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I find it fascinating that all the marketing skills we have today were used by people thousands of years ago.
At the simpler end of the market, products dona€™t need a brand a€“ they just need to work.
Religions, spiritual movements, political ideologies, self-help theories and therapies are all examples of services which can't succeed without effective branding. Having taken over story from early religion, the a€?majora€™ religions introduced a high-profile brand feature: the symbolic individual. It has been recently recognised that when people make a buying decision, they are not really buying a product but what they believe it will do for them.
Brands have to change to suit circumstance, but the strategy has to be properly thought through. Deliberate attempts at rebranding in order to reverse a perceived decline often dona€™t work or have unforeseen adverse effects. Only religion has succeeded in using the carrot-and-stick technique in which negative reinforcers such as guilt, fear and hatred work alongside positive reinforcers such as inclusion, security and reward.
From positive and negative reinforcement, the invention of the bad guy as antithesis of the mascot follows easily.
The major religions use one tool that commercial products and services can't use: punishment for failing to buy or for ceasing to buy. Products are often rebranded to match changes in perception, in order to retain customer loyalty. Subud's problem at present is that its brand is inauthentic, whereas the product itself is quite a good one. The success of a brand depends less on what it actually does than what it promises to do, though it should not mislead.
The latihan exercise is practised two or three times a week for half an hour, either alone or in a group, where men and women do the exercise separately (in line with Muslim religious tradition).
1906: Availability of panchromatic black and white film and therefore high quality color separation color photography. PAINTING OF THE WEEK - Ruins of the Holyrood Chapel by Moonlight, oil on canvas, 1824, Louis Daguerre.
G+ #Read of the Day: The Daguerreotype - The daguerreotype, an early form of photograph, was invented by Louis Daguerre in the early 19th c.
The first photograph (1826) - Joseph Niepce, a French inventor and pioneer in photography, is generally credited with producing the first photograph. Easy Peasy Fact:Following Niepcea€™s experiments, in 1829 Louis Daguerre stepped up to make some improvements on a novel idea. After getting replacement windows for my house i saved the old windows thinking if several projects for them. In this Instructable, you will learn how to easily cut and strip heavy gauge wire, without using heavy duty or professional tools. Have you ever seen a sidewalk poured with new concrete and watched someone finish the concrete?
You would think replacing a cracked toilet seat is easy, but nooooo, not for a one piece toilet ! Adding a heating appliance to your home can often cost more than the price of the appliance and its installation.
In this instructable I will show you how to create extra space in your home for all the things you usually stumble over scattered on the floor.
I have an older home, and found a Weslock door knob on one of my doors that I wanted to swap out with a locking knob made by Defiant. This instructable will teach you how to apply cool images of your choice to your electrical switchplates. A while back we had an unexpected forced kitchen remodel, a row of upper cabinets full fell off the wall one day nearly taking my wife out with it.
It always frustrates me when I do a caulking or sealant job around the house to have to throw away a half used tube of caulk or silicon sealant or construction adhesive. The interior doors of my house have the original 1950's knobs - the old style with the long escutcheon plates and the knob-and-spindle doorknobs.
Fluorescent lights from places like Home Depot look good and seem like a real bargain but the ballasts inside don't last. I recently moved into a new apartment and as a producer of electronic music, I wanted one of my rooms to have good acoustic properties.
What do you do if you remove an old toilet and discover that the closet bolts are rusted out, there is no closet flange, and the waste line is made of terra cotta? We were given a welder that has a big 240 volt plug, but our home doesn't have any 240V outlets already wired. This outdated bathroom is getting fixed up, and I decided to do it myself, gaining experience and saving money. This is the finished bathroom I built a few years ago which includes a large walk-in shower. What if I told you that there is an engine out there that can potentially be much quieter and more efficient than a gasoline or diesel engine? Intro:Our project aims to utilizes recyclable and reusable items found throughout a household. I plan to use this 100watt compressor to chill water in an insulated tank while I'm at work.
List of materials:1) pickles2) Double-D Batteries3) Battery Cartridge 4) Cable connecters5) Copper wire or Copper nails( preferably copper wire)6) a digital multimeter Add Batteries Add your Double D batteries to your battery pack. For an upcoming Maker Faire project, I needed a cheap, air operated valve to quickly dump a column of water.
Has your battery lost some of it's capacity?It turns out that Sealed Lead Acid (SLA) batteries are not infact all that well sealed. In this video I'll show you how to make 22.2 of nominal voltage and 6Ah of capacity battery pack by using 18650 lithium cells removed from dead laptop batteries. The goal of this ible is to show you how to securely crimp a Anderson Powerpole connector with regular pliers if you don't have the specialized anderson crimper. With two cups, some wire coil, a headphone plug, sticky notes, tissues, and a some magnets, make your own headphones, which will transmit sound from a radio, MP3 player or cell phone. I seen few entries at instructables related to modification of existing UPS devices which explained via dangerous way. This Savonius horizontal axis wind turbine (SHAWT) is an ongoing project that I'm still evaluating and modifying according to whatever observations are made during the testing. In this project, I will show you how to tap Ryobi powerpack batteries for other uses.Why do this? A few years ago to build a wind generator, with which wanted to charge a battery to power a refrigerator and a radio in my small farm, where there is no electricity supply. I live in a one bedroom apartment and while I love living there, there are some issues with ventilation. In India, there are lots of people who still prefer trains to travel and spend days together to complete their journey.
This instructable is made for documenting an assignment made by students of the Technical University Delft for the course Technology for Concept Design.
This time I'll make a charger, which could charge 5 pcs of lithium ion 18650 cells at a time.
The Image shows a rotating type stirling engine where the marbles are used as displacers and glass syringe is used as power piston. This is a marshmallow shooter that is useing an air compressor to compress the air and uses marshmallows as amunition.
Wells turbine is a well known turbomachinery technology which is widely used for energy(electricity) production using oscillating water column(OWC).
This a cheap and simple DIY Monitor for Cylinder Head and Exhaust Gas Temperature for a Paramotor. Glass fuses are common, especially in older homes and appliances and periodically, they burn out. Welcome!In this instructable we will describe how to build a real Portuguese brick pizza oven.
This kitchen roller cabinet is a neat little project i came up with to add a bit more counter top space and a place to keep the garbage can at the same time.
I Have been building a deck on the back of my house for the past month or so and have finally got to the portion of laying the deck boards.
Ive recently bought a new house and have given my two kids permission to design their room anyway they wish.
I have two beautiful children that I love to photograph (even if I stink at it), but every time I took a photo in the kitchen I would feel it was too busy or just not complimentary. Have you ever thought how much nicer your walls would look if you couldn't see the cover plates around your switches and outlets? Background:I have lived in my current house for over 14 years with the existing locks never requiring to be changed.
Not for the faint of heart, this is only one part of a bigger renovation of an apartment that I had started last summer and am still working on till this day. Here is a very cheap, very convenient, way to paint at the top of a ladder without having to hold both a brush and a paint bucket. In this instructable we will make a gate, that from the outside, looks like a normal section of a fence. For quite some time now I've been dreaming of having a dedicated space to be my woodworking shop. When I first saw one of these hanging fire pits, sometimes called a porch-swing fire-pit, I just knew I had to build one. When I replaced my ancient one piece range with new appliances I was left with a big swath of unfinished drywall. This was a mistake that had awesome results so I decided to use it as my first instructable. Upgrade an OLD Metal Shed ExteriorLots of people have one of those dented, rusting old tin sheds wasting away in the back yard where they keep the yard tools, lawnmower, and associated stuff, and cringe every time they see it.
Wanting some privacy from my neighbors while still being able to enjoy the view of Manhattan from my small 5ft x 9ft balcony, I came up with the idea to create a corner dining booth by making 2 privacy panels. One of the failings of most alarm systems is that they only monitor that you have doors closed and do not tell you if you have locked the doors.
They may have believed iron age superstitions but they could learn nothing from us about marketing because they knew the secrets of branding: the creation and projection into the market of a generic identity and buying incentive for a product or service thata€™s otherwise difficult to sell.
No-one ever bothered to create a brand for spoons or wheelbarrows - but to market a vacuum cleaner, a car or a broadband provider, you need a brand. Christianity makes full use of the two most powerful marketing words known to man: a€?newa€™ and a€?freea€™.
Logo, corporate identity, endorsements, free offers, unique selling proposition (USP) and perhaps most important of all: story.
Moses, Jesus, Mohammed and Buddha are the religious equivalent of brand mascots such as the Jolly Green Giant, the Pillsbury Dough Boy, Sunny Jim, Ronald McDonald and Colonel Sanders.
In the 1990s Wranglers decided to expand from its core product, jeans, into the general clothing market; the attempt was a costly failure a€“ no-one believed Wranglers could make fashionable suits and jackets. Christianitya€™s claim on universality led to its adopting many of the rites and festivals of paganism on the basis that these were all better expressed in Christian terms. Successful rebrands are the ones we hardly notice as they either dona€™t concern us or offer us more of what we believe we want. In commercial marketing, only positive emotions such as well-being, rewards, security and inclusiveness are addressed. The rewards and punishments are big: eternal bliss in a world after death, contrasted with eternal torture or countless lifetimes of suffering. In commercial marketing the bad guy would take the form of an anti-mascot whose purpose is to stop you gaining the benefit symbolized by the mascot. Microsoft can't claim, although it might want to, that Mac users will have a terrible life, because there are plenty of Mac users who can easily refute the claim.
If the product can be shown not to deliver on its promises, the customer will be disillusioned and look elsewhere.
Christianity today places much less emphasis on hell than it did in the middle ages, and accuses no-one of being a witch or a heretic. The claims a€“ spiritual development without doctrine or hierarchy a€“ are at variance with the facts.


At the time of writing there is a furore over Subud's perceived anti-gay stance based on statements such as 'Homosexuality is not allowed by religion and it is not allowed by God.
Their use of 'loss leaders' is a manipulative ploy that exploits people's willingness to believe what they are told as long as it comes from a trusted authority. His talks contain a wealth of material from Javanese, HIndu, Muslim and Naqshbandi Sufi sources. Talbot was active from the mid-1830s, and sits alongside Louis Daguerre as one of the fathers of the medium. Niepcea€™s photograph shows a view from the Window at Le Gras, and it only took eight hours of exposure time!The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light. Again employing the use of solvents and metal plates as a canvas, Daguerre utilized a combination of silver and iodine to make a surface more sensitive to light, thereby taking less time to develop.
You probably didn’t pay a lot of attention but you noticed someone down on their hands and knees with a trowel moving around the concrete surface. This is because there's no nut on the bottom side, so Kohler & others put anchors instead. Working in my shop I realized that a window would allow me to have a breeze in the summer, and bring in sunlight in the winter. Terrible tiles, missing wall mirrors and ugly countertops had me willing to try something different and fun, as well as cheap.
After mixing the first four cubic feet with a spade in a wheel barrow I decided I needed an easier solution.
At the local Home Depot, the only two brands of knobs that I saw were Defiant and Keystone. We had to replace them, and all the roofing companies said to do it ourselves, because its easy.Winds of 100km, the yard was a mess, garbage, shingles, toy pools, wishing wells and leaves everywhere. My husband built this mailbox in one day, although he is a 20 year masonry veteran, we believe anyone can do this with the correct tools, materials, and planning. I found a few spots where (in the bathroom) the floor joist had gotten soaked through and rotted. Just in case you do, I hope to create a foolproof guide containing all the information you need to do so.
The lights come with a warranty but removing the light and returning it about once a year isn't worth the trouble. We can show you how to use diamond drilling kits made for the construction industry and used by professional installers, tilers, plumbers, builders, electricians and commercial shop fitters. You could pay someone $$$$$ to jack hammer out half of your basement floor and connect up to the terra cotta.
Taking out the sink and vanity was very difficult, so this instructable is to help any other do-it-yourself home improver's.
Since I couldn't find a great looking replacement that didn't cost a gazillion dollars, and since my fans still worked fine, I decided to just change their look. When we moved in, the front door wouldn't open all the way; it drug the floor at about 70 degrees from full open.
Up to 25% of the water and energy used goes to waste due to inappropriate distribution towards where it is actually needed and at inadequate intervals of time. A Stirling engine runs on an external heat source that can be anything from solar energy to a candle. The function of the DIY Clay Pot Convection Heater x10 to the Extreme is to produce sufficient amounts of heat to increase the temperature of the room. The energy for this will be via my home solar power system since I harvest a surplus of energy that I can't store for night use. You can perform maintenance on them much the same as you would any other wet cell battery, such as car batteries.In this instructable I will show you how to do this.
Powertool batteires come with quality built-in protection, good quality chargers, parts are readily available (i.e.
You will need two 20-25cm tubes (depending on how big your bottles are), two bottles, salt and 3 nine volt batteries (or other power source).
Most trains usually don't provide electricity even though there are charging sockets available.
It will consist of steps for a quick prototype.The technology we chose is an airborne wind turbine. See directions page on how to build it and see the pictures to help further explain, and use as a diagram.
The speciality about these types of turbine is that they rotate in only one direction irrespective of the direction of airflow. I wanted something low profile and kind of modern looking, so I could maximize the amount of shelves I put up.
After many winter months with the house being closed up, the fresh air of spring is a welcome guest. If you want things done right, you have to do it yourself.The apartment was a space at my mother's place which went unused for a long time. The main reason someone might want to insulate the garage is simply because they spend time in there. It can be installed on a ladder in 2 minutes and uses a removable disposable beer cup to store the paint. Without air sealing your attic you are allowing warm air to escape from your home carrying with it your hard earned winter heating money. In the past I've many different recommended methods, such as: special sprays or renting a steamer, none of which worked without lots of hours and tears.
I had set my posts in concrete a couple of days in advance and when I went to build my gate I was running out of daylight so I decided to make a solid panel and wait to build the gate the following weekend. I decided to re-purpose common garage door monitors to function as a 'locked door' reporter. In much early religion story is the only clearly identifiable factor a€“ creation myth, disaster myth and divine intervention, making religion indistinguishable from story at the ordinary level. Early religions certainly had heroes, but Heracles, Perseus, Theseus, Osiris, Apollo, Thor, Krishna and others were not the sole focus figure of their respective religious frameworks. Think of the famous campaign for margarine based on the slogan a€?I cana€™t believe ita€™s not butter.a€™ People bought the margarine in the belief that it tasted as good as butter. You may believe that a sports shoe with a flash on it will make you run faster than one without. To survive in the market a business must grow, and for that it needs an effective strategy.
User endorsements are the most reliable way of creating confidence in a product or service whose claim is unverifiable in advance. More recently Pepsi-Cola tried one last effort to reverse its decline against Coca-Cola by rebranding itself with the colour blue, thereby shrinking its market share still further. There is no evidence that Christians originally believed Jesus to have been born (of a virgin) around the time of the winter solstice or to have been crucified and resurrected around the time of the spring celebration; but as these were major pagan festivals it was expedient to rebrand Christianity according to the pagan calendar. The commercial marketing industry has learned that whenever a negative reinforcer has been tried it has always failed, sometimes spectacularly, as in the 'You're Never Alone with a Strand' cigarette campaign. To get people to believe these claims required, and still requires, a massive marketing effort. Religion can claim what it likes about eternal punishment because its claims can't be proved false. They aim to expand their membership, and in order to do that they must have an effective marketing programme based on a strong brand.
Like many other spiritual movements Subud also plays the 'tradition' card: offering a connection that goes right back to the beginning.
In order to get round this difficulty and retain customer loyalty the promise of all 'major' religions is that the reward lies in another domain, i.e. Current Pope Francis says things like a€?When God looks at a gay person, does he endorse the existence of this person with love, or reject and condemn this person? Supermarkets, like politicians and spiritual leaders, use various strategies to project themselves as trustworthy, friendly and 'on the customer's side'.
Much of the material deals with the correct conditions for doing the latihan exercise, the 'lower forces' contained in the nafsu (passions), the organisation of the Subud movement and the setting up of businesses. This consists of asking a question, putting oneself into the surrendered latihan state, and seeing what comes through. Porta (1541-1615), a wise Neapolitan, was able to get the image of well-lighted objects through a small hole in one of the faces of a dark chamber; with a convergent lens over the enlarged hole, he noticed that the images got even clearer and sharper. Though he is most famous for his contributions to photography, he was also an accomplished painter and a developer of the diorama theatre.
As far as is known, nobody thought of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera images in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented although unsuccessful attempt.
This one is a good sample, when I need to crimp a CAT5 network cable in a Bank here in Brazil, but I haven't my crimper tool with me.
Enough to squeeze by it, and you could force it all the way open, but it was rubbing the floor pretty good.
Last year I 've made a small modification on an old PC fan to convert it into a small wind turbine. When my sister moved into her house, she was a little indifferent about her basic window trimmings. I moved them closer to me and swore I would put all my own resources as well as every last ounce of energy I had into it if they would just agree to move. My husband had changed floors in the whole house a couple years before I started this project. These help to channel the water down to the ground where it is either stored in a rain barrel or simply diverted away from the building. Because the more complex or rarefied the product or service, the harder it is to establish a perceived benefit in advance of purchase.
Later religions owe much to their use of story to address psychological problems such as insecurity and guilt.
In the Middle East the cults of Tammuz, Adonis, Zardush (Zoroaster) or Mithras lost a€?market sharea€™ to the monotheistic religions, despite sharing many of their features, because the latter had stronger brands.
In the consumer market, the incentive is money, and people with proven marketing skills are very highly paid. There are such things as stable, non-market-driven economies operating without the assumption that more is better and that security comes from having the most stuff. More successful have been McDonalda€™s attempt to claw back public goodwill lost in the junk food furore by projecting itself as sustainable and energy-efficient; tourist destinations such as Ireland, Tunisia and Egypt use seductive advertising to overcome the fear of terrorist attacks. Islama€™s pioneering and disinterested pursuit of science and philosophy increased the acceptability of its brand in medieval Europe. People always associate the brand with the dominant emotion, even if the product is portrayed as conquering it.
The Hamburglar tries to steal hamburgers away from children, and Ronald McDonald gets them back. This, however, undermines its case to be stating the truth (see Karl Popper, falsifiability theory). It should come as no surprise to any Subud member who has read this far that Subud has such a programme. It is also universalist: the 'one stop shop' - you can get everything you need here, why bother looking elsewhere? It must either endorse the statements and practices of Pak Subuh and his followers, in which case it officially becomes a popularised Javanese cult (nothing inherently wrong in that), or revert to its original form in which such things are of peripheral interest compared to the 'product' (the spiritual exercise), the USP (no teaching, no hierarchy) and the story (how Pak Subuh received the latihan) which, again, is quite a good one. Having acquired the trust and confidence of their customers they are then in a position to make statements and carry out actions which are not questioned.
It claims to have no hierarchy, no teachings and no other set practice than the surrender exercise.
Schulze mixes chalk, nitric acid, and silver in a flask; notices darkening on side of flask exposed to sunlight.
A daguerreotype, produced on a silver-plated copper sheet, produces a mirror image photograph of the exposed scene.
They're vented to the outside air in the summer (and in the winter if you neglect to close your vents) which can be very humid and this defeats the purpose of venting.
An effective brand will not only persuade a customer to buy, but also ensure continued purchase (a€?brand loyaltya€™).
Convince people they are getting something for nothing and theya€™ll not only flock to buy your product, theya€™ll be grateful!


To solve these problems they first had to establish ownership of their solutions, in exactly the same way as a marketing campaign for GM food claims to solve third world hunger, or a supermarket a€?beats the recessiona€™ by claiming to create jobs and slash prices. Not surprisingly, societies with non-expansionist economies tend to have non-expansionist religions, if they have religions at all. Islamic religious tracts are full of a€?so-and-so saida€™ or a€?so-and-so heard such-and-such saya€™.
The dogmatist Al-Ghazali single-handedly reversed that trend by introducing the idea that God was directly involved in every natural phenomenon, therefore nothing could be studied in the absence of theology. This particular campaign was predictably short-lived, since it followed the rule that advertising which focuses on a negative attaches the negative to the brand. There World Subud Association (WSA) hosts regular discussions about promoting the message of Subud and protecting its reputation.
The appeal of a single product 'specially formulated' for all types of application - engine oil, shampoo, plant feed etc. Pak Subuh said, 'you will only know the benefit of the latihan after you die' (1985, S Widjojo Centre, Jakarta).
There are customer endorsements aplenty, the logo is strong, the free offer is there ('no charge, contributions welcome') a€“ everything is in place but one: a clear and accurate brand. Powerful marketing tools such as logo, endorsement, free offer, unique selling proposition and story access the emotional, not the logical part of the brain.
The key element is belief in God (the latihan exercise is believed to be guidance and direction from the power of God).
The alchemist Fabricio, more or less at the same period of time, observed that silver chloride was darkened by the action of light.
Chemistry student Robert Cornelius was so fascinated by the chemical process involved in Daguerrea€™s work that he sought to make some improvements himself.
The story of the specially-engineered solution to the perceived problem becomes part of the brand.
In the established a€?brandsa€™ there is a payment for services rendered: the notion that if one a€?buys ina€™ to certain ideas, one gets something in return - heavenly rewards, increased merit, good fortune, nirvana or some such thing, desire for which has been created and developed by the marketing department concerned. The religions with the most aggressive strategies arise out of market economies, and offer bonuses for spreading the word. Christian scriptures and hagiographies consist largely of deeds, sayings and observations recorded by witnesses. This led directly to the loss of Islama€™s lead in technology and the decline of its global influence a€“ something that Al-Ghazali could not have intended.
This resulted in people associating the product with the negative emotion and abandoning it in droves. It was only two hundred years later that the physicist Charles made the first photographic impression, by projecting the outlines of one of his pupils on a white paper sheet impregnated with silver chloride. It was commercially introduced in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and salt print processes invented by Henry Fox Talbot. And in 1839 Cornelius shot a self-portrait daguerrotype that some historians believe was the first modern photograph of a man ever produced. It is possible to influence people radically, but one must first know what they believe, or are willing to believe. This concept of divine remuneration is central to all the a€?greata€™ religions, whose designers established such promised rewards as physical resurrection from the dead, eternal life in paradise, or freedom from reincarnation and attainment of eternal bliss; a benefit that they not only expected to receive themselves but offered as an incentive to others. Some of them eulogise martyrdom a€“ what could be a better customer endorsement than the willingness to defend a product to the death? Brand loyalty is built on the fact that the more opinions you hear reinforcing a certain sales message, the more likely you are to believe it yourself.
Judaism a€?rebrandeda€™ itself successfully after the sack of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Temple, by removing the requirement for sacrifice and instituting the synagogue and the rabbinate. The initial spread of Subud a€“ a God-centred organisation a€“ was solely due to the efforts of a man displeasing to God. Earlier religions had less well-developed incentive schemes; as a Viking warrior who died in battle you might go to Valhalla and drink mead, but only in order to fight again with Odin at the last battle of Ragnarok!
The ultimate customer endorsement, dying for the brand, seems excessive to most people today but nevertheless fits the category. This fundamental reconfiguration enabled it to survive without the core elements by which it had previously defined itself, but limited the brand's appeal.
This if nothing else places Subud in a ludicrous position and I find it most odd that no Subud leader has ever publicly remarked on the fact, certainly not Pak Subuh himself nor his daughter Ibu Rahayu (currently the main Subud opinion-former). The photos were turned into lantern slides and projected in registration with the same color filters.
As an ancient Greek or Egyptian you would expect your behaviour in life to determine your fate after death, but you would have no concept of special bonuses for promulgating the faith, or dying for it. A customer has bought the product and is so satisfied with it that he makes his satisfaction public in the most irrefutable way possible. I don't know any anti-gay Subud members and the ones I know share my personal view that Pak Subuh's doctrines are at best quaint, at worst inaccurate and ignorant. In 1802, Wedgwood reproduced transparent drawings on a surface sensitized by silver nitrate and exposed to light. But remember that brands do not appeal to common sense, but to the emotions, first of all building desire and then positioning a product or service so as to appear to fulfil that desire. It might be thought a bit odd that in Christianity the mascot (Jesus) endorses the brand (dies for his belief) in order first of all to create it. It underwent various tranformations on its journey, most noticeable of which is the alteration of the Buddhaa€™s image from Indian thin to Chinese fat, representing the change from the original Indian ideal of balance and discipline to the Chinese one of happiness and prosperity. Customer loyalty has to be very strong to overcome this problem, and latihan experience itself is often the overrider. Nicephore Niepce (1765-1833) had the idea of using as sensitive material the bitumen, which is altered and made insoluble by light, thus keeping the images obtained unaltered. Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE.
It would be as if the Jolly Green Giant advertised tinned peas by writing his own testimonial on the tin a€“ it wouldna€™t work, because we know the Jolly Green Giant is not real. He communicated his experiences to Daguerre (1787-1851) who noticed that a iodide-covered silver plate - thedaguerreotype -, by exposition to iodine fumes, was impressed by the action of light action, and that the almost invisible alteration could be developed with the exposition to mercury fumes. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experimentsIbn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965 in Basra a€“ c. Which explains why the early struggle of Christianity centred on proving the historicity of Jesus.
It was then fixed with a solution of potassium cyanide, which dissolves the unaltered iodine.The daguerreotype (1839) was the first practical solution for the problem of photography.
If the brand mascot is a real person, not just a symbol, it can do all kinds of things a mere icon cana€™t do. In 1841, Claudet discovered quickening substances, thanks to which exposing times were shortened.
More or less at the same time period, EnglishWilliam Henry Talbot substituted the steel daguerreotype with paper photographs (named calotype). Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694. Niepce of Saint-Victor (1805-1870), Nicephorea€™s cousin, invented the photographic glass plate covered with a layer of albumin, sensitized by silver iodide.
The novel Giphantie (by the French Tiphaigne de la Roche, 1729a€“74) described what could be interpreted as photography.Around the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance.
Maddox and Benett, between 1871 and 1878, discovered the gelatine-bromide plate, as well as how to sensitize it. As with the bitumen process, the result appeared as a positive when it was suitably lit and viewed. A strong hot solution of common salt served to stabilize or fix the image by removing the remaining silver iodide. On 7 January 1839, this first complete practical photographic process was announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and the news quickly spread. At first, all details of the process were withheld and specimens were shown only at Daguerre's studio, under his close supervision, to Academy members and other distinguished guests.
Paper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image.
Unlike a daguerreotype, which could only be copied by rephotographing it with a camera, a calotype negative could be used to make a large number of positive prints by simple contact printing.
The calotype had yet another distinction compared to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product lacked fine clarity due to its translucent paper negative. This was seen as a positive attribute for portraits because it softened the appearance of the human face. Talbot patented this process,[20] which greatly limited its adoption, and spent many years pressing lawsuits against alleged infringers. He attempted to enforce a very broad interpretation of his patent, earning himself the ill will of photographers who were using the related glass-based processes later introduced by other inventors, but he was eventually defeated.
Nonetheless, Talbot's developed-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today. Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.In 1839, John Herschel made the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce. The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary.
This adaptation influenced the design of cameras for decades and is still found in use today in some professional cameras. Petersburg, Russia studio Levitsky would first propose the idea to artificially light subjects in a studio setting using electric lighting along with daylight. In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to replace the photographic plate so that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around. Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the process to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie.A practical means of color photography was sought from the very beginning.
Results were demonstrated by Edmond Becquerel as early as 1848, but exposures lasting for hours or days were required and the captured colors were so light-sensitive they would only bear very brief inspection in dim light.The first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through red, green and blue color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters.
It was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in a lecture by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.[27] The photographic emulsions then in use were insensitive to most of the spectrum, so the result was very imperfect and the demonstration was soon forgotten. Maxwell's method is now most widely known through the early 20th century work of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii. Included were methods for viewing a set of three color-filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.[28]The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, commercially introduced in 1907.
If the individual filter elements were small enough, the three primary colors would blend together in the eye and produce the same additive color synthesis as the filtered projection of three separate photographs.
Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter layer composed of millions of dyed potato starch grains.
Reversal processing was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could be viewed directly or projected with an ordinary projector. The mosaic filter layer absorbed about 90 percent of the light passing through, so a long exposure was required and a bright projection or viewing light was desirable. Competing screen plate products soon appeared and film-based versions were eventually made. A complex processing operation produced complementary cyan, magenta and yellow dye images in those layers, resulting in a subtractive color image.
Kirsch at the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed a binary digital version of an existing technology, the wirephoto drum scanner, so that alphanumeric characters, diagrams, photographs and other graphics could be transferred into digital computer memory.
The lab was working on the Picturephone and on the development of semiconductor bubble memory. The essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor.
Michael Tompsett from Bell Labs however, who discovered that the CCD could be used as an imaging sensor.



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