The National Academy of Sciences recommends that the average person consume 45 to 65 percent of her daily calories from carbohydrates, approximately 900 to 1,300 calories per day based on a 2,000 calorie-a-day diet plan.
The primary function of this bodybuilding diet is to help you lose weight after a period of putting on mass.
The time frame of the six-meal-a-day bodybuilding diet depends upon your current daily caloric intake.
Eat a small bowl of protein-rich cereal, glass of orange juice and three egg whites for breakfast. Do not consume fewer than the recommended 45 to 65 percent of your daily recommended level of carbohydrates without first talking it over with your doctor or dietician. Recent studies on humans and rodents have suggested that the timing of food intake plays an important role in circadian regulation and metabolic health. Mice on one meal exhibited an increase in body weight gain, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and a decrease of gene expression associated with I?-oxidation in adipose tissue and liver compared with those on two meals. In conclusion, a bigger breakfast with a smaller dinner (two meals per day) but not breakfast only (one meal per day) helps control body weight and fat accumulation in mice on a high-fat meals schedule. BackgroundExcess caloric intake is associated with the development of obesity, increased adiposity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and hyperleptinemia.
Collection of blood and tissue for hormones and gene expression assayMice were maintained on the feeding schedule for 8a€‰weeks before sacrifice.
Clock gene expression in visceral adipose (WAT) and liver tissues in mice with one meal or two meals. The daily rhythm of Per2 and Bmal1 gene expression in liver was rhythmic in all three groups (Table 3, one-way ANOVA) (Figure 3E, 3D). Metabolic related gene expression in (WAT and liver tissues in mice with one meal or two meals.
I?-oxidation related gene expression in WAT and liver tissues in mice with one meal or two meals.
Daily rhythms mRNA levels of liver Srebp-1c, Fas, Fabp1, Mtp, Ppara, and Cpt1 showed significant differences in the FF group, except for Mtp, and in the one meal group, except for Fas (Table 4, one-way ANOVA). However, a bodybuilder may need to follow a slightly different diet plan to achieve the body he needs for competition. However, eating too few carbohydrates can be unhealthy, so it's important to find the right balance. For instance, if you had previously been consuming 4,000 calories-a-day in an effort to build muscle and increase your mass, this diet plan would cut your daily caloric intake by about 300 calories every 10 days. Based on the previous example of 4,000 calories-a-day, you will reduce your intake by 300 calories every 10 days. Consumption of high-fat foods during the inactive period or at the end of the awake period results in weight gain and metabolic syndrome in rodents. The circadian expression pattern of the Clock gene in mice on one meal was disturbed compared with those on two meals. A number of recent studies in animals have linked energy regulation and the circadian clock at the molecular, physiological, and behavioral levels [1]. Zeitgeber time 0 (ZT0) was designated as lights-on time and ZT12 as lights-off time under the LD cycle.
After measurement of body weight, mice were fasted for 24a€‰h, and 4a€“6 mice were sacrificed at each time point (ZT0, ZT6, ZT12, and ZT18). For statistical analysis, a one-way or two-way ANOVA was applied in StatView software (SAS Institute, Cary, NC), and post hoc analysis was conducted using a Tukey-Kramer test.
We decided to give 3.6a€‰g (80% FF) of high-fat diet per day to avoid saving excess food until the next meal time.
Two-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences between FF group and the one meal group, between FF and the two meals group, or between the one-meal and two meals group in daily rhythm of Per2 and Bmal1 gene expression (Table 3) (Figure 3A, 3B).
Expression of the Bmal1 gene in the two meals group was significantly lower than that in the one meal or FF groups (Table 3, two-way ANOVA) (Figure 3E, 3D).
At first, restricted feeding (80% of FF, one meal, or two meals per day) of high-fat diets significantly attenuated the metabolic syndrome. The gradual decrease in calories and low-carb nature of the plan can help you lose excess fat and tighten up before a competition. This pattern would continue until you reach 1,000 calories per day, which is the minimum number of calories you should be eating each day.
If you feel any signs of dizziness, extreme weakness, nausea or drowsiness while taking part in this diet plan, consult your doctor right away. Clock gene mutant mice exhibit obesity and hyper-cholesterol under conditions of high-fat and high-cholesterol diets, respectively [2, 3]. A terminal blood sample was collected from the retroorbital sinus under deep ether anesthesia.
Body weight gain and body fat were significantly higher in the high-fat FF group compared with the restricted-feeding group.
He graduated with honors from Kellogg Community College in 2010 with an Associate of Applied Science.


In addition, Clock mutant mice exhibit abnormal activity and feeding rhythms; they eat not only during night period but also during the day period. There were also no significant difference in Srebp-1c, Fas, Fabp1, Mtp, and Ppara between the one meals vs FF groups, two meals vs FF groups, and one meal vs two meals groups (Table 4, two-way ANOVA), except for Cpt1 between the FF vs two meals groups, and between the one meals vs two meals groups. There were no significant differences in average Srebp-1c and Fas expressions between the one meal and two meals groups (Figure 4J, 4K). Thus, the experiments demonstrate that restricted feeding (80% of FF volume) is remarkably effective for protecting against obesity and metabolic syndrome.
For this reason, plan out this diet plan to finish within a week of your competition for optimal results.
Experimental animal care was conducted with permission from the Committee for Animal Experimentation of the School of Science and Engineering at Waseda University (permission # 09A11, 10A11) and in accordance with the Law (No. The time course of body weight gain was evaluated using a one-way ANOVA, and differences between the groups were assessed by the two-way ANOVA (Figure 1B).
Y-axis: the relative levels of each data set are normalized to the corresponding Gapdh mRNA levels. In the present experiments, a high-fat diet was given to control mice under free-feeding conditions. Your fourth meal could consist of a whey protein shake or meal replacement shake with or without orange juice. In human studies, eating meals irregularly was positively associated with metabolic syndrome in a population-based, cross-sectional study [8].
Visceral and subcutaneous adipose were dissected and weighed, and liver tissue was also dissected from each mouse.
There was no significant difference in the average Fabp1 and Mtp expression (Figure 4F, 5D). In addition, human studies on non-breakfast eaters and night-eating syndrome patients are consistent with the timing of food intake being a determining factor for weight gain [9, 10]. The high-fat diet comprised 40% calories from fat, while the normal diet comprised 10% calories from fat. Therefore, it is suggested that two meals per day rather than one meal such as breakfast only is a preferable eating schedule for protecting against obesity and metabolic syndrome produced by the high-fat diet. Arble et al [11] reported that limiting high-fat intake to the 12-h light phase (sleep period for rodents) results in significantly greater weight gain in mice compared with mice restricted to high-fat feeding during the 12-h dark phase (awake period for rodents). Feeding volume under the FF condition of the high-fat diet was approximately 4.5a€‰g per day.
In the present study, we analyzed the subcutaneous, visceral, and total fat ratio in three groups of mice because visceral and subcutaneous fat is associated with metabolic syndrome (leptin and adiponectin secretion, and insulin resistance) in humans [19, 20]. This meal plan is based on a 1,100 calorie plan with 150 g of protein, 76 g of carbs and 17 g of fats. In a restricted feeding experiment, food restricted to the normal sleep period increased the body weight of rats [12]. We decided to give 3.6a€‰g (80% FF) per day to avoid saving the diet until the next meal time.
After 8a€‰weeks of the one meal or two meals per day schedule, mice for each time point were sacrificed after 24a€‰h of fasting. It is also known that visceral adipose percentage, insulin levels, and leptin levels are higher in persons with more severe metabolic disorder [19, 20].To understand the mechanism mediating differences of body weight gain between groups, we examined the daily rhythm patterns of serum levels of insulin, leptin, and adiponectin, as well as their average levels throughout the day.
Although, these rodent experiments are important, limiting food availability to the time in which these nocturnal animals are normally sleeping is associated with disturbed biological rhythms.
The daily significant rhythms of insulin, leptin, and adiponectin were observed in the high-fat group and FF groups (Table 2, one-way ANOVA). Significantly daily rhythms of serum insulin, leptin, and adiponectin were observed in the high-fat FF group but not in the one meal or two meals groups.
Recently, Bray et al [13] examined how manipulating the timing of feeding during the normal awake period influences metabolic syndrome. On the other hand, one-way ANOVA showed no significant daily rhythms of insulin leptin and adiponectin in the one meal or two meals groups (Table 2, one-way ANOVA).
Therefore, we cannot explain the difference of body weight gain in relation to the difference in daily rhythm of these hormones.
They demonstrated that the time of day at which carbohydrate versus fat is consumed markedly influences multiple cardiometabolic syndrome parameters and that consumption of a high-fat diet at the end of the awake period leads to increased weight gain, adiposity, glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia. Two-way ANOVA revealed significant differences in insulin, leptin, and adiponectin between the FF group and two meals group (Table 2). Insulin and leptin levels were significantly lower, and adiponectin levels were higher in the two meals per day group than in the FF group, suggesting that restricted feeding with two meals a day is remarkably effective for protecting against obesity and metabolic syndrome.
Recently, Wu et al., [14] reported that rats given two meals per day during the latter half of the active period exhibit high adipose tissue accumulation compared with those given three meals per day during active periods or with those given two meals per day during the earlier half of the active period under the same amount of total food every day. The conditions of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were the same as those of our previous paper [18]. Insulin and leptin levels were relatively higher in the one meal group compared with the two meals group.


Thus, the absence of breakfast or dinner significantly affects body weight gain and adipose tissue accumulation.In humans, regular consumption of breakfast is associated with a healthier body weight compared with skipping breakfast [15].
The relative light unit of the PCR product of the target gene was normalized to that of Gapdh. Similarly, children who regularly eat breakfast tend to have a lower body-mass-index and are less likely to be overweight than those who eat breakfast less frequently [15]. Such findings suggest that eating breakfast is a good lifestyle habit for maintaining good health. If skipping breakfast in humans [15] and rodents [14] is a bad habit with regard to obesity, then in contrast, consuming a larger breakfast may be a good habit.
Thus, lower expression levels of these genes may contribute to the lower metabolic syndrome seen in the two meals group, because FAS is a key enzyme in the fatty acid synthetic pathway [23] and because mRNA levels of Fas in liver of obese mice fed a high-fat diet are extremely high [5]. FABP1 and MTP are known to contribute to the import of fatty acids and the export of VLDL, respectively [24, 25]. The phase of the liver clock has been reported to be dependent on meal size and meal timing under a two meals per day schedule and also on nutritional composition of the meal [17, 18]. In the present study, the two meals group exhibited high expression levels of liver Fabp1 and Mtp gene expression than the one meal or FF groups, suggesting that the metabolic circulation of fatty acid through the liver may be facilitated in the two meals group. Thus, eating habits may contribute to not only body weight gain, but also the circadian pattern of Clock gene expression in peripheral organs.In the present study therefore, we examined whether the parameters of metabolic syndrome were differentially affected in mice that consumed a large meal at the beginning of the awake period (breakfast) and a relatively smaller meal at end of the awake period (dinner), compared with mice that ate an only breakfast.
Gene expression of Ppara and Cpt1 occurs in liver and adipose tissue in the two meals group, but not in the one meal or FF groups. Experiments were conducted using a high-fat diet as it facilitated obesity under the free-feeding (FF) condition, making it is easy to distinguish the effect of meal pattern differences on obesity.
As both genes play critical roles in beta oxidation in the mitochondria [26], up-regulation observed in the two meals group suggests a high rate of fatty acid consumption. As parameters of metabolic syndrome, we measured the serum levels of insulin, leptin, and adiponectin, because insulin and leptin levels are increased while adiponectin level is decreased in obesity and diabetes [19, 20]. These mechanisms may underlie the small adipose accumulation and low weight gain in the two meals group.Recently, Bray et al [13] reported that mice fed a high-fat diet at the beginning of the awake period retain metabolic flexibility in response to dietary challenges later in the awake period, and conversely, that consumption of a high-fat diet at the end of the awake period leads to increased weight gain, adiposity, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperleptinemia.
Many enzymes involved in fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis are tightly regulated during fasting and feeding [21].
Similarly, Wu et al., [14] recently reported that rats given two meals per day during the latter half of the active period exhibited high adipose tissue accumulation than those given two meals per day during the earlier half of the active period or those given three meals per day during active periods with the same amount of total food per day.
The concordance of Wua€™s data with Braya€™s data clearly suggests that rodents fed a high-fat diet or a high-calorie diet at the beginning of the awake period may be in better health than mice fed a high-fat diet at the end of the awake period or a high-calorie diet.
In addition, a critical role of SREBP-1c in the transcriptional activation of lipogenic genes such as a fatty acid synthase (FAS) has been shown [23]. In addition, our results suggest that breakfast only (one meal) is worse for heath than a big breakfast with a small dinner (two meals).
FABP1 and MTP contribute to the import of fatty acids and the export of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), respectively [24, 25]. In the present study, we measured expression levels of Srebp-1c, Fas, Fabp1, Mtp, PparI±, and Cpt1 in liver and white adipose tissue, because these genes contribute to lipid metabolism. Thus, the expression pattern of the Clock gene in mice with two meals is similar to that in mice with FF of normal diet [27]. In a recent paper we demonstrated that the phase of Clock gene expression in liver is dependent on the food volume eaten at each mealtime when mice are given one meal or two meals per day [18].
Animal models of disrupted circadian rhythm, such as Clock mutant mice [2] and mice housed in low levels of light at night [28], as well as shift-work animals [12], exhibit increased weight gain and hypertriglyceridemia. Arble et al [11] reported that restricted feeding with a high-fat diet during the sleep period is associated with increased weight gain in mice.
Such restrictive food intake at this inappropriate time of the day has been shown to desynchronize the peripheral clock. Several papers demonstrate the existence of numerous lipid metabolism-related clock-controlled genes, including Srebp-1c and Fas,[5, 29a€“31]. Circadian rhythm disorder of Clock gene expression seen in the FF and one meal groups may disturb the normal expression of clock-controlled genes associated with digestive metabolism. In human experiments, obese children consume less energy at breakfast, miss breakfast more frequently, and consume a higher percentage of energy at dinner than adults [32]. A decline in the frequency of eating breakfast and the emergence of the obesity epidemic have raised scientific interest in the possible causal role of breakfast in weight control and related disease risks [33]. In the present study, mice were given a high-fat diet from 8a€‰weeks old until 16a€‰weeks old. Therefore, in future experiments, a high-fat diet should be given to mice just after weaning to understand dietary habits in adolescents.In conclusion, a bigger breakfast with a smaller dinner (two meals per day) but not breakfast only (one meal per day) helps control body weight and fat in mice on a high-fat meals schedule.



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