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Citation: Iwasaki S, Deguchi Y, Inoue K (2014) Effects of "Shinkeishitsu" on Occupational Stress in Japanese Workers. The traditional Japanese personality "shinkeishitsu" has become almost outdated even in modern Japanese psychiatry, yet the shinkeishitsu trait can still be found among the Japanese population. Recently, the number of patients with not only MDD, but also MDD with atypical features or adjustment disorders, which are presumed to develop from one's personality, continues to rise among Japanese workers [3,4].
Therefore, we posit an association between depressive symptoms and shinkeishitsu in the workplace.
From 2011a€“2013, teachers who gave lectures on mental health at school were invited to participate in the current study. The protocol of this study was approved by the Human Subjects Review Committee at Osaka City University (authorization number: 1782). I am afraid that I cannot adapt myself to my environment (I cannot get along well at work, home, and school).
I am concerned about minute details and become unable to move beyond anxious preoccupations.
Table 1: Items from "Self-administered questionnaires for shinkeishitsu" by Kitanishi [8], translated by author. The Japanese version of CISS Furukawa [24] consists of 48 items, with 16 items tapping each of the three behavioral categories, and each item has a five-scale Likerta€“type question ranging from (1) "Not at all" to (5)"Very much".
Along with the demographic and occupational variables, we assessed occupational stress using the Japanese version of the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ) Hurreell [27], which has been shown to have sufficient reliability and validity [28,29]. All data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 21.0 (SPSS 21, IBM USA).
Figure 1: T-test of shinkeishitsu (+) (-) on task, avoidance and emotion oriented coping strategies. Table 3 shows GJSQ subscale scores and the differences between shinkeishitsu (+) and (-) group.
Table 3: Means, standard deviations and t-test between Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ) scores with and without shinkeishitsu. The correlation between SDS, CISS subscales, and GJSQ subscales scores and shinkeishitsu scores is shown in Table 4.
The record crowd of 16,019 grew quiet as All-American gymnast Georgia Dabritz approached the uneven parallel bars. Detling PhD’07, despite having a pass that allows her quick access to the floor at any moment during a meet, watched from the stands as the Utah team went on to beat Michigan. College athletics programs and pro sports teams across the country have increasingly turned to applied sports psychology consultants to give their athletes a mental edge through tools that help them have the extra focus they need when the pressure is on, or the coping skills in the heat of battle when even the smallest setbacks threaten to derail months of preparation. About 60 to 75 percent of major colleges nationwide now use mental skills coaches for their athletes, and more than 100 institutions, including the University of Utah, offer courses in sports psychology, Henschen says. Among NCAA Division I universities, about half provide their athletes with sports psychology resources, according to an NCAA study by Ian Connole, director of sports psychology at Kansas State University. Detling began her role with the U Athletics Department in 2013, after Henschen, who had initiated sports psychology work with U teams, retired. Henschen, who has also been the sport psychology consultant for the NBA’s Utah Jazz for the past 32 years, still helps the U men’s basketball team, which under Head Coach Larry Krystkowiak this year reached the NCAA Sweet Sixteen for the first time since 2005. Her husband, outgoing co-head coach Greg Marsden (who in April announced his retirement), at one point worked on a doctorate in sports psychology, studying under Henschen, and also has an acute understanding of where it fits in with gymnastics performance.
His point is one Detling pushed in a team meeting a week prior to the Michigan meet this past March. As part of the coaching leading up to the meet, Detling taught Dabritz to clear her mind for the bars, which Dabritz says is an “easier” event for her, and to use mental imagery to help with focus when performing on the more difficult beam routines. U Athletics Director Chris Hill MEd’74 PhD’82 recognizes that the scope of sports psychology goes beyond wins and losses.
Henschen was the reason Detling, a native of tiny Barnesville, Ohio, chose to study sports psychology at the University of Utah back in 2000. Several members of the U’s golf team noted in a spring team meeting that the game is 90 percent or more a matter of mental skills, once competition starts.
Detling educates athletes about their body’s physiological responses to frustration, anger, and negative thoughts—including chemicals released and muscles tightening—versus what happens when athletes use techniques such as repeating positive sayings to themselves. Like Henschen before her, Detling has taught students who have gone on to accomplished careers in sports psychology.
The U baseball and football programs also recently have warmed up to using sports psychology to help their athletes.
Senior wide receiver Tyler Cooperwood says Detling is a “great listener” who has helped him with life on and off the gridiron. For baseball players Hunter Simmons and Kody Davis, distance runners Jessica Sams and Nicole Rietz, and tennis players Luisa Gerstner Da Rosa and Tereza Bekerova, Detling has introduced a multitude of mental coping tools that range from simply being with their breath to choosing a focal point—Davis uses a foul pole—on which to concentrate and regroup during a stressful moment in competition. U women’s track coach Kyle Kepler last year watched Detling work with an injury-plagued senior on pole vault and help her toward an “amazing” season. Every athlete who works with Detling hears the acronym WIN, or “what’s important now,” and she coaches them to quietly repeat it to themselves. Dabritz, who plans to graduate next year with two bachelor’s degrees, believes the lessons she has learned from Detling will help her in pursuing a career in health promotion and education. Even though athletes report that during competition their mental attitudes account for 80% or more of their success, few training programs systematically train athletes to control their mental attitudes. In our multidisciplinary training program, we discovered that biofeedback was a powerful tool to enhance peak performance. Comments are moderated, so there may be a slight delay before approved comments are posted.
Shinkeishitsu relates phobic anxiety disorders, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and somatoform disorder. Mental illness is now so prevalent in Japan that it is considered one of the Five Major Diseases in Japanese medicine, and its effects are serious.


A number of studies have investigated the association between personality traits and job stress.
The model makes explicit the links between psychosocial work conditions and the health and productivity of workers [18]. We distributed questionnaires to 40 teachers agreed to our study who ranged from 23a€“61 years of age, and of these, 31 completed the questionnaire and participated. The GJSQ is a useful questionnaire for assessing various aspects of occupational stress, including occupational stress and stress reactions at the group and individual level. We also calculated Pearson's r to examine the correlation between SDS, CISS subscales, and GJSQ subscales scores and shinkeishitsu scores.
In shinkeishitsu (+), role conflict, role ambiguity, intragroup conflict, intergroup conflict scores were significantly higher than scores in shinkeishitsu (-).
But what Detling did for Dabritz—and others on the team—prior to the meet with Michigan had an impact on that evening’s results, by dealing with the psychological aspects of their athletic performance. About 80 percent of U athletes across all sports now use sports psychology services provided by the private consulting practices of Detling, who is a full-time U assistant professor of exercise and sport science, and by Keith Henschen, who led the U’s sports psychology efforts for decades and still contracts with the men’s basketball team. The number of consultants across the country who have been certified through the Association for Applied Sport Psychology has grown from about 50 in 1992 to more than 500 today. The offerings include clinical services provided by a psychologist as well as the mental skills coaching that certified consultants such as Detling use to sharpen an athlete’s performance.
Henschen says clinical psychologists were the first to apply the knowledge they had developed for coaching people in the workplace to helping athletes with their performance. For both teams, Henschen says he administers tests to athletes that he uses to develop competitive and learning style profiles that help coaches gain insight into why an athlete prefers to avoid failure, how not to overload a team member, or what type of anxiety issues a player might be facing. Co-head gymnastics coach Megan Marsden BS’84 says Henschen was a big part of her success back in 1981 when she first competed as a gymnast at the U, and he advised the team to use a sort of mental “choreography,” a blend of mental imagery and focus to keep gymnasts from overthinking their routines. She received her doctorate in 2007, and in 2008 she went to work as an assistant professor (lecturer) at the U in Exercise and Sports Science, with an emphasis in sports psychology. They credit Detling with being key when Utah tied for second place this past February at the Loyal Golf Invitational in Arizona.
Justin Su’a MS’11 was a pitcher on Brigham Young University’s baseball team and received an undergraduate degree in broadcast journalism. This protocol reports on the use of electrodermal response (EDR) biofeedback strategies to enhance peak performance. Biofeedback uses instrumentation to monitor and feedback the physiological changes that continuously occur within an individual.
However, the association between work-related mental problems and shinkeishitsu is still unclear. The survey of completed suicide revealed that mental illness is a particularly important cause of suicide. The traditional Japanese personality "shinkeishitsu," which also relates to the Japanese-culture-bound syndrome "taijin-kyofu-sho," has become almost outdated, even in modern Japanese psychiatry [5].
Karasek [16] has suggested that high job demand without autonomy is more important in predicting depressive symptoms than job demand by itself. The original authors of the GJSQ permit the use of the measure's independent subscales for assessing depressive symptoms and occupational stress. Job control, social support from coworkers, and self-esteem scores in shinkeishitsu (+) were significantly lower than scores in shinkeishitsu (-). There were strong positive correlations with SDS score, emotion-oriented coping score, role conflict, and intergroup conflict, associated with shinkeishitsu score.
The U also offers degree programs to educate people to take on the role that, for the athletes they serve, falls somewhere between Zen master and someone to just talk to about life. They apply their mental skills coaching not only to athletes but to people working in fields such as medicine, music, the military, law, and business, helping them with their mental focus, confidence, concentration, and attitude.
Applied sports psychology began to take hold in the late 1960s and early ’70s with bigger universities that were able to afford hiring mental skills coaches. The sports psychology model led by Henschen introduced the need to look at other support systems, he notes, and his department in the mid-1990s formed a Wellness Team to help student athletes with psychological and nutritional issues, as well as returning to play after injuries.
The biofeedback strategies are derived from our two year Mental Peak Performance Research and Training Program with United States Rhythmic Gymnastics Team (USRGT).
Make drawing a part of your daily life, while turning every day into inspiration for your art. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of shinkeishitsu on occupational stress and depressive symptoms among Japanese workers. Morita [6] developed a psychiatric classification system and coined the term "shinkeishitsu," or a "nervous trait," to identify a group of related neurotic sufferings and symptoms mediated by certain common psychological, psychosomatic, and somatopsychic processes [7]. In a study by Billings and Moos [19], the correlations of depressive symptoms with work involvement and poor support from superiors and co-workers were somewhat greater than the correlation between depressive symptoms and work pressure, although all the correlations were significant.
This was a self-administered questionnaire survey, and demographic factors including age, marital status, and sex were assessed before the psychometric tests below were completed. This instrument measures three types of coping mechanisms: task-, avoidance-, and emotion-oriented strategies. There were moderate positive correlations with role ambiguity and intragroup conflict, associated with shinkeishitsu score.
Ski and Speedskating teams during the Winter Olympics in Sochi and Vancouver, and she also has worked with pro athletes in nearly every sport.
Yes indeed, a great gift to the teams and especially the athletes, to be used as enrichment for life.
These strategies, however, can be applied to any performer such as a figure skater, gymnast, sharp shooter, dancer, or musician. Designed to fit your life, Drawing 365 presents a comprehensive art course in bite-sized chunks--so it's easy to dip in, even for just five minutes at a time. This study is based on self-administrated questionnaire applied to 31 Japanese teachers who gave lectures on mental health at school.


Moreover, there is an increase in the number of various types of workers experiencing mental illness Ministry of Health [1], particularly mood disorders. Morita shinkeishitsu has three dimensions: symptoms, symptom formation, and character structure.
These findings suggest that stressors related to the job role or content and poor human relations at the workplace, rather than job overload, are key risk factors for depressive symptoms in industrial workers [20]. Task-oriented coping strategies involve behavioral and cognitive responses that are directed at dealing with the specific problem at hand. In general, higher scores for the occupational stress subscales, except for that of job control, indicate greater stress. There were moderate negative correlations with task-oriented coping style, three social support, and self-esteem, associated with shinkeishitsu score. In Section L, Row 7 on the aisle in the Huntsman Center was U sports psychology consultant Nicole Detling, who just days earlier had met with the team to help them mentally prepare for the Michigan meet and beyond. Since she started her sports psychology consulting for the U Athletics Department in 2013, the number of U athletes taking advantage of mental skills coaching has grown by about 30 percent. Anything that can give us a bit of an advantage, we’re going to explore.” The mental part of football is “huge,” he says, and he believes Detling might be able to help his players deal better with adversity. The shinkeishitsu trait, coping style, depressive symptoms, occupational stress, social support, and a personality-trait subscale were assessed.
Therefore, more aggressive efforts should be made to monitor mental health in the Japanese workplace. The cut-off point was set at 15 points; a score greater than 15 points was indicative of a shinkeishitsu tendency (+), whereas a score of less than 15 points was classified as shinkeishitsu (-).
Example items include "Schedule my time better." and "Focus on the problem and see how I can solve it".
In contrast, higher scores for job control and the social support subscales indicate lower stress. Dabritz had just finished eighth in vault, but when it was her turn at the bars, she smiled and acknowledged the standing-room-only crowd cheering her in her last year competing on the team.
The athletes who have worked with her office say that when it’s game time, most of what determines success and failure in their sport comes down to mental mettle. Last December, he was hired to be a mental skills coach with Major League Baseball’s Boston Red Sox.
You'll find expert insights on everything from value, perspective and composition, to how to use a shadow box, compose a self-portrait in the form of a still life, and work from life. Shinkeishitsu people were likely to use a type of emotion-oriented coping for stressful situations. In addition, an introversiveand fragile aspect must have at least one of these five characteristics: introversion, worrisomeness, interpersonal fragility and hypersensitivity, hypochondriasis, or passivity.
Great shinkeishitsu tendency (+) is considered to have the same mechanism of symptom formation, which is called "toraware".
Shinkeishitsu had a significant positive correlation with Self-Rating Depression Scale scores.
In a similar way, anobsessive and self-empowering aspect must have at least one of these five characteristics: desire for perfection, desire for superiority, desire for self-esteem, desire for health, or desire for control. Mediums: sample a wide variety, including colored pencil, pastel, pen and ink and watercolor For beginning artists as well as practicing artists wishing to push their work to the next level, this guide will help you build skills, gain confidence and achieve creative happiness. Higher role conflict, role ambiguity, intragroup conflict, and intergroup conflict, as well as lower job control and self-esteem, were associated with higher shinkeishitsu score. Kora [9] differentiated between shinkeishitsu as a trait and shinkeishitsu-sho (shinkeishitsu disease) as a neurosis. Emotion-oriented coping strategies focus on the individual and aim to manage the distressing feelings that arise from stressful situations. A few minutes later, the crowd roared as the judges posted a perfect 10, her third on the bars for the 2015 season. There might be some bosses or coaches who say you messed up and to go see a mental skills coach. The results of this study suggest that the shinkeishitsu trait effects on coping style, role problems and job control, and it is associated with the development of depressive symptoms. Shinkeishitsu neurosis manifests in various forms, such as phobic obsessions, anxiety, avoidant behaviors, panic attacks, hypochondriasis, and related somatic problems [10,11].
Example items include "Feel anxious about not being able to cope." and "Become very upset". Shinkeishitsu is an important personality trait to consider in occupational mental health, even in modern Japan. Morita [6] indicated that his therapy was specifically designed for treating shinkeishitsu patients.
In modern Japanese society, the word "shinkeishitsu" is still a common word, but its meaning represents only nervousness or hysteria. The original meaning of the term "Morita shinkeishitsu" is used as a local diagnosis among Morita therapists, and it remains difficult for people outside this group to understand what Morita shinkeishitsu trulyis [5]. Nevertheless, shinkeishitsu traits can still be found in Japanese workers, as well as in other healthy people. However, there is no study about the association between work-related mental problems and the Morita shinkeishitsu trait, as far as the researchers of the present study are concerned of.
Many studies have examined the relationship between personality traits that are similar to shinkeishitsu and problems in the workplace. The Type A personality Friedman [12] is characterized as a person who is ambitious, rigidly organized, highly status-conscious, sensitive, truthful, impatient, always trying to help others, who takes on more than they can handle and wants other people to get to the point, and is also proactive and obsessed with time management.



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