Why must the unconscious mind use dreamworks,descartes new meditations on first philosophy,secret life daniel powter - PDF Books

Although many books have been written about the psychology of violence (as I learned during my days directing a program for court-referred perpetrators), Dr.
The same dynamic of denial applies to entire nationsa€”and goes far toward explaining why the a€?nicesta€? and most restrained people sometimes pick up a gun. Listening to the Rhino deals not just with outwardly expressed violence, however, but with confronting and transforming archetypal violence (as imaged by the dream figure of the Rhino) manifesting from within the psyche. Following up on Jung's advice to translate emotions into images, Dallett writes about how a symptom or an illness, whether somatic or psychogenic (or both), represents an attempt at incarnation imparted by a spiritual force badly in need of translation from a literal source of suffering into an actively lived symbolic work. Active imagination furnishes a primary Jungian tool for this kind of deep work, but as Dallett reminds the reader, Marie-Louise von Franz always insisted on the importance of completing at least these four steps: setting the ego aside, tending the images, reacting to the images, and putting the results to work in life (italics added).
This belief may well be a candidate for what Dallett identifies in another context as a pathological identification with spirit: what Jung identified as inflation. In the chapter a€?Sedating the Savage,a€? Dallett presents many examples of how psychotropic medication represses unpleasant emotions while supporting artificial idealized states of happiness and surface contentment. While the matter of healing is a major theme of this book, the other is violence, and Dalletta€™s point here is that when violence is repressed it puts the individual and collective into grave peril.
Dallett returns our attention to the potency of active imagination as a tool to activate the psychea€™s potential for literal physical healing as well as psychological wholeness.
On the cover is a picture of a rhinoceros with two birds perched on its back, a classic example of a mutually beneficial biological symbiosis. Jungians are often the last bulwark in todaya€™s field of mental health practitioners, who remember the unavoidable reality and necessity of darkness and violence. We must develop an ego that is strong enough to contain the violent side of human nature, Dallett suggests, in order to live up to a€?what Jung saw as the millennial task (of) carrying the divine opposites of good and evil within the individuala€? (p.87). To contain the worst kinds of violence, Dallett suggests that we find a way to give expression to our destructive impulses without causing too much harm.
The gist of Dalletta€™s argument, however, points towards incorporating more of the almost lost Jungian technique of Active Imagination.
The Rhino did not simply show up to heal the dreamer, but to inform her that she was to serve him.
In Pat Britta€™s own words a€?During my early association with The Rhino, I could tell he wanted something of me, but I did not know what.
In the alchemical laboratory of human life we are also mirrors for transformations on a larger scale, the transformation of the spirit in nature.
Dallett reminds us that one-sidedness is one of our greatest dangers, be it the lopsided, misunderstood spirituality that denies the spiritual reality of violence or the overly rational slant of todaya€™s scientific community.
We read in some detail here about the work of Jungian analysis, with special emphasis on active imagination, a method for bringing unknown parts of oneself into awareness and into connection with onea€™s everyday personality.
Seamlessly, the book then turns to two major topics of special concern in todaya€™s world: the nature of violence and the use of psychotropic drugs.
While this discussion of violence focuses on the psychic sources of explosive violence, another section, on the use of psychotropic drugs, looks at contemporary uses of prescription drugs to damp down or cover up difficult, painful, unwelcome emotions (and violence).
What we have in this small book is the fruit of a penetrating mind nourished by long experience of the psyche, and now offering us the essence of that experience, fueled by passionate concern over issues of todaya€™s world. Why is there so much violence around us - shootings in colleges, bullying in schoolyards, violent movies in theatres, graffiti in public spaces, news on television?
Janet Dallett is a Jungian analyst in her seventies, now living in Port Townsend, Washington. Britt had hundreds of Rhino dreams in the course of her nine-year analysis with Dallettt, which always focused on the meaning of his latest appearance. Britt truly grasped the Rhino, writing poetry about him, painting his picture, and even casting him in bronze so he could stand in her front hall, and her damaged heart healed. Dallett attributes Britta€™s healing to her commitment to the Rhino, a voice for what Jung calls the Self, the God within. We are doing to the wild part of our psyche what we have done to the wild parts of the earth. We know that Jacques RanciA?re speaks about the relation between politics and aesthetics in terms of a€?the distribution of the sensible.a€? Tonight I want to speak about the distribution of the insensible. But I also want to register an implicit critical dimension of this argument, a critique of RanciA?re and of his presently immense influence, which I view as unwarranted. By way of a first approach to what I mean by a€?the distribution of the insensible,a€? leta€™s recall some basic passages from Volume One of Capital on the transformation of materials.
Labor is, first of all, a process between man and nature, a process by which man, through his own actions, mediates, regulates and controls the metabolism between himself and nature. What distinguishes capitalism as a mode of production, however, is the peculiar manner in which the transformation of materials through the labor process is shadowed by the process of valorization.
We can thus view the process of production either from the perspective of the labor process or the valorization process. So, this brief summary of Marxist fundamentals is our first approach to the distribution of the insensible. In Intellectual and Manual Labor, Alfred Sohn-Rethel argues that the social abstraction of the value form and the exchange relation gives rise to our abstract forms of thought.
The exchange abstraction excludes everything that makes up history, human and even natural history.
In Sohn-Rethela€™s account, the exchange relation gives rise to a social genesis of the transcendental (the forms of intuition and the categories of the understanding). In the act of exchange, the natural and material physicality of the product is negated by the abstract value of the commodity, and this negation constitutes the a€?positive realitya€? of the social physicality of the exchange process. The history of modernity, which is to say the history of capitalism, is also the history of modern technology. And thena€”in the discourse network of 2000, spawned by the cybernetic systems, information theories, and encryption technologies of World War II, digital technology draws media differentiation back together through the synthetic resources of digital code, a universal medium traversing audio, video, and textual recording.
However (fourth approach)a€”we should recognize that just as Kittlera€™s media theory offers a necessary supplement to Sohn-Rethela€™s account of the social genesis of conceptual abstraction, it is also necessary to submit Kittlera€™s own work to a Marxist inversion. What Marx calls a€?formal subsumptiona€? is the initial subsumption of labor under the value form, through wage labor and exploitation (the extraction of surplus value from surplus labor time). This contradiction bears upon the history of technology, because it is by revolutionizing the means of production that capital attempts to overcome this contradiction. The same process also generates a different problem: as automation increases, less labor power is required.
Automation, which is at once the most advanced sector of modern industry and the epitome of its practice, confronts the world of the commodity with a contradiction that it must somehow resolve: the same technical infrastructure that is capable of abolishing labor must at the same time preserve labor as a commoditya€”and indeed, as the sole generator of commodities.
We could rephrase this by saying that Fordism both requires and paves the way for post-Fordism.
At the same time, however, we know that a commodity like an Apple computer is, in fact, produced by processes quite clearly identifiable as a€?labor.a€? Despite the fact that every effort is made to keep this fact out of sight and out of mind, we know it because we read about it on Apple computers.
Composed of aluminum, nickel, steel, glass, vinyl, and fluorescent, the production of Vanitas involves a virtuosic performance of mimetic exactitude.
In a dark room, the viewer looks at the object, sees into it, and sees nothing of herself (like a vampire in front of a mirror, Baier says) while the object reflects its own interior infinitely in all directions. The first thing we might note about this piece is its complex engagement with relational aesthetics. Second, we can say that if Vanitas is a captivating work of art, much of what makes it so is money. Baiera€™s piece instantiates the problem of the relation between materials and money, captured in the art object. Behind Vanitas, a glass reproduction of Baiera€™s eyeball at the center of a projected disc of light, gazing without seeing across the room at a mirrored box which does not reflect its image. Beside Vanitas, a fond de scA?nea€”a reflector used in the background of photo shootsa€”which Baier placed in a template with a circular hole and left in a window for nine months. Around the corner, a piece called Projet A‰toile (Noir), consisting of a graphite painting titled Monochrome (Black) and a sculptural replica of a meteorite recovered from Death Valley.
These are photographic pieces and sculptural objects which Baier would have worked on at the computer in the center of Vanitas. At the crux of materials and moneya€”through the complex history that crux containsa€”the subject of Baiera€™s installation is the relation between memory, recording, mimesis.
Baiera€™s problem is not only the remembrance of things past, but, more specifically, the reminiscence of that which has never been sensed, the distribution of the insensible, recalled. By way of a first approach to what I mean by a€?the distribution of the insensible,a€?A  leta€™s recall some basic passages from Volume One of Capital on the transformation of materials.
About 1853, the most prominent and well to do men of this set with the assistance of a few outside of the family, saw the necessity and importance of establishing a good School in the community accessible to all held a meeting and took steps to build a School house at the most convenient point, which was on the Mars Bluff and Little Rock road, about half way between the homes of Philip Bethea and John C.
The first building was burnt but the trustees immediately began to erect another which was finished in a few months. The trustees required the teachers in opening School, to read a chapter in the Bible and have a prayer. These are about the main facts, that made impressions on my mind while going to McDuffie's School.
In addition to the smaller classes, a class in geography came in daily from McKerall's side to be heard by her.
When he left that community and settled in Marion, and began to practice law he was anything but religious. McGoogaw seemed to know the wishes of the trustees relative to whipping and you could not accuse him for lack of diligence in that respect. He had the manners of a Chesterfield, and there is no question about his knowledge of polite society and he must have had good training in his early years. So far as these Schools are concerned there is no doubt that the Schools of McKerall and St. What began as a sideline business selling polished metal mirrors to pilgrims in Germany (to capture holy light) evolved into an enterprise that altered the course of art, religion, politics and industry: Johannes Gutenberga€™s movable type and printing press. We judge ourselves by our noblest acts and best intentions, but we are judged by our last worst act.
There are 10,000 species of ants, and for several million years they have coved the earth, except Antarctica [no pun intended]. Credit has existed globally since the early days of trading and mercantilism, but it wasna€™t until the 1920s that oil companies issued a physical card to repeat customers who purchased fuel for their new-fangled automobiles.
Therea€™s nothing so hollow as the laugh of the person who intended to tell the story himself. CHALLENGE #111: Why is the numeric keypad on a computer (7-8-9 at the top) upside-down from the numeric keypad on phones (1-2-3 on top)? English belongs to the very large Indo-European language family [Germanic, Baltic, Slavic, Celtic, Latin, Hellenic, Iranian, Sanskrit et alia, which led to Polish, Welsh, French, Greek, Kurdish, Punjabi, and English, to name a few].
The real test of character comes when doing the right thing may not be in our self-interest. In the past 5,000 years the human genetic code changed 100 times faster than it had in any prevous period.
In the 1880s, Samuel Augustus Maverick was a Texas cattleman who refused to brand his cattle, seeing it as cruel. CHALLENGE #111 was: Why is the numeric keypad on a computer (7-8-9 at the top) upside-down from the numeric keypad on phones (1-2-3 on top)?
Researchers gave cash to experimental subjects who were instructed either to spend it on themselves or on others. BIG Q #26: Pericles argued in his Funeral Oration that democracy stimulates excellence because all citizens are stakeholders with public responsibilities. When intensive-care units at Michigan hospitals followed a 5-step checklist for how to insert intravenous lines in patients, infections were virtually eliminated, saving the hospitals $175 million over 18 months.
The peace symbol began as the emblem of the British anti-nuclear movement 50 years ago on Good Friday: a combination of the semaphore positions for N and D [Nuclear Disarmament] within a circle [the earth]. CHALLENGE #114: He was a fighter who was obsessed with boxing and he abused drink and drugs. BIG Q #27: Since poverty is deeper among children than the elderly, why does public spending on the elderly vastly outstrip spending on the young? E-mail and Web searches consume 1.5% of the nationa€™s electricity last year, and if current trends continue, by 2010 the power bill to run a computer over its lifetime will surpass the cost of buying the machine. Biologically speaking, humans have changed little in the 100,000 years [or 3,000 generations] since modern humans emerged on the African savanna--not enough time for serious adjustments. Rembrandt was a master of chiaroscuro (kee-ahr-uh-SKYOOR-oh), the use of contrasts of light and shade to enhance the depiction of character and for general dramatic effect. CHALLENGE #114 was: He was a fighter who was obsessed with boxing and he abused drink and drugs. CHALLENGE #115: What proportion of the cells in your body are not actually yours but belong to foreign organisms? BIG Q #28: Why do girls, on average, lead boys for all their years in school, only to fall behind in the workplace? Only 11% of CEOs of top 500 companies have an Ivy League degree, but 20% of the top 60 women in Forbes a€?most powerful womena€? list did. The hormone oxytocin is naturally released in brain after a 20-second hug from a partner, triggering the braina€™s trust circuits.
CHALLENGE #115 was: What proportion of the cells in your body are not actually yours but belong to foreign organisms? CHALLENGE #116: A westerner and an easterner who each changed the world, but didna€™t want their names used to identify a religion--to no avail.
Featured Quote: a€?The truth of the matter,a€? is that a€?we havena€™t sacrificed one darn bit in this war, not one.
BIG Q #29: Why are the most powerful people in the world old white men and pretty young women? When lima bean plants are attacked by spider mites, they release volatile chemicals that summon another species of mites to attack the spider mites.
Funeral directors promote embalming: replacing body fluids with formaldehyde, a carcinogen that eventually leaches into the environment when the buried body decays [800,000 gallons annually].
In 2001, President Bush exempted some 3,500 plants that spew toxic chemicals from the Right-To-Know law.
Consultants get paid up to $500,000 to name a drug, and insist that letters are imbued with psychological meaning: P, T, and K, they claim, convey effectiveness. CHALLENGE #116 was: A westerner and an easterner who each changed the world, but didna€™t want their names used to identify a religion--to no avail. CHALLENGE #117: His father a€?bluffeda€? his way into law school using a faked transcript, and went on to finish first in his class and become a successful labor lawyer.
Spoken language is instinctual, the brain collects the phonemes and abstracts the rules from what it hears, but written language must be taught. Busha€™s tax cuts for the rich have reduced annual tax revenue avaiable for public needs by $300 Billion each year. CHALLENGE #117 was: His father a€?bluffeda€? his way into law school using a faked transcript, and went on to finish first in his class and become a successful labor lawyer. FACTOID: Unusual English spelling shows the way the words were pronounced 100s of years ago. Chinoiserie (sheen-WAH-zuh-ree) is a style of ornamentation using motifs identified as Chinese.
CHALLENGE # 118 was: If a tree falls in the forest and no one is there, does it make a sound?
CHALLENGE #119: Which a€?booka€™ won the Pulitzer Prize for literature and drama, in successive years?
Dallett's clearly and concisely written book offers thoughtful and sometimes surprising reflections, case anecdotes, and scholarly musings on violence as a spiritual problem. It is easy for introverts in particular to skip the final step, but doing so severs inner from outer, contemplation from action. James Hillman has presented a similar critique, which can be summed up by the dictum: Silence the symptom and lose the soul.
It is tiresome to be reminded that Jung believed active imagination to be the sine qua non of coming to terms with the unconscious. Oxpeckers or a€?tick birdsa€? sit on top of the rhino eating insects and noisily warn of approaching danger.
It contains big ideas that deserve to be pondered and digested many times and reading this book is an excellent way to re-engage this material. Dallett reminds us that the etymology of the word a€?violencea€? suggests a close relationship between violence and God. Dallett makes a convincing case that our culturea€™s addiction to love, peace and happiness in effect creates senseless violence and that we must learn and find a way to teach our children, that the terrible side of life is not going anywhere.
Dallett reminds us that, once a respectful and responsible attitude towards the unconscious psyche has been developed, the meditative dialogue of Active Imagination is the technique for the on-going and life- long task of engaging emerging images. Dallett grounds her reflections by allowing us a glimpse into the lives of two former patients, Pat and Teresa and she shows us the difference in attitude of these two women towards powerful inner animal dream figures. Britt had this dream, but because she took the image seriously and engaged it for decades to come. It is a potentially dangerous, primitive animal that has visited the dreams and fantasies of Ms.
Dallett makes the analogy to the alchemical work, which Jung had translated into psychological terminology.
At first I thought his message was personal a€“ urging me to view life as whole, not with the limited eye of my rational ego. Our collective ego is still trying to maintain its autonomy in relation to the larger mysteries while the power of the feminine in her own totality is pressing into consciousness.
This discussion is unusually clear and thorough, giving a readable and rounded picture of this form of psychological worka€”both its potentiality for healing and its dangers.
And why are we so fascinated by violence that crime, killing, and war are often at the top of the news?
I hear him pronounce: a€?If a thing is worth doing it is worth doing easily!a€? By this he means, according to Britt, that if a thing is worth doing it is worth taking the time to get to know it, so the thing can show you how it wants to be done. When connected to your inner program something beyond the ego comes to your aid, but when you try to go against your destiny you hit a wall.
Later she realized he wanted to reach a wider audience; he wanted to speak for life, all life, animals, plants and the earth itself. We North Americans have naively idealized the Christian virtues of kindness and self-sacrifice, dangerously repressing our so-called negative emotions. We are sedating the suffering of body and soul with psychoactive drugs, unaware that pain is a reaction against something that needs to change.
And I want to argue that it is the specificity of this problem which allows us to think the relation between the history of capital and the history of mimesis. I could summarize this critique as follows: if RanciA?re were more inclined to focus his attention upon the distribution of the insensible, perhaps he might think more perspicuously not only about the relation between politics and aesthetics, but also the relation between political economy and aesthetics.
Marx analyzes the process of production from two perspectives: the labor process and the valorization process. Moreover, we transform materials into tools, instruments of labor, with which we transform materials.
The transformation of materials produces objects with use value, but it also produces commodities with exchange value.
But insofar as it is specifically capitalist, what the process of production produces is value, and a particular kind of value: surplus value and its reintegration into the production process as capital. The entire empirical reality of facts, events and description by which one moment and locality of time and space is distinguished from another is wiped out. And this social genesis is at once material and abstract, since the exchange value of a commodity is borne by its use value, and since exchange (like the labor process) is a physical act which also requires abstraction from all physicality. Hence the exchange process presents a physicality of its own, so to speak, endowed with the status of reality which is on a par with the material physicality of the commodities which it excludes. This is what Sohn-Rethel, following Marx, calls a€?the real abstractiona€? of the value form as a social process of exchange. In a materialist inversion of the Kantian transcendental, media technologies constitute the a priori conditions of possibility for the sensible, such that the distribution of the sensible already operates within these conditions. From the industrial revolution to the production and networking of digital information technologies, the history of modern technology emerges from and responds to the demands and internal contradictions of capitalist accumulation.

This early period of subsumption is merely a€?formala€? because the production process itself (the labor process which is subsumed) remains primarily pre-capitalist. New technologies of production, and new techniques of production (assembly lines, for example) make it possible to increase productivity, and thus increase the amount of surplus value that can be extracted in a certain period of time. If automation, or for that matter any mechanisms, even less radical ones, that can increase productivity, are to be prevented from reducing socially necessary labor-time to an unacceptably low level, new forms of employment have to be created. Essentially, Society of the Spectacle is a book about the consequences of real subsumption, about the contradictions that it bears within its history and about the new regime of accumulation necessary to defer and compensate for the crises those contradictions contain.
A corporation like Foxxcon, the largest manufacturer of electronic components in the world, is something like a distillation of the entire history of the contradiction between capital and labor, the great movements of the industrial revolution, Taylorism, Fordism, the off-shoring of manufacturing labor, and the simultaneity of deindustrialization and post-Fordist cognitive capitalism with the persistence of the most traditional forms of miserable factory work.
The main piece is the sculptural object we have been looking at, titled Vanitas, a reproduction of the artista€™s office.
Every component of the artista€™s desk and of his tools is precisely rendered as either a three dimension drawing or a three dimensional scan.
It mimics one of the primary gestures of that movement or style, bringing the artista€™s studio and living space into the museum. Obviously it is expensive to reproduce onea€™s office in nickel-plated aluminum and to display it so dramatically.
The content of his piece is nothing other than that relation, a reflection upon that relation. Baiera€™s piece should be considered as part of an installation, not merely a sculptural object, insofar as it does, in fact, come into relation with its surroundings, surroundings composed of digitally produced images and objects. In front of Vanitas, a meticulously composed compound photograph of the stone wall beside the earliest cave paintings, titled Canvas. Not a reflection of the sun but an indexical image of its absorption, marked by the circular discoloration of the black tissue. Having held this meteorite in the palm of my hand, three years ago, I can testify to the strangeness of encountering its inexistence, distributed between these two art of objects. Instantiated as digital code, they were a€?ina€? that computer, stored in its memory banks, transformed on its screen.
At and through the limits of modernity, of capital, of mimesis, of thought, of sensation, and within their outside, his work draws us into that distribution. Sellers, one of the board of trustees, from a noted School in Switzerland, taught by a man by the name of Hellensberg (?). During the construction of the second building, the School was taught in a tenant house on lands of James R. Scholars had the opportunity to prepare for as high as the Junior class in college, but very few at that time went off to college. The School always closed with a big exhibition and a public dinner, sometimes there would be theatricals or a grand party at night. About this time there were some changes in the personel of the board of trustees some dropping out and new ones coming in. He was a general whipper and kept always on hand a big supply of switches of considerable length and size, in the corner by his seat.
His School exhibitions were grand affairs, and he had the knack of showing off what his School was doing, which impressed the patrons in a high degree. In the better sets, the traditional flaws of plasma (burn-in) and LCD (limited viewing angle, weak blacks, weak fast motion) have been largely eliminated. In 1958, Dinera€™s Club launched the first card available for payment to general merchants: 27 participating NYC restaurants. Kugel, an Orthodox Jew and author of a€?How to Read the Biblea€? says that there is essentially no evidence--archaeological, historical, cultural--for the events in the Torah. Koerner which he said depicts: a€?a horseman determinedly charging up what appears to be a steep and rough traila€?--representing his own political journey against steep odds and naysayers. The rope was not strong enough to carry them all; they decided 1 had to leave, or all would fall.
According to the Energy Department, vampire gadgets account for about 25% of total residential electricity consumption in the U.S.
Guppy submitted a fish to the British Museum that was already classified, but the name stuck [and the fish is still in a jar at the museum]. Also criticized is the widespread habit of using meditation to get rid of (repress) the emotionally charged images flowing from the unconscious. I would like to see this insightfully expressed logic extended more often to the state of the oppressed struggling on every side and in all corners of the world. The Indoa€“European root of the word a€?violenta€? is wei, which means vital force and one definition of the word God is a€?an immanent vital forcea€? (p.86).
The reader is encouraged to reflect on seemingly counter-intuitive statements, such as a€?violence is the human spirita€™s protest against the enforcement of more goodness than it can stomacha€? (p.92).
This suggestion, although fundamentally right, may need more elaboration than this book provides, because the danger of infection by archetypal forces is high and not to be taken lightly. With reference to Barbara Hannah, Dallett devotes a segment of the book to a much needed review of what Active Imagination is and discriminates what it is not. We are informed on the front page that this book was written with contributions by The Rhino and by Dalletta€™s former patient Pat Britt. Dallett writes, a€?The Rhino has been the central figure in hundreds of Pata€™s dreams continuing still today. The alchemists believed that their work was to redeem God or the son of God, whom the alchemists imagined as a a€?fabulous being conforming to the nature of the primordial mothera€? (p. We are encouraged to look at the place within ourselves where we remain a€?fundamentalista€?, where spirit is trapped in a literal, concrete enactment, physical illness or cherished convictions of the nature of reality. The cover photo of a rhinoceros with two small birds casually perched on its back leads us into a text full of insight into both interior and outer worlds. Only a profound understanding can put forth such subtle and complex ideas in such apparently plain talk. Britt had been so ill with bacterial endocarditis and kidney failure that she was expected to die in her early forties. However, if something is hard to do you should change your relationship with it, or let it go. We are suppressing the healthy masculinity of normally active children with Ritalin, either because the way we are living is driving our children crazy or because they do not conform to our expectations.
Crucially, I want to show how the relation between those two histories is mediated by another: the history of technology. That is: focusing on the specific problem of the distribution of the insensible turns out to be the key to thinking about the relation between aesthetics and politics in a materialist way, in a manner properly responsive to the exigencies of Marxist historical materialism.
He sets in motion the natural forces which belong to his own body, his arms, legs, head and hands, in order to appropriate the materials of nature in a form adapted to his own needs.
For example, according to Sohn-Rethel, the purely formal character of the Kantian forms of intuitiona€”space and timea€”can be understood as genetically related to the abstract formalism of the value form and the exchange relation. Time and space assume thereby that character of absolute historical timelessness and universality which must mark the exchange abstraction as a whole and each of its features.
Thus the negation of the natural and material physicality constitutes the positive reality of the abstract social physicality of the exchange processes from which the network of society is woven.
This real abstraction constitutes a kind of a€?second nature,a€? and Sohn-Rethel argues that this second nature is a€?the arsenal from which intellectual labor through the eras of commodity exchange draws its conceptual resources.a€? We can situate this analysis more broadly at the level of the whole process of valorization, or the accumulation of capital through circulation. We need to supplement Sohn-Rethela€™s materialist critique of epistemology with a history of media technologies like that carried out by Friedrich Kittler. Thus, without further increasing the length of the working day, one can increase surplus value (this called a€?relative surplus valuea€?). But Marx makes clear that the part of capital invested in constant capital does not undergo any alteration in the process of production, it does not increase (this is why it is called constant). This means that less money is being paid out on the labor market for the consumption of commodities. A happy solution presents itself in the growth of the tertiary or service sector in response to the immense strain on the supply lines of the army responsible for distributing and hyping the commodities of the moment. And behind the passage I just read, we can also read a commentary on the history of technology. The conditions of possible experience are themselves conditioned by the moving contradiction between capital and labor. Indeed, bearing the conditions of its production in mind, one might view a device like an Apple computer as a distillation of the entire history of modernitya€”of the manner in which modernity acts upon external nature and changes it, and in this way simultaneously changes its own nature, from the printing press to the steam engine to the silicon chip. Each of these objects is then reproduced, at exact scale, by either machining in aluminum (in the case of objects that were drawn) or stereolithography (in the case of objects that were scanned). But in doing so it forecloses the primary content of that gesture, radically separating this space from that of the viewer, encasing it within a mise-en-abyme in which only images interact with one another. A tour de force of concept, design, and execution, the piece is also nothing if not resourceful.
As he did with the objects reproduced in Vanitas, Baier made a three dimensional scan of the meteorite and then reproduced ita€”at a much larger scalea€”through stereolithography.
This was a famous School and was patronized by students from different countries in Europe. He may have been a good scholar, the writer was too young to judge, but now looking back on that period and recalling what he saw, he is fully convinced, that McDuffie was a poor teacher. Notes and billex doux were constantly passing and sometimes the teacher would get hold of some, but no great fuss was made about it. I was a little fellow, swallowed up by the crowd of students, so escaped the teacher's notice.
This was his first introduction to South Carolina where finally he made his home until he died. If he had had the now up to date books, the modern School conveniences in an up to date building there is no telling what he would have accomplished as a teacher. He pretended to teach Greek but his knowledge of that language did not extend far beyond the alphabet. The others might as well not been taught, really, it would have been better had the pupils been at home at work on the farm.
But after all, it is the leaders of the country who determine policy, and it is always a simple matter to drag the people along, whether it is a democracy, or a fascist dictatorship, or a parliament, or a communist dictatorship. No man spoke, but the woman said she would voluntarily let go of the rope, because, as a woman, she was used to giving up everything for her husband, kids and men in general, and was used to always making sacrifices with little in return. In my men's groups we always knew which men were at greatest risk for another violent incident: those who maintained that their anger was an aberration they had now overcome with penance and good intentions. An overemphasis on decency and virtue not only darkens the personal and collective shadow, it unconsciously identifies with divine goodness and thereby falls into inflation and self-righteousness. These and other New Age maneuvers are enlisted in the service of propping up the happy persona that conceals the darker dimensions of conflictual psychic life. Yet Dallett goes farther: Psychiatric medication should only be used to contain severe symptoms, she argues, preferably in small doses and even then only temporarily. Most of the examples of violence in this book break forth from the uptight middle class, where swings are removed from parks to prevent lawsuits. In Jungian thought, the Self, which is the psychological equivalent to the image of God, often breaks into consciousness violently. Active Imagination is not guided fantasy nor is it art, but, following Hannah, Dallett sees Active Imagination as a creative function.
28), an earthy, fabulous, night creature, like the Rhino, equally life threatening and life giving. We meet the rhino of the title as he first appears in the dreams of a gifted woman whom the author has known for more than 30 years, initially as her Jungian analyst.
Rage, she says, is a natural instinctive response to a threat to the Self; violence is the human spirita€™s protest against the enforcement of more goodness than it can stand. The relation between the history of capital and the history of mimesis is mediated by the history of technics. Through this movement he acts upon external nature and changes it, and in this way his simultaneously changes his own nature.
It is independent because the exchange value of a commodity is entirely determined by the average socially necessary labor time required to produce it, not by the materials of which it is composed.
We can view the process of production from two sides, but what it produces are commodities that are sold for money, which is reinvested in the production process and thereby becomes capital. He does not think the distribution of the insensible, the movement of valorization, and thus he misses entirely the dimension of political economy in his thinking of politics. The social process of valorization is the very medium in which we think, and to which thinking is applied through intellectual labor (such as management).
And indeed, Kittlera€™s media-theoretical analysis of discourse networks should also be understood as a materialist critique of Kantian idealism.
It communicates with itself, through its own data channels, and consciousness is the epiphenomenon of communication. Thus, during the period of formal subsumption, the extraction of surplus value is primarily correlated to the length of the working day and the cost of labor power. This is what automation and capitalist management techniquesa€”Taylorism and Fordisma€”are for.
So labor has to be reabsorbed into the labor market to support consumption and prevent overproduction. The development of industrial automation both necessitates and creates the conditions of possibility for the invention of new media apparatuses, especially digital information technologies and networks.
The history of the sensible, the transformations undergone in the media-technological conditions of sensation and experience, is also the history of the insensiblea€”the history of the process of valorization as it develops in relation to contradictions in the labor process.
This process includes every electric or electronic plug and cord connecting Baiera€™s computer, his monitors, his speakers, and his scanner. Although it draws the space within which the artist works and thinks into the space of the museum, the artist is pointedly absent. It patently shows off the artista€™s mastery of that form of technA“ so crucial to contemporary art practice: the capacity to get funding.
At his desk, thinking, communicating, representing, the artist enters into the circuits of capital, the movement of valorizationa€”as do we all, one way or another. He then melted the meteorite down and used the graphite of which it was composed to paint the surface of Monochrome (Black).
The trustees must have thought he was something extra, for they hired him at least three times. The prayer, without exception, was a regular stereotyped edition and it was not long before most of us, knew it from beginning to end. These Schools became so crowded that the School room could not accommodate the Students, so the larger boys were allowed to study out in the woods near the School house. The small boys did not get all the thrashings now and then a good sized would have to take one. He knew what figures would solve the problem and knew how to arrange them for this purpose but he could not make you understand it. We all deserved a whipping from him, but for all that we continued to be bad boys, and would take the risk in order to have fun. So, plasma has truer color and does better in darker rooms, and LCD has more vivid color and does better in bright rooms. In the light of this observation, the missionary and the terrorist stand revealed as brothers-in-arms.
Making a work of art, breaking a therapeutic impasse, or modifying a relationship are three of many possibilities for new forms of expression that liberate the archetypal power from remaining trapped a€?in mattera€? (in symptom or illness).
One can almost hear in popular a€?thinking positivea€? propaganda the voice of the family cheerleader castigating brothers and sisters for being so a€?depressinga€? as to discuss Dad's alcoholic violencea€”or on a national level, the violence inflicted by the precarious rule of empirea€”out in the open. Although the alarm should be raised about overmedicationa€”psychotropics are even being found in public water suppliesa€”I have known people with major psychiatric disorders for whom the advice to go off meds to do a€?psychological worka€? has been disastrous.
Dallett pleads us to acknowledge that the terrible in human life is real and that only by confronting it, by taking it by its horns, do we have a chance of not being controlled by it. The Rhino represents an instinctual mercurial principle in psyche that holds the power to heal or to wound. The Rhino becomes an imaginal companion for Pat Britt and Dallett speculates that his a€?dependable presence may compensate the uncertainty of a life in which death is always at handa€? (p.33). We follow the patienta€™s devoted inner work with the dream rhino, as he emerges into a living imaginative reality: mentor, opposite and guide, and we learn of the healing of her life-threatening physical illness. In Britta€™s initial dream, the dream that is thought to foretell the course of therapy, a small rhinoceros charges her, but she catches him by the horn and holds on. If you can let it speak to you, and give it what it needs you will have an inner partner for the life that remains to you, however long or short that may be.a€? (p. Royalties, in part, go to the International Rhino Foundation, which helps to preserve the rhinoceros from extinction. And it is through this history, this mediation, that art takes up techniques which throw us back outside the history of capital, outside the history of mimesisa€”indeed, outside the history of the human, the history of thought, and the history of sensationa€”within and through the technical means to which the linked histories of capital, mimesis, and technics give rise. Labor time is that abstract, universal equivalent which will find its answer in the universal abstraction of the money form, and value is not a material thing but a social relation. Production produces both surplus value and capital, and capital produces expanded cycles of accumulation.
One consequence of this failure is that he has no rigorous means of accounting for the relation of his history of art and artistic regimes to the history of capital, to structural changes of the contradiction between capital and labor. Insofar as intellectual labor is subsumed by capital, as is manual labor, the forms of thought themselves enter into a relation of dialectical genesis with the value form. For Kittler, it is not transcendental categories but media technologies which determine the conditions of any possible experience. The capitalist wants to extend the working day as much as possible, and to reduce wages as much as possible. What Marx calls a€?real subsumptiona€? is this revolutionizing of the production process such that it becomes properly capitalist.
Thus, as relatively more capital is invested in constant capital and relatively less capital is invested in variable capital, relatively less capital is available for conversion into surplus value. The process of real subsumption thus also requires the growth of the tertiary service sector, which produces both a new labor market and new fields of commodity production and consumption. These not only enable the growth of the tertiary service sector and its forms of communicative labor and consumption, they also themselves produce new markets of goods and services.
Shortly after he coined the term a€?immaterial labor,a€? Maurizio Lazzarato renounced it, for the good reason that the term was impossible to reconcile with a materialist position.
It includes the crumpled pieces of paper in his trash can and a book lying open beside his keyboard.
The piece is something like an anti-humanist negation of relational aesthetics: perfectly finished, enclosed, complete, pristine, it subtracts the participation of the viewer precisely through the viewera€™s gaze, which is drawn into and lost within the reflexive auto-mimesis of the object. The distribution of the insensible: the movement of capital, the structural transformation of the contradiction between capital and labor, the circuitous courses of the process of valorizationa€”all this is how a digital information system ends up inside a mirrored box in the company of fluorescent lighting and minimalist furnishings, installed on the distressed concrete floors of an art gallery. The matter of the object thus remains, and so does its form, but the object itself has disappeared into an uncanny splitting of their formerly integral relation. Canvas shows us the primordial matter of mimesis: the substrate of inaugural images carved in stone, with stone. The School room was divided by a partition the girls and small boys in one end and the lads and large boys in the other. He had a fine system with good discipline, and all the pupils, that could learn, progressed finely. As soon as the lesson began, I noticed it was about North Carolina, and Miss Mary began to spread herself on her favorite theme to the utter disgust of some of the class. Quite a number of boys always reached the School house very early, long before it was time for the teacher to arrive. I have seen boys come to school with an extra heavy coat, when they knew they had to take a whipping. He was a fine teacher as far as he knew and what he did not know, he pretended to know and on this account he was constantly getting into holes. I don't know why, but, I suppose, it was because at this time the members of the board of trustees were less puritanical than formerly, I suppose.
I am thinking of people legitimately diagnosed with bipolar disorder who took similar advice from their gurus and ended up psychotic; one, a former student, is still homeless and ranting in the streets.

As fantastic amounts of money continued to be funneled upward, the number of Americans living below the poverty line soars higher than ever before. There is a story about the late Edward Edinger in which someone asked him, a€?What is new in Jungian psychology?a€? He replied, a€?New? Then I am reminded of the story of Edinger and his comments about what is old and what is new in Jungian psychology.
Instead she asks us to recognize violence as an intrinsic aspect of the collective psyche, one that must find expression and that does have a purpose as when a€?the Self often breaks into consciousness in ways that are violent, primitive, even monstrous.
The unconscious is a minefield of devastating, destructive potentials, but without venturing, and at times suffering this minefield, there is no way of getting to the treasures. In Pat Britta€™s case, it was the spirit released from a life threatening illness that took the image of this large, gravelly voiced Rhino. Finally we see that this work gives the former patient her independence of analysis and analyst. As Marx tells us in Chapter 8 of Volume One, a€?the means of production on one hand, labor-power on the other, are merely the different forms of existence which the value of the original capital assumed when it lost its monetary form and was transformed into the various factors of the production process.a€? Both the means of production and labor power are different elements of capital in its own valorization process. In my opinion, this is a problem substantial enough to render his history of aesthetics more or less irrelevant. For Sohn-Rethel, the Kantian transcendental subject is the representative modern figure of this dialectic (though its status as such is occluded by the idealism of transcendental philosophy). The rate of surplus value extraction depends upon these factors (this is called a€?absolute surplus valuea€?).
It is not only that labor is subsumed under the value form, but that the very constitution of labor itself changes.
Capital needs to invest more in technology in order to increase productivity and sustain the valorization process. The new regime of accumulation that accompanies this structural transformation is what Guy Debord theorizes as the Spectacle. And more importantly, they are the technological ground for the massive growth of speculative markets we call a€?financialization,a€? which is predicated (in its contemporary form) upon the exchange of digital information. He should have referred instead to a€?insensible labor.a€? Information and cognition are not immaterial, but they are insensible.
Each of these reproduced objects is then plated in mirrored nickel before being rearranged, in in a reproduction of their configuration, within a parallelepiped encased on all six sides in one-way mirrored glass and illuminated by overhead fluorescent light.
His studio is something like the Platonic form of so-called a€?immaterial labora€?a€”designer furniture and designer devices, neatly arrayed with the precision of an architectural firm blessed with a particularly fastidious custodial staff. This movement, this transformation, this process is what we are looking at, though we cannot see it. The writer has seen balls rolled over the floor or thrown across the room to be caught by other boys. The teacher would steal out occasionally and catch the boys playing cards, stick frog or some other game.
On a certain morning we were all there as usual, in and out of the School room having a big time. I have seen him begin to feel for his switches, while he was saying the last sentences of his prayer, so when he arose he could begin to whip for some devilment during prayer. For a speech if we could get hold of something humorous, so much the better especially poetry. He had about three verses all such doggerel as this quoted here, and we saw at once a good chance to create some fun, so we told him it was the very thing, and we hurriedly wrote it down in full as he repeated it to us. There were very few streams South of Mason & Dickson's line in which he had not fished.
This was their first School and consequently they were green as the grass as to the ways and customs of School.
But, therea€™s no such thing as a 1080p TV broadcast (cable, satellite, anything), and wona€™t be for years. Actually, it was an illustration for a Saturday Evening Post short story, a€?The Slipper Tongue,a€? about a slick-tongued horse thief fleeing a lynch mob.
All you have to do is to tell them they are being attacked, and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger.
Athens, to honor god of wine & drama, Dionysus [Baccus], where comic actors wore padded phalluses as part of their costumes.
I have also known people with schizophrenia who could never hold down jobs or attend school without some kind of long-term antipsychotic medication. People still dona€™t understand the old.a€? Author Dallett might heartily agree with this sentiment. He speaks to our desperate post-modern world, saying we must turn away from our arrogance and learn again to live with the rhinos, the crocodiles, and all the natural, instinctive forms of life a€“ now, before they are gone, leaving us alone, alienated, and doomed to extinctiona€? (p.37).
But we can also recognize, as Catherine Malabou argues in What Should We Do With Our Brain?, that there is a structural homology between post-Fordist management discourse emphasizing non-hierarchical networks, self-organization, flexibility, and innovation, and contemporary neurological theory, which views the brain as a decentralized network of neuronal assemblies and emphasizes neurological plasticity as the ground of cognitive flexibility and adaptation. In the discourse network of 1800, the book is the site of an encounter between reading and writing, wherein the romantic imagination produces a projection of the soul into what Novalis calls a€?a real, visible world,a€? written into and read off of printed signifiers, emerging from the text as synaesthetic phantasmagoria in which all the senses are drawn together by the hallucinatory experience of Literature.
Importantly, then, real subsumption requires and depends upon technological innovation: the capitalist process of production both needs and produces new machines because these increase productivity within a given period of time and thus compensate for limits on the length of the working day. But by doing so, it also decreases the amount of capital which can be converted into surplus value. The tech boom and its implosion are the logical and necessary outcome of real subsumption, pushing beyond its limits into the society of the Spectacle.
And the forms of affective labor which precisely are sensed are premised upon the indistinction of labor and leisure, the impossibility of distinguishing them under conditions of post-Fordist accumulation. Star (Black) confronts us with an extra-terrestrial outside, encountered, vanished, recordeda€”at once absent and yet uncannily present as residue and reproduction. Has seen some of the most venturesome boys go out into the middle of the floor and pile up one another lengthwise, until the bottom one was pressed so hard by the pile of boys, he could scarcely breathe. Sometimes he would find the shanties vacant, the boys being away on a raid on somebody's orchard or water-melon patch. She could hear recitations and that was about all; she did not know how to teach, and, I suppose, nobody but her brother knew it. He did not know who it was or did he ask, but he knew about where it had been going on, and there he would do his work covering a plenty of territory in order to be certain that he would get all who had been cutting up. He told this so differently so many times nobody believed him; but he certainly had received a pretty fair education somewhere and what he knew, he knew thoroughly but he would occasionally overstep himself and, if he became cornered, he did not hesitate to make statements that were untrue. Soon after the School had assembled and School work had begun, these two boys walked into the School room and took seats on the nearest bench. What's important in such cases is to prescribe a correct and accurate dosage not only to contain extreme symptoms but to make psychological work possiblea€”work that includes dealing with the psyche's responses to the need for medication. If the Self in such sufferers is enraged, social constraints and injustices give it excellent reason to be, for as Martin Luther King pointed out long ago, a riot [like a symptom] is the language of the unheard. In her latest offering she reanimates many penetrating insights from Jung and reminds us that they are as cogent and urgent now as when Jung first presented them. In response to her dream, the woman took up the task of relating to the unconscious through art, dialogue with the rhinoceros and study of dreams. The concrete process of transforming materials through labor, aided by tools, is subsumed by the abstract process of valorization.
In the discourse network of 1900, gramophone, film, and typewriter effect an analytic separation of this sensory synthesis, constituting distinct technologies of recording and transmission for sound, the moving image, and the written word. Thus, due to forces of competition and technological innovation driving increased productivity, the rate of surplus value extraction tends to decline. It is labor itself that becomes insensible under these conditions, dispersed into networks linking neurons and screens and indistinguishable from the most intimate gestures of our affective lives. These are images of the deep time of human and cosmological history, outside the limits of modernity, of capital and its enabling technologies of representation. If it turned suddenly cold and the teacher directed a fire to be made at recess, the boys would pile on wood until the fire came out at the chimney tops. McKerall followed him to the door and told him he never went outside the door to pursue a pupil. The picture was a ludicrous representation of the teacher, one of the artist's masterpieces. After it was finished and we had him to read it over more than once so he would make no mistake, we told him it was just one of the best compositions that would be read that afternoon.
He would get on occasional drunk, was a great gambler at times, and at one time, even joined the Radical party and chummed with the niggers.
The remarkable dreams and healing experience of this dreamer make up one part of this rich book and serve to illustrate and put flesh on the abstract bones of some of C.G.
Such would be a historical materialist account of conceptual abstraction following from Sohn-Rethela€™s critical of idealist epistemology. What Kittler calls a€?media differentiationa€? carves up the Romantic imagination, sutured to the book, and parcels out its capacities among discrete technologies addressed to a segmented perceiver: an ear, an eye, a minda€”a modernist collage of the formerly integral subject. Thus, it is only possible to extend the working day so much, or to reduce wages to so little, because the reproduction of capital depends upon the reproduction of labor. What the installation asks us to think, however, is the manner in which it is these technologies of representation which record this outside, which draw our attention to it and make it manifest.
He had poor discipline and the Scholars, especially the big ones, did almost as they pleased. Sometimes the chimney fire places would begin to smoke and the teacher on investigating the cause, would find a wide board over the top of the chimney and a ladder resting against it. It usually took about a year in this to qualify for the reader; then came the various readers and Smith's English Grammar.
We had such a boy in our class and he was continually calling on some of the class to read the lesson of his particular period for him.
These occasions were opportunities for much fun to the most of us and generally speaking some of the boys would get a whipping before the exercises were over, for some of their pranks. He was a gifted conversationalist and always had on hand a store of anicdotes of remininiscincs in which he was the hero. The precise transformations of materials it enablesa€”its retentional exactitudea€”precisely negate all transformation.
He had quite a number of young men, and they were what you might call bad boys, always up to some devilment. I have seen McKeral often come into the room and tell her she must have better order, that really the disorder was annoying him on his side. It struck me as quite strange that the teacher would make such a selection, but it was not long before I solved the riddle. Every new arrival was led up and took in the picture, and there would be a new burst of merriment.
He said his native state was Kentucky, but this was very doubtful for he really lacked common-geographical knowledge of that commonwealth.
Simply put, the way we thinka€”the form of thinkinga€”is dialectically intertwined with the structure and the historical movement of capitalist accumulation. Like Malicka€™s The Tree of Life, Baiera€™s meteorite indexes a cosmological time and an inhuman history which never was sensed, which was prior to sensationa€”though, like Malicka€™s film, Baier makes this history manifest through the most sophisticated technological means of representation. One of the chief things that recommended McDuffie to the trustees, I suppose, was because he whipped a good deal. I thought the situation a very grave one and expected the boy to get a whipping, then and there, but McKerall instead of giving the boy a flogging, burst out laughing and said the answer was the best he ever heard, and that the boy must not be punished. A few days after this, a boy about the same age or older, but spare and deliate, ran out of the School house and McKerall ran after him some distance from the School house. His object was to read the book through, so he had started at the beginning and he continued from day to day to read each succeeding chapter until he finished the book.
So one might possibly manage to get through and receive credit for a good lesson and only prepare a certain period. The labor of the artist is the transformation of money, through materials, into its own image.
Baiera€™s Canvas, a meticulous photographic recording of the bare stone wall beside the first recorded images, situates this indexical effort within the whole history of representationa€”again, carrying us outside the modern technics of mimetic exactitude which make the digital rendering of this stone wall possible in the first place. The trustees thought that this was very necessary and a teacher that did not use the rod was no account.
Latin and Greek were taught from text books that would now (1916) be considered antiquated and out of date.
I had not been in there long before I was impressed with the fact that the State of North Carolina was a great place. When you come to think about it the answer was a very good one for at that period a good many people of the laboring class, having such occupations and complexions came from North Carolina to get employment. He could certainly say truthfully that he had read the New Testament through for he had many witnesses to the fact.
He knew from the order in which we sat exactly what period would fall to him; so if he could get some of us to read his period, his Latin lesson would not be much of a task.
We selected our own subjects, and if blank paper was not handy, we were allowed to write on our slates. He had now begun the second verse and the teacher, by this time took in both the character of the composition and the merriment it was causing, yelled out, "What do you mean, Sir? But the growing data about the impact of a deep alignment of psyche and body reveals that we have merely scratched the surface of that mysterious intersection. But this is also to transform them into an art object: neither tool nor raw material, neither instrument nor that to which it is applied.
McDuffie filled the specification in this respect and hardly a day passed, but somebody got a whipping. There was not as much whipping as previous Schools, but there was enough for the trustees not to complain for the lack of it. She was constantly talking about her State what a grand State it was, and what it had done. All of the boys were hoping McKerall would go out after the boy for they wanted to see the fight. The trustees thought he was really religious and they would talk about their pious teacher's say. The teacher always gave notice that he would take no excuse for not having a speech and a composition, and if you had none you might expect a whipping.
The boys had a heap of fun, but the School management did not give them the opportunity some of the previous Schools did. A connection and engagement to the depths of the psyche that stimulates powerful healthy growth and that transforms body as well as psyche is unhappily still on the fringe of accepted consensus today, this in spite of what depth psychologists, in addition to Jung, have intimated or stated for over one hundred years.
Rather, a worked form, presented, apparently useless and withdrawn from exchangea€”though of course it has its uses and cannot help but find its way back to market. The picture was left on the board and I thought as the last straw, possibly, it might be over looked and at recess I would rub it out, but not so, for as soon as the School settled to their studies, I noticed that different ones were pointing to the board, and soon there was a general titter throughout the room. One morning, soon after getting to the School house, he came up and begged and implored me to read his period for him. A great many of the boys never thought of writing composition until about the time the exercises were to begin. He felt safe, he thought, in the old Captain's company to assert that a certain river in Kentucky rose in a certain place and flowed into a certain other river.
Clair told him that it was not right to reply in that way, that when he was asked his name, he should say Samuel and not Sam. The small boy's mind is very receptive, and it was not long before I was thinking very favorably of our sister commonwealth.
You could see boys all over the room busy fixing up something to read and avoid a thrashing. These were the books generally used in all the Schools at that time (1853) and most of the first class teachers could teach them or pretended to.
He used the rod pretty freely, mostly on the lads and small boys, but now and then he would tackle a big one. Sometimes some of the boys would be pressed for time and when called on had hardly begun to compose, but they would get up and read from a blank slate their pretended compositions and to give their minds time to work in composing they would pretend to dot i's or cross t's and so on to the close.
When the class was called and became seated the teacher told Bill Bethea to go to the board and transform the first example which is the one quoted above.
If a Scholar, for instance wished an example in Arithmetic worked out he would become so absorbed as to be totally oblivious to his surroundings. During her term a rather funny incident took place and which I witnessed so I relate it here. If a boy read from a blank slate, he always, the moment he finished, rubbed out his pretended composition. In the meantime Bill and I were almost busting with laughter; everything had panned out so nicely, and we were enjoying the fun it was causing.
Clair did not know that the old Captain was an expert in this study, but he was more particular afterwards when around the Captain.
Sometimes things would become so outrageous, he would realize that something wrong was going on, and then he would jump up, grab his switch and commence whaling the small boys. I wished to see it, to correct it," but the boy would answer that he did it unintentionally or that he did not know he wished to see it. We saw that we were getting a lot of whipping the big boys ought to get and consequently we studied how to avoid a whipping. I did so, taking more time than necessary for I wished to put off the punishment as long as possible. I told some of the class what I had done and when we were called up to recite, we took our seats in the usual order and the recitation began. I remember on one occasion, a certain boy in the school, who was awfully afraid of the teacher, came to Bill Bethea and myself and begged us to help him with a composition. If they want the round method, I teach that and if they desire the flat system, I teach it". Covington as a School teacher a decided failure, at least, so far as young Students were concerned. This boy was about fourth or fifth down the row and I noticed from his manner that he was anxious for his time to come. When he whipped, he went at it systematically commencing on the first row, then the second and so on until he finished all the rows. He arose and read it exactly as he had been coached; using a little more emphasis than usual on account of I suppose, his unusual good preparation. We told him to write any little thing, something about a dog or a cow or a horse that he could say something on a subject like that, but he said it was impossible, he could not think of a thing to say, and here it was almost time for the exercises to begin.
Now, we had not calculated on this turn, and the thing was to make some excuse that would prevent a whipping, so we had to do some fast thinking.
We asked him if he knew any piece of poetry, that told about the flowers, spring time or some such subject, hoping to find something in these that would suggest some ideas on which he could build a short composition.
If you happened to be, say on the third row and wished to escape a whipping, it was a simple matter to move your seat to the row number two, he had just finished. The teacher came near laughing, but he managed to curb himself and instantly roared out, "What do you mean, Sir?
This scheme worked admirably for a while but soon too many boys got to using it and had to be abandoned. The teacher said if such was our motive it was commendable and that he hoped our lesson would bear fruit, good fruit, and we went to our seats. Now, the teacher took our explanation in good faith, he did not know that we had invented the excuse on the spur of the moment.

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