From inside outwards the intestine consists of the mucus membrane, lamina propria, the muscularis mucosae, the submucus coat, the muscularis externa and the serous coat. These nerve fibers conduct electrochemical currents in the form of moving sodium and potassium ions.
These smooth muscles contract when a nerve impulse initiated by stretching of the intestinal walls reaches its cell surface forcing calcium ions into the cytoplasm and making its contractile protein actin and myosin to interdigitate. There is another reason why constipation occurs and that is when stool moves through the colon, water is gradually absorbed from the fecal mass.
Chronic constipation is caused by a variety of causes .Let us consider them one by one together with their antidotes. That is why elderly men, bed ridden patients and the infirm all suffer from chronic constipation. Changes like pregnancy cause constipation either due to hormonal changes or because the enlarging uterus presses down on the intestine. Persons taking laxatives for a long time develop chronic constipation as their bodies become tolerant to the dose.
Suppositories and enemas are available over the counter for people with chronic constipation. You are advised to consult a doctor or neurologist as the treatment in each case is different. Diseases which occlude the lumen of the intestine like diverticulitis, intestinal adhesions and colorectal strictures cause chronic constipation.

Rumored as the diet choice of Kate Middleton, Dukan is a high-protein, extremely low-carb diet thought up by a French doctor. Possible side-effects of the plan include lack of energy, bad breath, constipation, and the potential for kidney damage.
If you're tossing back shots and wolfing down greasy bar food when you go out, your bar habits may be ruining your waistline! As the idea of eating minimally processed foods is becoming more accepted as being a healthy eating style, a lot of diet plans promoting this concept are becoming more popular as well.
People feel embarrassed to talk about it, feel shy in discussing it but agree nevertheless that this disease is energy sapping and concentration dissolving. The layers that are of interest to us in understanding constipation are the submucus coat and the muscularis externa. These impulses occur when the nerve fibers are stimulated by stretch receptor which as their name suggests are themselves stimulated by stretching of the intestine in whose walls they are situated. The contraction of these muscle cells forces the stool stored in the intestine through the rectum to the exterior. In chronic constipation one should include in his diet, fruits and vegetables which have a lot of fibers in them. Stimulants induce rhythmic contraction of the intestine facilitating absorption Osmotic also increase the bulk of the stool by drawing in water to the lumen of the intestine by osmotic pressure.
It consists of a complicated and rigid four stage plan: Attack, Cruise Control, Consolidation, and Stabilization.

The Paleo diet plan, a diet based on the concept that an eating style similar to the caveman diet can easily promote weight loss and enhance health is getting a lot of attention lately.
Stool softeners soften the stool while saline laxatives grease the stool and the anus making it easier to pass excreta. The Dukan has been compared to the Atkins diet but takes the concept even further by also excluding vegetables during its first phase. Food as you know moves down the intestine with recurring waves of contraction called peristalsis. Saline laxatives like milk of magnesia draw water into the lumen like a sponge increasing the bulk thus making it easier to pass the stool to the exterior. Though peristalsis is an automatic process requiring no stimulus but its intensity is dependent on how the intestine is stretched by food. To understand what causes constipation we have to understand something of the ultra structure of the intestine and the physiology of nerve conduction and muscle contraction.

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