This page provides a breakdown of information about twenty of the most commonly used cooking oils and fats, including their fat type proportions and smoke points. Generally, oils and fats with a high proportion of saturated fat are less healthy than those with higher poly and mono unsaturated fats.
Polyunsaturated fats can help lower cholesterol, omega-3 polyunsaturates may help protect against heart disease and omega-6 fatty acids may help with growth and brain function. Generally, choose cooking oils and fat with low saturated fat and a good mix of mono and poly unsaturated fats.
The smoke point of an oil or fat is the temperature at which it starts to burn and degrade – oils and fats with a higher smoke point are more suited to frying food than those with lower smoke points, which are more suited for cold use - such as in salad dressings. The following tables show more information about each of our twenty common cooking fats and oils.
Similar to lard (pork fat), beef fat was once common in British cuisine, although now has been mostly replaced by healthier vegetable oils.
Despite being an animal fat, chicken fat contains more monounsaturated fats than saturated. Used mainly in the production of chocolate, cocoa butter is extracted from the cocoa bean and contains high levels of saturated fat.  Although there is the same about of fat in both dark and milk chocolate, dark chocolate contains more antioxidants and is less sweet. Extracted from the flesh of the coconut, the seed of the coconut palm tree, coconut oil is very high in saturated fat (92%). Unlike saturated fats from animal sources that are made up of predominately long-chain triglycerides (LCT), the type of saturated fat associated with health problems and weight gain, coconut oil has a high proportion of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT). Coconut oil is often used in curries and other dishes from The Caribbean and Southern Asia, especially in Thai food.With thanks to Dr. Cotton seed oil is common in many foodstuffs from salad dressings and mayonnaise to many processed foods, especially in the US where it is an inexpensive alternative to other oils.  Most famously, cotton seed oil is traditionally the main component of Crisco vegetable shortening.
Ghee is a type of clarified butter commonly used in, and associated with, the cuisine of the Indian sub-continent.
Palm kernel oil is extracted from the kernel of the oil palm tree.  It shares similar qualities with, but is not the same as, palm oil which is extracted from the oil palm fruit. Safflower oil comes from the seeds of the safflower plant, which resembles a thistle with a yellow flower.  There are two main types of safflower oil, one that contains mainly monounsaturated fat and one that contains mainly polyunsaturated. Used as a cooking oil and flavour enhancer in Southern India, China, Korea and other parts of Asia, sesame oil is extracted from sesame seeds.  Sesame oil is relatively low in saturated fats has a good mix of mono and polyunsaturated fats with high levels (40%) of omega-6 fatty acid and can be a valuable source of vitamin E. There are several layers to this and, frankly, there are some things we can’t fully explain – I’ll always acknowledge this.
Take a look again at the figure below, which shows you how many calories folks are consuming on each diet and, more importantly, where those calories come from.
You’ll note that people on these diets, including the strictest low-fat high-carb diets, significantly reduce their total amount of carbohydrates (therefore reducing the amount of insulin they secrete). The reason, I believe, most of these diets have some efficacy – at least in the short-term – is that they all reduce sugar and highly refined carbohydrate intake, either explicitly or implicitly.
Someone made a great point in response to my post on why fruits and vegetables are not actually necessary for good health.
I know a lot of people who eat this way and, I’ve got to say, these folks do not eat a lot of sugar or a lot of highly refined carbohydrates. While I do plan to write an entire post on this topic of what one can and cannot conclude from an experiment, I do want to at least make the point here: The biggest single problem with nutrition “science” is that cause and effect are rarely linked correctly. I am, to be clear, not implying this is the case for this trial, but I want you to understand why it’s important to read papers fully. This trial, The Lifestyle Heart Trial, prospectively randomized a group of not-so-healthy patients into two treatment groups: the control group and the experimental group (or what we’d call the “treatment” or “intervention” group).
First off, and perhaps most importantly from the standpoint of drawing conclusions, compliance was reported to be excellent and the differences between the groups were statistically significant on every metric, except total average caloric intake. Take a moment to look over the rest of the table (or just skip reading it since I’m going to keep talking about it anyway).
Though not shown in this table, the experimental group also reported less chest pain severity (though chest pain frequency and duration were not statistically different). Let’s take a leap of faith and hypothesize that the dietary intervention (rather than, say, the social support) had the greatest impact on the measured parameters in the subjects.  It’s certainly the most likely factor in my mind.  But what, exactly, can I conclude? People don’t like to be hungry, and if they are reducing their caloric intake by reducing fat intake, they seldom find themselves satiated.
Semi-starvation reduces basal metabolic rate, so your body actually adjusts to the “new” norm and slows down its rate of mobilizing internal fat stores. I argue that reduction of fat intake has nothing to do with it and that the reduction of total calories has a transient effect. It’s *really* tough to study this stuff properly, especially compared to studying things blood pressure lowering pills, which are complex in their own right, but MUCH easier to control in a study. A nutrition department of a university accepts funds from a company that makes confectionery.
Do you think the Academy’s supporters want to hear that if you eliminate their products you will no longer need to rely on the products provided by the biggest supporters of the Diabetic Association? Pretty much solely because of their report, Suzuki was forced to eventually withdraw the Samurai from production in the US although they later won the lawsuit that was filed as a result of the forged report by showing videos from the actual testing of the car conducted by CR. Ironically, the fact that CR had to admit it was faked somehow wasn’t plastered all over their magazines and the front pages of a bunch of newspapers. At that point, everything they publish became suspect and may as well line a birdcage somewhere. Peter, I have a coworker who has recently lost 80lbs over the course of a year on weight watchers. Looking forward to your next post, and of course people's comments for the current one!
I will discuss all of this in great detail, hopefully in the coming month, when I do a post on PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids). Anyway, it’s nice to discover someone who takes the Taubes viewpoint on things, and also takes the time to actually post online about it with some frequency, so thanks! Oh absolutely, I was mostly referring to the fact that most of the excess carbs we eat are converted to palmitic acid, which is a SFA. There was an (1) average protein, low fat group (65% CHO), (2) High protein, low fat group , (3) Average protein, high fat, and (4) high protein, high fat (35% CHO). Thanks very much, Bob, both for the kind comments and for sharing the other data with folks. This section provides all sorts of references for you to use while you are beginning your journey on the low FODMAP diet. But there are SO many other helpful resources in this section for dietitians or individuals that want to learn more about the low FODMAP diet. Just hover over the FODMAP Basics tab to find great information that will help you navigate the low FODMAP diet. Probiotic supplements WITH chicory root or inulin would be a potential issue not probiotics in general. Thanks Kate, So foods from the fruit group and sweeteners that are “safe” should be limited to 1 serving per meal or sitting?


Fruits should be limited to one serving per sitting or meal OR spaced out at least 2-3 hours. Samantha, Yes soy lecithin should not be an issue on the low FODMAP diet to the best of my knowledge. I also had a couple of strawberries today that upset my stomach but I think they were overripe. Before you get amazed with the numerous foods that are actually healthy for the heart, the list of the NO foods will be kinda overwhelming.
Consumption of trans fats must be limited or completely omitted because they significantly increase cholesterol level in the blood.
If you love cheese, ice cream, butter, meat, creams, and food with coconut oils, you better cut back on them because they are high in saturated fat.
One thing that doesn't add up in the anti-dairy camp, is that dairy foods are typically high in calcium. Their statistical analysis and results were very supportive for the use or intake of additional calcium.
Because calcium supplements are cheap, it is likely worth taking the time to review your diet and determine how much calcium you are actually taking in on a daily basis.
There are many prohormones, but there are only a few that convert to 5? - dihydrotestosterone or more commonly known as DHT.
Phil Heath Wannabe People always ask how much genetics really matter when it comes to building muscle. Protein, Fiber, and Caffeine - The best fat loss supplements People often ask what the best supplements are for fat loss. Monounsaturated fats may also help decrease the risk of breast cancer and rheumatoid arthritis pain. On our graphs look for less red (saturated) and a good mix of blue and green (mono and poly unsaturated fats). The title bar of each table is shaded to show the predominant fat type: red for saturated, green for monounsaturated and blue for polyunsaturated fat. Butter is also often salted to improve the flavour when used as a spread.  Butter is not suitable for vegan diets. Nevertheless, chicken fat is still relatively high in saturated fats compared to some vegetable alternatives.
The polyunsaturated version is the most beneficial to health and most commonly used for cooking. That said, many of the successes (at least weight-wise, though hopefully by now you realize there is much more to health than just body composition) of popular diets can be explained by a few simple observations. You can argue that those who are overweight probably consume an even greater amount of carbohydrates. Even the Ornish diet, which is the most restrictive diet with respect to fat and most liberal with respect to carbohydrates, still reduces carbohydrate intake by about 40% from what people were likely eating pre-diet.
No one on the Ornish Diet or Jenny Craig Diet is eating candy bars and potato chips, at least not if they are adhering to it. The point was, essentially, that telling people to eat 5-6 servings per day of fruits and vegetables can hopefully drive a beneficial substitution effect.
I have no intention of engaging in a battle with proponents of plant-based eating or no-saturated-fat diets. Stated another way, it’s one thing to observe an outcome, but it’s quite another to conclude the actual cause of that outcome.
In other words, for every intended difference between the groups a difference existed, except that on average they ate the same number of calories (though obviously from very different sources), which was not intended to be different as both groups were permitted to eat ad libitum – meaning as much as they wanted. Ornish’s study?  I think the reduction in sugar and simple carbohydrates played the largest single role in the improvements experienced by the experimental group, but I can’t prove it from this study any more than one can prove a low-fat vegetarian diet is the “best” diet.  We can only conclude that it’s better than eating Twinkies and potato chips which, admittedly, is a good thing to know.
And, the majority of the benefit folks receive comes from the reduction of sugars and highly refined carbohydrates.
Case in point…they recently reported that olive oil is not good for you because it does not contain omega 6.
3, has a good point about some plans (including WW) having the advantage of group support, which I think is a very major confounder.
It is wonderful to watch these people glow once they have found some sort of solution to their weight problem. One of my favorite things to say to people who are scared of saturated fat is that even on an entirely plant based diet, (ala Ornish Diet), if they are restricting their caloric intake, their bodies will be running on the saturated (animal) fat that they have stored on themselves.
For example the degree of unsaturated fatty acids in our membrane bilayer probably plays a role in our insulin sensitivity, just as one example.
But most importantly, please work with a dietitian knowledgeable in the low FODMAP diet to ensure you are following it correctly and meeting your nutritional needs. I want to make my own yogurt as its cheaper than buying the expensive low lactose probiotic yogurts and the packet stuff is gluten free too and still doesn’t have additives and gelatin and all the other crap yogurt seems to have added to it!
It’s overwhelming because the substances that can have great impact on health are found in almost every food in the grocery – the trans fats and saturated fats.
Unfortunately, trans fats are present in many commercial baked goods that we love, including cakes, tacos, pizza, crackers, muffins, pies, cookies, chocolate drinks, French fries, potato nuggets, pop corn, you name it. Each pie chart displays the percentage value of each type of fat - expanding the polyunsaturated fats to show the proportions of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids.
Many people substitute margarine for butter believing it to be more healthy, however not all margarines are created equal.  Be careful to choose margarines that contain no hydrogenated or trans fats and that have a low saturated fat content, otherwise butter may well be better for you. Chicken fat is used for its flavour to make chicken stock, which in turn is used in soups, sauces and gravies.  Chicken fat can be a rich source of omega fatty acids, especially omega-6. The body processes MCTs and can use them for instant energy and an alternative to glucose from carbohydrates. Despite its long history, dating back at least as far as the ancient Egyptians, the plant and oil are not common although there has been renewed interest in recent years.
But for the purpose of simplicity, let’s assume even the folks who go on these diets are consuming the national average of approximately 450 grams of carbohydrate per day (in compliance with governmental recommendations, as a percent of overall intake). If you tell someone who eats Twinkies, potato chips, and candy bars all day to eat more fruit (and they do), you’ve almost guaranteed an improvement in their health if they eat bananas and apples instead of the aforementioned junk food. I’m reasonably confident that the proponents of these diets are good people who really want to help others and have nothing but the best intentions. Ornish was the principle investigator on a trial published in the journal The Lancet in 1990. In other words, there were not enough subjects in the study to determine a difference in these “hard” outcomes, so we can’t make a conclusion about such events, only the changes in “soft” outcomes.
Good science, bad interpretationGravity and insulin: the dynamic duoIf low carb eating is so effective, why are people still overweight? His clinical interests are nutrition, lipidology, endocrinology, and a few other cool things. Eg, the criticism of the Ornish Lifestyle Heart Trial is excellent (and I LOVED the kitten-stroking quip), and really could and should have stood alone.


After short diologue with her on the particulars of her daily intake I quickly realized her consumption of carbohydrate was significantly reduced and eliminated almost all fructose.
I have been following the FODMAP for about a month but we have a freezer full from our garden and was wondering if they were ok to eat? I only have a small amount of yogurt with my breakfast but its still a good source of morning protein, calcium needs and those wonderful probiotics that help our tummies too! And partially hydrogenated oil make your taste buds fonder for more, it’s so hard to say no. Aside from checking food product labels, you may request not to include or limit the amount of saturated fat-rich ingredient in the food ordered in restaurants.
Most oils and fats contain 'other' things, for example butter contains proteins as well as fats, and these are included in the 'other' segment of the pie charts. Popularity, of course, was determined by a number of factors, including compliance with current government recommendations (sorry Atkins), number of people who have tried the diet, and reported success on the diets.
That doesn’t mean bananas and apples are “good for you” – it just means they are less “bad for you.” Here’s the kicker, though. But that doesn’t mean we can or should overlook the errors being made in drawing their conclusions.
I’m not discounting soft outcomes, only pointing out the distinction for folks not familiar with them.
They never factor in that the chicken was breaded or that when someone ate steak or fish they had a large amount of bread of potatoes along with it. The M stands for monosaccharide or the sugar, fructose, when present in foods in excess of the glucose content–found in some apples, pears, watermelon, honey and agave syrup! It will also be wise if you stay away from cholesterol-packed foods such as meats, fish, poultry, egg yolks, organ meats and dairy foods, not in chips and cookies.
We’re led to believe that the reason such folks get leaner and more healthy is because they are eating more fruits or more vegetables or more grains or more [fill-in-the-blank], rather than because they eliminated the most egregious offenders from their diet. Ornish personally, and I can only assume that he is a profoundly caring physician who has dedicated his life to helping people live better lives. But as always, I STRONGLY encourage folks with access (or folks who are willing to purchase it) to read the paper in its entirety. Carbohydrates and protein have just 4 calories per gram, whereas fat includes a whopping 9 calories per gram, so foods which are high in protein and lower in calories are typically calculated as a result because they are low in fat. If you or somebody at home is suffering from heart problems and is at high risk of heart attack, do not bring them at home foods that contain high amounts of trans fats. For people who don’t want to read the study completely, or who may not have much experience reading clinical papers, I want to devote some time to digging into this paper.
The end conclusion is the whole thing must be bad and therefore needs to be reduced or outright expunged from the diet. I recall hearing Gary talking about his discussion with a participant from the Biggest loser on Larry King and the rapant weight gain after the show. High protein low calorie foods will make you feel satiated so that you can adhere to the calorie limit, if you’re trying to lose fat and build muscle. It’s hard to tell if this change was statistically significant by inspection, so you glance at the p-value which tells you it was not.
That is one big difference I’ve noticed between studies cited by writers who want to condemn the entire diet consumed by Americans vs those who look at it with a more in depth eye and realize that certain components are the problem not the whole diet across the board.
Why did the people in the China Study who ate more plants do better than those who ate more animals (assuming they did)?
Well, for starters, reading abstracts, hearing CNN headlines, or reading about studies in the NY Times doesn’t actually give you enough information to really understand if the results are applicable to you. Parenthetically, if you actually want the answer to this question, beyond my peripheral address, below, please read Denise Minger’s categorically brilliant analysis of the study. Beyond this reason, and let me be uncharacteristically blunt, just because a study is published in a medical journal it does not imply that is worth the paper it is printed on. Steve Rosenberg, once told me that a great number of published studies are never again cited (I forget the exact number, but it was staggering, over 50%). Translation: whatever they published was of such little value that no one ever made reference to it again. The thing is, it is possible to eliminate wheat and still eat way too many carbs (can we say ice cream?). To keep a perfect rate of metabolism and to avoid health problems, you need to consume a diet that will provide you all the necessary nutrients.
Should you consume high calorie foods, the additional calories will be saved from your body in the form of fat deposits. Todays lifestyles promotes sedentary lifestyle so when you are not able to burn enough calories or even more calories than the calories consumed, excess fat or obesity will always be the reason behind concern. I’m now happily in ketosis, and the best part is, I know the WHY of weight loss now, how totally liberating and hope giving. You need to avoid refined or packaged foods.High Protein Low-calorie Foods ListSeafoodTuna, monkfish, roughy, pout, cuttlefish, clams and crayfish are low-cal, high-protein foods. Atlantic salmon, in comparison, provides 10g more of protein within the same serving but has triple the calories. Whether you scramble them or make sure they are into an omelet, this choice can give your body energy and essential proteins that are not created naturally.MeatsLean cuts of meat like white-meat chicken or turkey, beef sirloin or lean hamburger, pork sirloin and fish are high in protein and lower in fat and calories. Chicken breasts top the protein-packing meats with only 140 calories and 27g of protein per 3 oz.
To chop more calories, eat just the egg white for 17 calories but still retain 4g of protein.Vegetarian ProteinsLegumes, or beans, are usually low fat and low calorie but they are high in protein and also give a significant amount of dietary fiber.
The secret here is not getting too fancy: black, pinto, kidney, lentil and soy beans are healthy, but when they are drowning in barbecue sauce, brown sugar and molasses, it suddenly turns into a different story.
Stick to plain beans which are lightly seasoned to get the advantages of high-protein foods without all the extras. Nuts and seed tend to be high in fat, but they’re monounsaturated fats (MUFAs) which have been shown to lower bad cholesterol and lift good cholesterol levels.
Just make sure to look for wild caught salmon to prevent all of the food coloring along with other things that go into feeding farmed salmon.DairyMilk products like milk, cheese, yogurt and cottage type cheese are all high protein, and could be low calorie as long as they are low-fat or fat-free versions.
The FDA recommends that Ten to fifteen percent of your calories originate from protein, so for an individual on the 2,000-calorie diet would eat 50 to 75g of protein each day. If you are an active individual, the body requires more protein to be able to repair any damage done during workouts or any other activities. Anything higher than .73g belongs within the stomachs of bodybuilders and marathon runners.



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Comments

  1. K_O_R_zabit

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    17.01.2015