The sovereign state the secret history of itt,secret 23 city of london hotel,secret life of babies narrated by martin clunes,secret life of the american teenager spoilers final episode - How to DIY


The Demic Atlas Project: Toward a Non-State-Based Approach to Mapping Global Economic and Social Development, by Martin W. GeoCurrents has taken a summer hiatus to create a new cartographic framework for analyzing socio-economic development.
Global economic and social comparisons are almost always made within the framework of sovereign states. Our atlas starts from the premise that, while sovereign states are certainly the essential units of the geopolitical order, they are not necessarily appropriate units of socio-economic comparison. Relying on an inappropriate geopolitical framework for social and economic analysis can quickly leads one astray.
The preponderance of microstates in the upper reaches of the longevity list could easily lead to erroneous deductions about country size and public health. While most global comparisons are made strictly within the framework of sovereign states, which number slightly fewer than 200, the CIA World Factbook employs an expanded list, noting 223 “countries” in its longevity chart. The biggest distortion that results from using states or quasi-states as all-encompassing spatial containers for socio-economic comparison is that lightly populated areas might receive precise scrutiny, while some of the world’s most populous places are subjected to extraordinarily crude aggregation. China and India, the world’s demographic giants, are particularly ill-served by being treated as singularities. The depiction of the world as divided into supposedly comparable individual geopolitical entities reaches its extreme form in a number of almanacs and children’s atlases in which each country is accorded its own map and page or two of text. Commenting Guidelines: GeoCurrents is a forum for the respectful exchange of ideas, and loaded political commentary can detract from that.
Now, I also do not understand why either spatially small countries or countries with small populations should be so high on the CIA longevity chart.
Finally, even after you were so patient in explaining the new commenting system, I’m still not sure if I got it right.
Sorry for taking so long to respond, but I have been devoting all of my free time to the demic atlas maps. GeoCurrents is a forum dedicated to exploring the peoples, places, genes, and languages that are shaping current events around the world.
The aim of GeoCurrents is not to take sides on any of these events, but to help foster an enriching and respectful exchange of information and ideas.
Eco-Authoritarian Catastrophism: The Dismal and Deluded Vision of Naomi Oreskes and Erik M.
I have long been dissatisfied with world religion maps, especially those that are available on the internet. International Telephone and Telegraph ranks eleventh by sales in the multinational corporations that have developed in the western world this century. Sampson traces the development of ITT from its origins at the hands of the bucaneer entrepreneur Sosthenes Behn. After the war was over for Hitler, Behn rapidly rebuilt his shattered ITT empire in Germany, even as the fighting continued.
Sosthenes Behn retired at a ripe old age and the hierarchy of ITT needed a replacement for this remarkable individual. Sampson is infatuated with the character of this man and thinks of him as some combination of Captain Ahab, a spider and a master accountant, often making Geneen indistinguishable from his company which apparently is in turn a combination of white whale and elephant.
Only recently have much of the workings of ITT become public beginning with the Republican party convention scandal in 1972. The characters that Sampson prefers to bring out are not Nixon's functionaries though but Geneen's. One rather recent act in the ITT play concerned the election of the late Salvador Allende to the presidency of Chile.
ITT is quite prepared to deal in the Soviet Union though which says a great deal for both ITT and the USSR. The study assesses sovereignty as status and as power and examines the issue of what precisely constitutes a sovereign state. Countries are numerically ranked against each other on such measurements as per capita GDP, literacy, and longevity, much as students are tallied together on a class grade sheet.
Consider the CIA World Factbook’s list of countries by average longevity (a list that is replicated in Wikipedia).
The correlation, after all, is striking: sixteen of the top fifty entries on the list have fewer than 100,000 people, while none of the bottom fifty do.
The people of Andorra, a feudal remnant in the Pyrenees sandwiched between France and Spain, may live longer than the average residents of neighboring countries, but they do not out-live the inhabitants of adjacent French and Spanish districts. The additional entries are actually dependent territories, most of which boast impressive life-expectancy figures (Cayman Islands, Bermuda, Gibraltar, the Isle of Man, etc.). As a consequence, the residents of small countries literally count for more than do the residents of large ones. Not only do these two countries have huge populations—more than a third of the global total between them—but both are characterized by vast regional disparities.
This is a complex issue that will occupy the pages of GeoCurrents over the next several weeks. We ask that you as a reader keep this in mind when sharing your thoughts in the comments below. It is just that western Europe has quite a few micro-states, all of which have high life expectancy numbers. All the elements are there; untold wealth and power to be pedalled and the fate of nations hanging in the balance. Born in the Virgin Islands when it was a Dutch colony, Behn had a Danish father and French mother: suitably multinational. Antitrust legislation was passed in the United States in 1934 specifically directed against the expansionist, monopolist tendencies shown by ITT. He was awarded the medal of merit by the US for his technical contributions to the allies war effort.


At this level of activity profit becomes more of an abstract identity, takeovers are achieved by offers of ITT stock, termed "Chinese money" and the profit announcements to shareholders show a remarkably steady increase by turning assets into profit as needed.
A vast army of public relations men lobby throughout the world to present ITT and ITT's interests in the best possible light. Geneen promised underwriting money to the GOP for their San Diego-convention, ostensibly to help promote an ITT subsidiary hotel there. Top Nixon underlings were implicated in the deal worked out between ITT and the Justice Department. Felix Rohatyn and Andre Meyer of Lazard's bank, Ned Gerrity the PR man, Bergerac of ITT in Europe, the Washington chief Merriam and the lobbyist Dita Beard.
ITT had extensive interests in Chile and feared lossing them so first of all a rival candidate was backed and then when Allende was elected by popular vote ITT plotted to have him overthrown before the congressional elections. When the full extent of ITT's dealings in Chile became public Allende nationalised ITT's enterprises in Chile without compensation and ITT's insurance claim in the US failed to get redress there either. ITT is a state itself, peopled by ITT nationals who live a sort of ITT land, they live in Sheraton Hotels and Levitt homes, eat Wonder bread, insure with Hartford Insurance and drive Avis cars, they rarely need to leave the ITT or ITT subsidiary life.
In determining how a political entity gains sovereignty, the authors introduce the requirements of de facto independence and de jure independence and explore the ambiguities inherent in each. The Spatial History Lab at Stanford, which has provided extensive technical assistance, will eventually publish the maps as an on-line document.
If one wants to know what part of the world is the richest, healthiest, or best educated—or the opposite—the answer will generally come in the form of a national name. For starters, they are simply not comparable entities, varying enormously in both area and population. One might reasonably conclude that small polities are somehow better able to meet the health needs of their citizens than their more populous neighbors. Put differently, if all Europe were divided into states the size of Monaco (population 36,000), Monaco’s sizable advantage would instantly vanish, as other tiny, wealthy enclaves located in salubrious environments would boast similar longevity figures. Virtually all numerical assessments of global development shoehorn socio-economic data into the same geopolitical categories, where size means nothing. Such an inclusive approach is beginning to be followed by other major data sources as well, no doubt from a desire to be fair and comprehensive. An equal appraisal of individual polities, in other words, results in an intrinsically unfair weighting of the individual persons within those polities. My overall reaction is to reiterate that the current project does not seek to replace the standard state-centered view, which does provide valuable information. The same is true for the Caribbean, which in general is a has high life expectancy — much higher than would be predicted on the basis of economic performance (although some part of the region do not score high on either measurement, such as Haiti. Anthony Sampson, the author of the excellent 'Anatomies' of Britain has now turned his attention to the people, the workings and history of ITT. It began in Puerto Rico and never really found a home base, gaining its first major contract in Spain, spreading through Europe and only more recently concentrating in the United States. He utilised his communications systems not only to make profit but as an intelligence gathering network.
The FBI also kept tabs on ITT and US government data on the company is incredibly extensive, gleaned from surveillance and Senate and Judicial hearings. He is the only man aware of how the vast organisation fits together and is maintained and he constantly manipulates both businessmen and politicians for ITT. Geneen's paramount demand is that he wants "no surprises", every economic trend in the world must be anticipated for ITT's super planning ethos. The convention fell through but ITT had an anti-trust suit against it dropped by the Justice Department a matter of days afterwards. Mrs Beard was at the centre of the Republican Party scandal, one of only three female executives of the three thousand that ITT employs.
John McCone, a former head of the CIA and now an ITT executive, met with Nixon men such as Haig and worked out elaborate plans to have the Chilean economy thrown into chaos and the Allende Government discredited. Being found out was their wrongdoing, for there are many other equally infamous imperialists who are still getting away with their crimes. Hendrik Spruyt argues that there was nothing inevitable about the rise of the state system, however. They also examine the political process by which the international community formally confers sovereign status. Whereas twenty-four entries are crowded in the eighty- to eighty-four year life-expectancy range, miniscule Monaco reaches almost ninety (89.7).
In the world of international statecraft, to be sure, all sovereign countries are treated as theoretically equivalent individuals, regardless of their population or power. Just because Greenland and Guernsey lack full independence is no reason to consign them to statistical oblivion. In the World Factbook’s tabulation, the average inhabitant of the British dependency of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (population 5,660) is inadvertently deemed twenty-six million times more attention-worthy than the average resident of China.
When overall per capita GDP is calculated in terms of purchasing power parity, China’s $7,500 figure ranks well below the global average of $11,100. Its mocking caption for San Marino, whose 32,000 people inhabit twenty-four square miles, reads, “These A**holes Don’t Belong In An Atlas,” while the text focuses on the absurdity of elevating such an insignificant piece of territory to the same level as that of major countries.
ITT is also a conglomerate which means that it deals in items as diverse as communications, hotels, insurance, housing, education, food, printing and car hire. Information gained from eavesdropping was used to anticipate and pressure governments from Spain to the Argentine. In an anti-trust case ITT was a provider of capital to a company in local investigations but incredibly at the same time ITT personnel were saying in Washington that ITT needed the capital from this company to compete overseas. Haldeman, Erlichmen, Dean, Stans, Mitchel, Agnew, Colson and Kliendenst all had some role to play. Geneen talked about "freedom dying every-where" in reference to Chile under Allende: he is no doubt pleased with the junta.


Incredible pressures are brought to bear on personnel in government no matter how well intentioned they are; many finish up working for ITT. Sampson does not see that only the people affected by the activities of companies like ITT can stop them, be they Chilean peasants, workers in South Africa where ITT is rapidly expanding, or ITT employed journalists forced into prostitution. Examining the competing institutions that arose during the decline of feudalism--among them urban leagues, independent communes, city states, and sovereign monarchies--Spruyt disposes of the familiar claim that the superior size and war-making ability of the sovereign nation-state made it the natural successor to the feudal system. Beginning today, I will discuss both the intellectual rationale for such an atlas and the problems that we have encountered in creating it.
Consider the discrepancy between China, with 1.3 billion inhabitants, and Tuvalu, with ten thousand.
Intriguingly, the third and fourth places are also occupied by European microstates: San Marino and Andorra. Such pretense may be necessary in the halls of diplomacy, but it does not help anyone grasp the complex patterns of social and economic disparity found across the surface of the earth.
But the commercial core areas of eastern China, increasingly vital drivers of the world economy, evince per capita GDP figures well above the world average, reaching $13,000 in Jiangsu, $18,500 in Shanghai, and $46,000 in Hong Kong.
A sidebar, entitled “A Marino You Should Care About,” claims that “Miami Dolphins quarterback Dan Marino achieved more during his 17-year Hall of Fame career than the ‘nation’ of San Marino has managed to accomplish since A.D. Meanwhile ITT employed a combination of fraud and its old boy network to attempt to pressure the Canadian, British and US governments into an Atlantic cable scheme.
Sampson describes the look of ITT executives as "shellshocked", but because of the huge salaries few want out. It is the personal emphasis that makes the book highly readable, that makes it indeed drama.
Revelations subsequent to Sampson's book show that the pressures on the Justice Department to drop the anti-trust case included Nixon himself.
Sovereign State is thus a narrative, a drama of power and manipulation in one organisation.
The author argues that feudalism did not give way to any single successor institution in simple linear fashion. Comparing these two independent states is like weighing a single person against a city of 130,000. As it turns out, most of the top positions on the CIA list are taken by small, tiny, and smaller-than-tiny polities located in Europe, eastern Asia, and the Caribbean. While all of the world’s independent countries (barring the anomalous Vatican City) have at least 10,000 inhabitants, many dependencies are much smaller.
In contrast, Guizhou in China’s south-central interior produced only $3,400 worth of goods and services per person in 2010, a figure comparable to that of war-ravaged Iraq. Geneen, who is the highest paid executive in the US himself, has "got them by their limousines". Arhcibald Cox said after his dismissal as the special Watergate Prosecutor that the most important secrets at the top of US government were related to ITT. It is an incisive and very readable study but its lessons must be drawn in a wider context. Instead, individuals created a variety of institutional forms, such as the sovereign, territorial state in France, the Hanseatic League, and the Italian city-states, in reaction to a dramatic change in the medieval economic environment. To appreciate the absurdity of such an exercise, consider what it would mean to compare either with a hypothetical entity equally far removed in the opposite direction. As a result, some of the seemingly healthiest and wealthiest major countries do not rank particularly high on the longevity index. Wikipedia’s inclusive “list of countries by population” bottoms out with 224th-place Pitcairn, which boasts all of fifty residents at last count. But the humorists at The Onion have a point; putting San Marino at the same level as Italy, let alone India, is an exercise in absurdity. ITT is one of a select group along with such conglomerates as Gulf and Western and Ling-Temco-Vought, they are accountant's creations, based on mergers and takeovers not development.
Only in a subsequent selective phase of institutional evolution did sovereign, territorial authority prove to have significant institutional advantages over its rivals. A country as small relative to Tuvalu as Tuvalu is to China would be inhabited by one twelfth of a person, while a country as large relative to China as China is to Tuvalu would be a galactic polity of 160 trillion inhabitants. Germany comes in 32nd out of 223, the United Kingdom is 36th, and the United States trails well back at 50th.
Although Pitcairn does not make the CIA’s longevity table, a number of other miniscule dependencies do.
Grasping such regional differences is essential for understanding the economy of China, and hence that of the world.
In 1967 ITT received $27 million in compensation from the US Government for damage to Focke-Wulf plants by Allied bombing. Sovereign authority proved to be more successful in organizing domestic society and structuring external affairs.
No serious study would ever make such a comparison, spanning more than five orders of magnitude. Yet when it comes to assessing the economic and social conditions of the world, making such gargantuan leaps in scale is the price we pay for using country-based data. In actuality, the total population of the forty-nine top entries is less than ten per cent of the global sum. A convincing demonstration that there was nothing inevitable about the triumph of the [present] form of the state."--John A.



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