From 1999a€’2000 through 2009a€’2010, the percentage of persons consuming diet beverages increased. The percentage of higher-income persons who consumed diet drinks on a given day was greater than that of lower-income persons. A linear increase was observed in the percentage of females and males who consumed diet drinks on a given day over the 12 years studied (Figure 5). The percentage of females and males who consumed diet drinks increased between 1999 and 2010 and was mirrored by a decrease in consumption of added sugar calories in regular soda over a similar time period (3). Consumers of diet drinks: Persons who reported consumption of more than 0 fluid ounces of any diet drink as defined above on a given day, specifically the 24-hour period prior to the dietary recall interview (midnight to midnight). Sugar drinks: Include sodas, fruit drinks, energy drinks, sports drinks, and sweetened bottled waters, consistent with definitions reported by the National Cancer Institute (7). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data were used for these analyses. The sample design includes oversampling to obtain reliable estimates of health and nutritional measures for population subgroups. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated. Are there racial or ethnic differences in the percentage of total dietary kilocalories consumed from sugar drinks? Are there income differences in the percentage of total dietary kilocalories consumed from sugar drinks?
Non-Hispanic black children and adolescents consume more sugar drinks in relation to their overall diet than their Mexican-American counterparts. Low-income persons consume more sugar drinks in relation to their overall diet than those with higher income. Most of the sugar drinks consumed away from home are obtained from stores and not restaurants or schools. Consumption of sugar drinks in the United States has increased over the last 30 years among both children and adults (1a€“3). Overall, males consume an average of 178 kcal from sugar drinks on any given day, while females consume 103 kcal. Approximately one-half of the population aged 2 and older consumes sugar drinks on any given day. Higher-income persons consume fewer kilocalories from sugar drinks as a percentage of total daily kilocalories than do lower-income individuals.
Sugar drinks: For these analyses, sugar drinks include fruit drinks, sodas, energy drinks, sports drinks, and sweetened bottled waters, consistent with definitions reported by the National Cancer Institute (8). Location of sugar-drink consumption: Respondents to the 24-hour dietary recall interview were asked if each reported food was consumed at home or away from home. Source of sugar drinks: Respondents to the 24-hour dietary recall interview were asked where they obtained each food consumed. Poverty income ratio (PIR): A measure representing the ratio of household income to the poverty threshold after accounting for inflation and family size.
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used for these analyses.
The NHANES sample is selected through a complex, multistage design that includes selection of primary sampling units (counties), household segments within the counties, households within segments, and, finally, sample persons from selected households.
Sample weights, which account for the differential probabilities of selection, nonresponse, and noncoverage, were incorporated into the estimation process. On a given day, about 3% consumed some but no more than 8 fluid ounces (fl oz) of diet drinks, and 11% consumed 16 fl oz or more (Figure 2).
These results suggest that sugar drinks may have been replaced with diet drinks during that time. The reference amount customarily consumed (RACC) for beverages is 240 mL, or about 8 fl oz (6). NHANES is a survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) to assess the health and nutritional status of the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S.
Fakhouri is with the Epidemic Intelligence Service, Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services, and the Analysis Branch, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (DHANES), NCHS, CDC.
Replacing caloric beverages with water or diet beverages for weight loss in adults: Main results of the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial. Non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American adults consume more than non-Hispanic white adults. Sugar drinks have been linked to poor diet quality, weight gain, obesity, and, in adults, type 2 diabetes (4,5). Mean consumption of sugar drinks is higher in males than females at all ages except among 2- to 5-year-olds.
Among adult women, the percentage is lower, with 40% consuming sugar drinks on any given day, while among boys aged 2a€“19, 70% consume sugar drinks on any given day (Figure 2).
Of these sugar-drink kilocalories, the vast majority is purchased in stores (92%), and just over 6% is purchased in restaurants or fast-food establishments.
For example, males consume more than females, and teenagers and young adults consume more than other age groups. Most sugar drinks consumed away from home are obtained from stores, but more than one-third are obtained in restaurants or fast-food establishments.
Sugar drinks do not include diet drinks, 100% fruit juice, sweetened teas, and flavored milks. To determine source of food, respondents were offered 26 options, categorized for this brief as store, restaurant (including fast-food), school or child care, and other. In 2008, a PIR of 350% was equivalent to approximately $77,000 for a family of four; a PIR of 130% was equivalent to approximately $29,000 for a family of four. NHANES is a cross-sectional survey designed to monitor the health and nutritional status of the civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S. The standard errors of the percentages were estimated using Taylor Series Linearization, a method that incorporates the sample weights and sample design. Trends in food and nutrient intakes by adults: NFCS 1977a€“78, CSFII 1989-91, and CSFII 1994-95.
Effects of soft drink consumption on nutrition and health: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Defining and setting national goals for cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction: The American Heart Association's strategic impact goal through 2020 and beyond.
Dietary sources of energy, solid fats, and added sugars among children and adolescents in the United States. The percentage consuming diet drinks was similar for females and males at all ages except among adolescents aged 12a€’19. Overall, the percentage consuming diet drinks was higher among females compared with males. Although substituting sugar drinks with diet drinks may promote weight loss in the short term (4), it is unclear if long-term consumption leads to weight loss, weight maintenance, or even weight gain (5). Consumption of diet drinks was calculated as mean fluid ounces consumed per person on a given day, specifically the 24-hour period prior to the dietary recall interview (midnight to midnight). Department of Health and Human Services' (HHS) poverty guidelines were used as the poverty measure to calculate this index (8).
Data were analyzed using sample weights to account for differential probabilities of selection, nonresponse, and noncoverage.
Consumption of sugar drinks increases until ages 12a€“19 years and then decreases with age.
Among adults, non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American persons consume more than non-Hispanic white persons, and low-income individuals consume more sugar drinks in relation to their total diet than higher-income individuals.
Percentage of daily kilocalories from sugar drinks is the percentage of total daily energy obtained from sugar drinks. Population estimates of sugar-drink kilocalories are based on data from one in-person, 24-hour dietary recall interview.
The percentage consuming diet drinks increased with age for both males and females (Figure 1). Income eligibility for participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (formerly known as the Food Stamp Program) is 130% of the poverty level (less than 130% PIR) (9). The survey combines both an in-home interview and a standardized physical examination at a mobile examination center. The standard errors of the percentages were estimated using Taylor series linearization, a method that incorporates the sample weights and sample design.
Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Nutrition, Labeling, and Dietary Supplements. Consumption of sugar drinks is lowest among the oldest females (42 kcal per day) and highest among males aged 12a€“19 (273 kcal per day) (Figure 1).
Over 20% of sugar-drink kilocalories consumed away from home are obtained in other places such as vending machines, cafeterias, street vendors, and community food programs, among others (Figure 6). Census Bureau data (9).The cut point for participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program is 130% of the poverty level.
The survey consists of interviews conducted in participants' homes, standardized physical examinations in mobile examination centers, and laboratory tests utilizing blood and urine specimens provided by participants during the physical examination. In 2007a€“2008, African-American and overall Latino subgroups were oversampled, with sufficient sample sizes for separate analysis of the Mexican-American subgroup.
Carroll are with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. For example, the percentage of non-Hispanic white children and adults who consumed diet drinks was higher than those for non-Hispanic black and Hispanic children and adults, and the percentage of higher-income persons who consumed diet drinks was higher than that for lower-income persons.
The data for this report were collected from an in-person 24-hour dietary recall interview in the mobile examination center. To test for linear trends between age groups and income groups, the null hypothesis of nonlinear trend was examined using orthogonal polynomials. Moreover, the American Heart Association has recommended a consumption goal of no more than 450 kilocalories (kcal) of sugar-sweetened beveragesa€”or fewer than three 12-oz cans of carbonated colaa€”per week (7). The age patterns of percentage of total daily kilocalories from sugar drinks (not shown) are similar to those for kilocalories from sugar drinks. Dietary information for this analysis was obtained via an in-person, 24-hour dietary recall interview in the mobile examination center. Sohyun Park is with CDC's National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity. Dietary recalls cover intake for any given day, specifically the 24-hour period prior to the dietary recall interview (midnight to midnight). This brief presents the most recent national data on sugar-drink consumption in the United States.
Each year of data collection is based on a representative sample covering all ages of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population.
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