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Here you have a list of opinions about Social change and you can also give us your opinion about it.
You will see other people's opinions about Social change and you will find out what the others say about it. Social change may refer to the notion of social progress or sociocultural evolution, the philosophical idea that society moves forward by dialectical or evolutionary means.
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Thanks to this graph, we can see the interest Social change has and the evolution of its popularity.
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Donors, leaders of nonprofits, and public policy makers usually have the best of intentions to serve society and improve social conditions. Systems Thinking for Social Change enables readers to contribute more effectively to society by helping them understand what systems thinking is and why it is so important in their work.
The result is a highly readable, effective guide to understanding systems and using that knowledge to get the results you want.
On July 13th, David Peter Stroh will present a workshop to the Omidyar Fellows, a Hawai'i Leadership Program. Perhaps youa€™re a new graduate, but instead of lining up for a boring entry-level job at a big corporation, you wish you could start your own sustainable and responsible business.
It's been almost a century and a half since a critical mass of Americans believed that secession was an American birthright.
Bye Bye, Miss American Empire traces the historical roots of the secessionist spirit, and introduces us to the often radical, sometimes quixotic, and highly charged movements that want to decentralize and re-localize power. Engaging, illuminating, even sometimes troubling, Bye Bye, Miss American Empire is a must-read for those taking the pulse of the nation. How could the best and brightest (and most highly paid) in finance crash the global economy and then get us to bail them out as well? In The Looting of America, Leopold debunks the prevailing media myths that blame low-income home buyers who got in over their heads, people who ran up too much credit-card debt, and government interference with free markets. Why did Americans let the gap between workers' wages and executive compensation grow so large? Why did we fail to realize that the excess money in those executives' pockets was fueling casino-style investment schemes?
Why did we buy the notion that too-good-to-be-true financial products that no one could even understand would somehow form the backbone of America's new, postindustrial economy? In this page-turning narrative (no background in finance required) Leopold tells the story of how we fell victim to Wall Street's exotic financial products.
As the country teeters on the brink of what could be the next Great Depression, we should be especially wary of the so-called financial experts who got us here, and then conveniently got themselves out. In Carbon Shock, veteran journalist Mark Schapiro takes readers on a journey into a world where the same chaotic forces reshaping our natural world are also transforming the economy, playing havoc with corporate calculations, shifting economic and political power, and upending our understanding of the real risks, costs, and possibilities of what lies ahead. In this ever-changing world, carbona€”the stand-in for all greenhouse gasesa€”rules, and disrupts, and calls upon us to seek new ways to reduce it while factoring it into nearly every long-term financial plan we have.
From the jungles of the Amazon to the farms in Californiaa€™s Central Valley, from a€?greeninga€™ cities like Pittsburgh to rising powerhouses like China, from the oil-splattered beaches of Spain to carbon-trading desks in London, Schapiro deftly explores the key axis points of change. For almost two decades, global climate talks have focused on how to make polluters pay for the carbon they emit. Carbon Shock evokes a world in which the parameters of our understanding are shiftinga€”on a scale even more monumental than how the digital revolution transformed financial decision-makinga€”toward a slow but steady acknowledgement of the costs and consequences of climate change.
Scarcity is more than an economic idea of there being limited resources to meet everyone’s every need. They illustrate the scarcity and tunneling problems through reference to several studies in both the laboratory and in the field of how poverty is a major contributor to reducing bandwidth. Scarcity, and the cognitive load it puts on people who dwell on immediate concerns to the detriment of other issues, literally makes us dumber and more impulsive. A related paper by Datta and Mullainathan (2012) also discusses ideas of scarcity in a policy development context.
Scarcity of cognitive capacity - Cognitive resources available to people at any moment are limited and can be depleted by their being used for other activities.
Scarcity of self-control - Think of our self-control as a psychic “commodity” of which we have a limited stock, so that using up some for one task (continuing to exercise when you really want to stop) depletes the amount available for other tasks (resisting the dessert at dinner after your workout). Scarcity of attention - Think of attention as another precious commodity – people do not have unlimited attention and might not pay attention to the ‘right’ things – they are busy paying attention to others. Scarcity of understanding – People’s mental models of how the world works may be incomplete; not all underlying causal relationships are correctly or accurately understood. Behaviour is generally easier to change when habits are already disrupted, such as around major life events. That was the challenge given me by the Society of Nutrition Education and Behavior for a webinar I did this week. I start with Duncan Watts, a physicist and sociologist, who presents two problems that bedevil people faced with the challenges of large and complex puzzles. The second problem Watts (2011) discusses is the micro-macro problem: one that goes at the heart of the social marketing dilemma. To bring this problem back into the social marketing world, believing that social change will happen “one person at a time” does not conform to what we know about emergence in many other disciplines.
These words sum up how important it is for us to have ways to explain facts and make sense out of them. All social change efforts involve different actors known by various labels such as audiences, influencers, stakeholders, consumers, suppliers, partners and policymakers. Everyone has assumptions and explanations for how and why people think and behave the way they do; these are often referred to as naive theory or folk psychology.
Many social change agents are familiar with the challenges of addressing other people’s cultural beliefs as they relate to health and social behaviors.
This is why many social marketers stress the need to base programs to improve health, social welfare and the environment on empirically-validated models and theories. Many social marketing programs, and most public health ones, have shied away from working with their customers or members of their priority groups.
We would view the launch of our smoking cessation effort as the continuation of a conversation with them. Is it time for more of us to loosen our grip on the 4Ps of the marketing mix as a necessary ingredient or benchmark for social marketing programs? The internal orientation of the marketing mix in which the four elements are controlled by the producer of goods, services and behavioral offerings and has little involvement or interaction with customers. The rise in services as primary drivers of economic activity that have their own unique character not addressed by the traditional 4Ps - for example, People or Participants, Physical Evidence (of their value), Processes (of service delivery), the intangible nature of their offering and demonstrated value to customers, as well as unique legal and professional restrictions on providers of many services (licensure of health providers, lawyers and general building contractors being just a few examples). Most of these debates have been on theoretical grounds rather than based on empirical studies; it is also true that most marketers continue to practice as they were taught in college marketing classes (Constantinides, 2006). What S-D Logic shows us is that a tangible (product) or intangible offering (service, behavior) has value only when a customer ‘uses’ it. The premises of S-D Logic (see below) guide us away from trying to create what we believe will be of value to people to a customer perspective that reminds us that it is how people utilize our offerings and experience rewards or value for adopting behaviors that should be our critical concern. Many of the biggest policy challenges we are now facing – such as the increase in people with chronic health conditions – will only be resolved if we are successful in persuading people to change their behaviour, their lifestyles or their existing habits. That statement appears in the Foreword of a new joint publication by the Cabinet Office and the Institute for Government MINDSPACE: Influencing behaviour through public policy.
The contrasting model of shaping behaviour focuses on the more automatic processes of judgment and influence.
So MINDSPACE becomes a methodology for, as they put it, changing behavior without changing minds. The differences in the social marketing approach became even more pronounced in the international community where social marketing became synonymous with the marketing of products for family planning, HIV prevention and malaria control while various other groups organized themselves around concepts such as behavior change communication, health communication, development communication and community mobilization to name a few. A hybrid approach developed independently in North America to reunite community with social marketing was coined as community-based social marketing (CBSM; McKenzie-Mohr, 2000). This workshop isTARGETED at women writers, journalists and activists who wish to step-up their involvement in highlighting issues around women’s rights and social justice. This workshop is part of AWDF’s efforts to amplify African women’s voices and is aimed at creating a network that will enable participants to place their articles and stories in a range of local, regional and international media. Priority will be given to interested women journalists who wish to actively engage in women’s activism – we are expecting at least 50% of the writers selected for this workshop to be full-time journalists. Full accommodation, meals and a partial travel grant will be provided to all successful applicants. Elizabeth Ohene, from Ghana, is a veteran journalist, writer and broadcaster, and a  former government minister. Her career began at Ghana’s leading newspaper group the Daily Graphic, (owned by Graphic Corporation), where for over a decade she served as a reporter, staff writer, columnist and Editor. Elizabeth joined the BBC World Service in London, UK, in 1986, first as a Producer of Radio Programmes, then served in various positions in the World Service and British Domestic Radio, and as a columnist on the Focus on African Magazine. Miss Ohene conducted several  training programmes for journalists for the BBC in South Africa, Nigeria, Liberia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia. Miss Ohene’s professional activities include being a member of the International Women Media Foundation which actively promotes women’s competency and leadership in the media.
She served as a board member of the International Commission of Investigative Journalists and a member of the panel of judges for the CNN Africa Journalist of the Year Competition. She currently writes a weekly column in the Daily Graphic, Ghana’s largest circulating daily and a monthly Letter from Africa for the BBC. Omotoso, for whom writing is a means to make sense of the world, is interested in the complexity of human experiences as well as the incongruities of life.
Social change may include changes in nature, social institutions, social behaviours, or social relations. It may refer to a paradigmatic change in the socio-economic structure, for instance a shift away from feudalism and towards capitalism. And below it, you can see how many pieces of news have been created about Social change in the last years. But often their solutions fall far short of what they want to accomplish and what is truly needed.


By applying conventional thinking to complex social problems, we often perpetuate the very problems we try so hard to solve, but it is possible to think differently, and get different results. It also gives concrete guidance on how to incorporate systems thinking in problem solving, decision making, and strategic planning without becoming a technical expert.
If youa€™ve been involved in systems thinking for some time and want a renewed and extended perspective, I highly recommend it.A Stroha€™s new work covers all the relevant areas appropriate for a solid introduction to systems thinking, though it doesna€™t stop there.
He was also one of the founders of Innovation Associates, the consulting firm whose pioneering work in the area of organizational learning formed the basis for fellow cofounder Peter Sengea€™s management classic The Fifth Discipline.
Or maybe youa€™ve been stuck in a job you hate for a few years, but you still dream of doing the thing you love and that youa€™re actually good at.
Finding the Sweet Spot explains how sustainable, responsible, and joyful natural enterprises differ from most jobs, and it provides the framework for building your own natural enterprise. The current economic system and the educational system that feeds into it have let us down and are destroying our planet. Inventor, entrepreneur, and humanist Buckminster Fuller said: "You never change things by fighting the existing reality. The American Empire is dying, says Bill Kauffman in this incisive, eye-opening investigation into modern-day secession-the next radical idea poised to enter mainstream discourse. Bush administration, frustrated liberals talked secession back to within hailing distance of the margins of national debate, a place it had not occupied since 1861.
Instead, readers will discover how Wall Street undermined itself and the rest of the economy by playing and losing at a highly lucrative and dangerous game of fantasy finance. Readers learn how even school districts were taken in by "innovative" products like collateralized debt obligations, better known as CDOs, and how they sucked trillions of dollars from the global economy when they failed. So far, it appears they've won the battle, but The Looting of America refuses to let them write the history--or plan its aftermath.
It also offers a critical new perspective as global leaders gear up for the next round of climate talks in 2015.
Having less than what we perceive we need – whether it is food, money, friends or time – is having less than we feel we need. It extends the insights from behavioral economics beyond the nudges and defaults we are now so familiar with to how we think and feel when we have too little; it changes our thoughts, choices and behaviors. Consider some unsuspecting shoppers in a mall who were asked to imagine a scenario in which they either had (a) a $300 estimate, or (b) a $3,000 estimate to repair their damaged car of which their insurance would pay half the cost.
Think about that the next time you wonder why people who are poor do some of the things they do – to your utter exasperation. They talk more about the limited resources imposed by perceptions of scarcity and suggest some ideas about how to address each of them in program design.
So increasing the cognitive demands of social change programs (cover more material, require more time spent in classes) may in fact be designing them to be less likely to succeed. Good points to be reminding ourselves of as we talk with people among our priority groups and set out to design programs that will help them solve their real problems. This is the reason I spend time talking about different theories and models of behavior change. What dramatically illustrates the power of a theory, and its drawbacks, is to break the workshop (or class) into five smaller groups.
We have a strong tendency to go with the default or pre-set option, since it is easy to do so.
Making the message clear often results in a significant increase in response rates to communications. Financial incentives are often highly effective, but alternative incentive designs — such as lotteries — also work well and often cost less. We are embedded in a network of social relationships, and those we come into contact with shape our actions. We often use commitment devices to voluntarily ‘lock ourselves’ into doing something in advance. We are more influenced by costs and benefits that take effect immediately than those delivered later. You might also note that none of these methods have direct counterparts to any of the variables in the theories I presented above.
Some of the countries outside the US that were there included Canada, Columbia, Czech Republic, Spain, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Malta, Mexico, Pakistan, Romania, Somalia, Turkey and Uganda.
This theory has guided many marketers’ approach to discovering what the desired behavior might be, its possible determinants, the context in which it occurs - or not, and the consequences that people and society incur. This dilemma emanates from our desire to achieve macro outcomes, ones that involve changes among large numbers of people, among population segments, or in society as a whole.
It is analogous to believing that consciousness can be explained by the action of a neuron or even many neurons; it may be convenient to think like this, but throughout his book, Watts (2011) takes on these logical fictions with data. But even more so, the lyric reiminds us of why it so important to have facts to back up one's theory. Depending on the actor and the objective of the program, social marketers and change agents may be trying to increase some behaviors (healthy eating, physical activity, recycling), decrease others (tobacco use, risky sexual behaviors, energy use), encourage participation in social change activities (citizen engagement, social mobilization) or gain support for environmental change (adopt policies, redesign physical entities such as automobile safety features or entertainment content).
Stories and case studies have a limited place in moving us closer to understanding and solutions. Yet, agreeing on a common approach to thinking about and addressing wicked social and public health problems is a major point of contention when working with partners. Our role is to facilitate value creation as they quit smoking: they must integrate what we (and perhaps others) are giving to them as an active creator of value, not a passive recipient of benefits (Gronroos, 2011). Rather, we should view exchanges as mutual sharing of knowledge and resources among the social marketing agency, the priority group or customers and other actors or stakeholders (co-creation of value-in-use). This shift requires marketers to understand customer constructions and evaluations of value, be more flexible in their approach, engage with customers over longer periods of time, and innovate and adapt to changing market conditions - especially those related to technology and communication. People bring skills and competencies to encounters they have with us, and thus are always a co-creators of value, not passive recipients of what we judge they need or want. Fortunately, over the last decade, our understanding of influences on behaviour has increased significantly and this points the way to new approaches and new solutions.
This shifts the focus of attention away from facts and information, and towards altering the context within which people act.
It certainly provides something for us to think about when we try and use policy-making as a way of changing behaviors.
Lefebvre & Flora (1988) laid out the defining features of the social marketing approach based on experiences they shared directing community interventions for cardiovascular disease reduction. Responding to this fracturing of resources and talent, McKee (1991) wrote a book that he hoped would enhance the understanding of social mobilization, social marketing and community participation amongst communicators who sometimes set up unnecessary barriers between their various fields. Participants will be expected to read widely from assigned selected texts, and to complete daily writing exercises. We will also include women from AWDF’s existing grantee organisations, and within our partner networks. She also ran a network of more than 150 stringers located in all parts of Africa for the BBC Africa Service, supervising their editorial work.
The foundation has established an Africa Women’s Media Centre in Dakar, Senegal, where courses are run for African women in the MediaACCORDINGto their needs. The product of her degree is her debut novel Bomboy published in 2011 by Cape Town publisher Modjaji Books. Bomboy was shortlisted for the 2012 Sunday Times Literary Awards, the MNet Film Award and the 2013 Etisalat Prize for Literature.
She was a 2013NORMAN Mailer Fellow and the 2014 Etisalat Fellow at the University of East Anglia.
Accordingly, it may also refer to social revolution, such as the Socialist revolution presented in Marxism, or to other social movements, such as Women's suffrage or the Civil rights movement. Moreover, the answers they propose and fund often produce the opposite of what they want over time.
It makes a serious contribution by detailing a number of real-world situations that have been investigated and improved using the approach presented in the book. David is internationally recognized for his work in enabling people to apply systems thinking to achieve breakthroughs around chronic, complex problems and to develop strategies that improve system-wide performance over time. Or maybe youa€™re a boomer and youa€™re ready for a second career, a personal venture that will represent a total change from what youa€™ve spent most of your work life doing. Youa€™ll learn how to find partners who will help make your venture successful, how to do world-class market research, how to innovate, how to build resilience into your enterprise, and how to avoid the land mines that sink so many small businesses.
We need a blossoming of natural enterprisesa€”connected, collaborating, and supporting venturesa€”to form a dynamic new natural economy. To change something, build a new model that makes the existing model obsolete." Finding the Sweet Spot presents a new model.
From Vermont to Alaska, activists driven by all manner of motives want to form new states-and even new nations. And those rising up to topple that empire are a surprising mix of conservatives, liberals, regionalists, and independents who-from movement to movement-may share few political beliefs but who have one thing in common: a sense that our nation has grown too large, and too powerfully centralized, to stay true to its founding principles. They'll also learn what average Americans can do to ensure that fantasy finance never rules our economy again. What makes scarcity an important idea for social marketers and other change agents is that it captures the mind; scarcity changes the way we think.
While we recognize how scarcity can make us more attentive and efficient in managing immediate needs – think of the last deadline that was looming over you – it also reduces what the authors refer to as ‘bandwidth.’ They consider bandwidth as a short-hand for our cognitive capacity and executive control that are currently available for use.
Do they get the car fixed, or take the chance that it will continue to run a little longer? Scarcity forces people to engage in trade-offs; having slack in money and time (disposable income and free time) makes decision-making (and life!) so much easier. The prescription: simplify choices people have to make and encourage rules-of-thumb (heuristics) for decision-making.
In workshops that I facilitate, I use this slide to illustrate some of the main ideas from some usual, and not so typical, theories that I find are employed by many social change agents. All of the groups are given the same behavior change challenge and asked to come up with one or more priority groups to focus on, what research questions they would want to ask of them to learn more about the problem, and what potential solutions can they quickly generate (brainstorm).
In particular, it’s useful to identify how a complex goal can be broken down into simpler, easier actions.
Similarly, policy makers should be wary of inadvertently reinforcing a problematic behaviour by emphasising its high prevalence. Governments can foster networks to enable collective action, provide mutual support, and encourage behaviours to spread peer-to-peer.
Policy makers should consider whether the immediate costs or benefits can be adjusted (even slightly), given that they are so influential.


A proven solution is to prompt people to identify the barriers to action, and develop a specific plan to address them.
The ideas and tools are designed to stimulate innovative approaches to nutrition education.
I offer that to fully develop the discipline of social marketing and its promise to be a positive force for social change, we must think about change as it occurs among groups of people (segments, social networks) and at different levels of society (organizations, communities, physical environments, markets, and public policies)…[Ed Note: See Transformative Social Marketing (pdf)]. Both of these problems highlight the need for social change programs to adopt theoretical perspectives that are broader than individual determinants. Yet these outcomes are driven by the micro actions of individuals (for example, it is individuals whose voting behavior determines the outcome of policy options, individuals’ behavior that sets the tone for an organizational culture, and individuals who connect through social network sites to organize and plan social action). Changes in complex social systems involve interactions between people and systems, just as neurons must be connected and interact with each other in systematic ways to create what we refer to as consciousness.
For social marketers, social innovators and people who are working with social and mobile technologies for health and social change, the song should become a chant.
Who is the focus of these activities, and what they are asked to do is largely a function of the framework (or theory of change) that we bring to the task.
Because people often only have only one or two frameworks or theories they use for problem solving, these conversations quickly devolve into the city of Babel or attempts to convince the other side that our POV is the correct one.
Constantinides (2006) summarized over 40 papers that have been critical of, or presented alternatives, to the 4Ps marketing mix framework. It moves us from being ‘customer-focused' not just in the beginning of a project when we conduct formative research, but throughout the process - especially when people discover or create the value of change for themselves. Are we, in fact, simply applying our old prejudices for rational decision-making and persuasion by implementing policies that mandate the delivery of more information (think about BMI report cards in schools, restaurant menu-labeling programs for example)? Yet, even by the early 1990s, we can recall where social marketing and community development components of Health Canada could not find common ground for collaboration. After the workshop, the participants are expected to use the knowledge acquired to write widely about social justice issues in and beyond their communities. AMEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDINGwill be signed by successful applicants to enable smooth running of the workshop. She reported regularly for the BBC from various parts of Africa and was the resident correspondent in South Africa from 1992 to 1994 during the transition from apartheid to the first democratic elections. For her talent and the intent to tell stories, she credits her parents and a childhood steeped in reading and the sharing of ideas. Social change may be driven by cultural, religious, economic, scientific or technological forces.
We end up with temporary shelters that increase homelessness, drug busts that increase drug-related crime, or food aid that increases starvation. Most importantly, youa€™ll learn how to find the "sweet spot" where your gifts, your passions, and your purpose intersect. Use it to find the work you were meant to do, thereby helping to create the world wea€™re meant to livea€”and make a livinga€”in. Writes Kauffman, "The noise is the sweet hum of revolution, of subjects learning how to be citizens, of people shaking off . Scarcity causes us to ‘tunnel’ – to adopt a mindset that focuses only on what seems, at least at that moment, to matter most. Simply put, when scarcity captures our mind it helps us focus on doing a better job with our most pressing needs; yet it also makes us less insightful, less forward-thinking and less controlled. They were given a test of cognitive ability, the Raven’s Progressive Matrices, before being given the scenario and then a few minutes after considering their response.
The frame problem proposes that it is impossible to know all the potentially relevant facts and determinants of a puzzle, given the overwhelming number of possibilities and combinations of variables.
This problem is embedded in definitions of social marketing as changing individual behaviors in order to achieve social good. Theories, whether based on common sense, past experience or empirical evidence, create frameworks for our work. And the use of the wrong theory to understand a problem and develop strategies to address it is one of the primary sources of program failures. That is, the notion that we conduct research to unearth the ‘benefit’ that will compel people to exchange with us is misguided; we cannot presume to be the final arbiters of ‘value’ – the user must create or find that value as they engage with the behavior, product or service we are offering. They may surprise us by noting that over time they are experiencing other benefits that are now more important to them. In this post, and the following one, I extend the S-D Logic to social marketing (and thank Bob Lusch for his review and comments on an earlier draft).
People will behave differently only if they find the new behavior (or discontinuing an old one) leads to self-defined value (benefits) when they engage in it (put it to use).
The presumption is that citizens and consumers will analyse the various pieces of information from politicians, governments and markets, the numerous incentives offered to us and act in their best interests (however they define their best interests, or - more paternalistically - however policymakers define them). Or are we focusing on changing the context in which judgments and decisions about health behaviors are made? As more practitioners appropriated social marketing as the basis for the development of ‘new’ health communication campaigns, the term became associated (and in some quarters still is) with mass media campaigns that segmented their audience, pretested materials and considered the 4Ps only in the context of communication planning, not marketing. This can be sent as an attachment or as part of the email body especially if it has images. The bad news is that the associated reduced bandwidth can lead to more scarcity as we continue to ‘tunnel,’ or neglect other, less immediate concerns that then becomes tomorrow’s, or next month’s or next year’s pressing need. Not so easy.] The point of EAST is that these are methods to apply after your learn about the people you intend to serve with your program and have selected the specific behavior you want to focus on with them - regardless of the theory you bring to the table. Consequently, it is then difficult to selectively focus on only certain ones and ignore the others, to look for example at only psychological determinants or to consider only solutions that employ persuasive communications.
Although the intentions are commendable, the actual process of moving from individual behavior change to changes at the societal level is ignored, as if this transition will occur automatically - that it is simply a matter of increasing the numbers of people practicing the behavior.
Marketers who attempt to imbue their products or services with value, or benefits that consumers will find attractive, are reflecting ‘goods dominant’ logic.
Within the larger networks in which we operate, the S-D Logic also involves creating value propositions for stakeholders and partners.
Yet, how frequently, if ever, do we understand if our offerings actually result in value for people who use them (whether that value was what we proposed, or what the value is they 'created' or discovered when they used or practiced it themselves)? And should we also be asking how we can expand the frame for policy-making even more and focus on the marketplace itself to improve health behaviors by increasing access and opportunities to healthier behavioral options, products and services? Developmental psychology is essential in looking at the history of magic, religion, science, morals, law, politics, the economy, and more. It is the tunneling phenomenon that is the central culprit for poor decision-making and behavior choices. The authors’ explanation is simple, yet may provide the insight for many programs serving the poor: the $3,000 scenario got poorer people to consider their own money scarcity (“How could I come up with that?”) and this tunneling (or preoccupation) carried over to their performance on the Progressive Matrices in the post-test.
Unfortunately, as many of you have no doubt discovered, all of the health and social puzzles we tackle rarely conform to one theoretical model.
Frameworks, or heuristics, such as EAST and the 4Ps, help you make the shift from being a problem describer to a solution seeker. What the frame problem poses to social marketers is that we cannot know for certain whether we have selected the right set of variables when we choose a theory, or frame, to guide us in thinking about our puzzle.
As Watts (2011) notes, how micro behaviors become macro solutions is a puzzle in search of an explanation in many disciplines, and this puzzle cannot be simply dismissed or explained away as inconsequential. Rather, social marketing can be thought about as facilitating customer experiences or discoveries of value when using the product, trying the service or practicing the behavior.
As with customers, the value for organizations to participate with us comes from their investment of information and resources to co-create value in the partnership (it is not something that is simply handed over, or exchanged, with them).
Because the classic analysis of exchanges has focused on the immediate exchange of money for products, the value the product provides to a person (the customer) after the transaction is completed is ignored. The alternative proposed by S-D Logic is to think about exchanges of knowledge and skills, not one-way offerings; that the people we serve become producers of value for us as well as for themselves (co-value producers).
Without this, instead of a rise in industrial technology and medical advances, humans could still be thinking with cave-man-like thinking. The answers to these questions, and more, are crucial to understanding, if not shaping, the coming decade.
A primary source of failure of interventions is the use of the wrong theory to understand and address the puzzle.Behavioral economics is one domain that has captured the interest of policy-makers and social marketers alike. In short, value is uniquely experienced by each customer when they use our offering – not in how persuasively or creatively we ‘sell it’ to them. Since the early years of social  marketing, many people have struggled with how to apply the logic of economic exchanges to social marketing ones - usually without much success.
The value of an S-D Logic perspective for social marketers includes asking what do we learn from our customers, are we open to changing ourselves and offerings as a result of their input and response, and have we created opportunities for them to participate in a reciprocal process?
The authors note that these differences correspond to a drop in IQ of 14 points (a shift in an intelligence score of this magnitude can result in a person of average intelligence being reconsidered as ‘borderline deficient’ – just because of the bandwidth tax imposed by thinking about one’s tight financial situation). The point Watts is making is that many disciplines work with many different scales of reality and they are difficult to integrate.
The S-D Logic perspective encourages marketers to suggest what the value might be - value propositions (“we think you may like this because it…satisfies a need you are experiencing now, solves a problem for you, facilitates your getting a job done, or helps you reach a goal”) - that customers must then validate through their experience of using the offering (product, service or behavior) in their lives.
The same effect, they show in another study, holds true for farmers in India before harvest (when times are lean) and then after it (they have now been paid for their crops). This perspective on how value is created by users means we must design interactions (or service touch points) to facilitate value-in-use and feedback. This is not because they are less capable, but rather because part of their mind is captured by scarcity” (p.
Instead, biologists and other scientists invoke the idea of emergence to describe the shifting from one scale of reality to the next, and use ideas such as complexity, interactions, and systems to consider more than one scale at a time (an atomic scale versus a biochemical or physiological one). In a classic social marketing approach, the first task would be to understand from the potential customers’ perspective, and there may be several segments of them with different perspectives, what benefits and barriers they perceive in quitting smoking. Then we would incorporate smokers into every facet of our discovery, design, creation and rollout of the program – not just invite them into focus groups and testing sessions. Finally, we would treat our value offering as a proposition and not be so sure we have actually ‘made value’ for a smoker who is trying to quit (see above for 4 possible approaches).



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