the Southern woman died participating in Pickett's charge.
Frances Hook later married, and on March 17, 1908, her daughter wrote the AGO seeking confirmation of her mother's military service. While their service could not significantly alter the course of the war, women soldiers deserve remembrance because their actions display them as uncommon and revolutionary, with a valor at odds with Victorian views of women's proper role. Women's service in the military is socially accepted today, yet modern women soldiers are still officially barred from direct combat.



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