Beware of tricks used by supermarkets to make produce look fresher. Fruit and vegetables are often sprayed with a fine mist of water to appear ‘dewy’ and fresh, and whilst market vegetables may be imperfect to look at, chances are they are actually fresher. Different fruits require different storage techniques to keep them fresh for the longest time possible. Fruit should be kept unwashed and gently rinsed in cold water before eating, unless they are very dirty, in which case they should be washed carefully and completely dried before storage. In general fruits that are stored in the fridge should be covered in a plastic bag or wrapped in plastic to protect from contamination from other foods and avoid contact with oxygen. Berries also freeze well, but should be places spread out on a tray to freeze initially, to prevent the berries freezing together. Once they are frozen they can be stored together in a freezer bag.
Grapes: These should be stored in a plastic bag unwashed in the refrigerator crisper and can last around five days. Apples: these can be stored in the refrigerator or in a cool dark place and can last up to four months under the right conditions.
Many of the fruits we buy are under ripe, and so require ripening before we can eat them. This is best done at room temperature. Lemons and limes: These can absorb flavours from the fridge and last a long time at room temperature anyway.
Oranges: These should also be stored at room temperature, and will usually last up to two weeks when ambient temperature isn’t too high. As with fruit, vegetables should be stored unwashed in plastic bags and then rinsed before eating. Corn: For best results leave corn in husks and eat as soon as possible as even in the crisper, these will only last one to two days. We have all been in the situation when we have a large quantity of fruit or vegetables on our hands that is reaching the end of its days and if left longer will be inedible. Rather than waste this food, there are numerous ways to use up produce if there is simply too much to eat before it goes off. Omelettes: Any vegetable can be thrown into a omelette for a quick, nutritious lunch or dinner. Ice cream or frozen yogurt: Ripe fruit is ideal in as an ingredient in a frozen dessert as they give more flavour and add nutritional value. Pickles: Pickling vegetables is a great way to use up a surplus of stock and the finished product will last for ages.
Soups: Cook up a quick vegetables soup to use up an excess of stock, then freeze to eat as a quick healthy meal later. Frozen vegetables are great to have on hand for a quick nutritious meal and eliminate the worry of using up food that is going to go off. In this article we have gathered 5 exercises which they use your own body’s weight but they can still provide a fat burning and muscle building workout. These exercises are not the only ‘best’ exercises you can do as there is a plethora of exercises which will deliver good results. The exercises below are placed in an order in which they could be performed as a little circuit workout and alternate the muscle groups they target. Push up or press ups as they may also be called, target the muscles on the chest, shoulders, arms, and back.
Easier variations include push ups against the wall (if you are really unfit) or the keeping the legs bend (on fours). Rear leg raises target the muscles at the back of the legs (hamstrings), and buttocks (gluteal). The stick up exercise works the upper back, and shoulder muscles and also those muscles located in the shoulder blades (scapula).
There are variations in which you perform the exercise against the wall or lying on the floor.
Sticking to a weight loss regime can be a hard job especially if it involves losing the weight in long period of time.
If you slipped out of your goals and had a bit more than you should don’t go back thinking that you have to make up for it. Do you find yourself slipping up all the time and it is hard to stay on your weight loss goals?
Go back to the beginning and think what makes you slip up, what is hard about it and why it doesn’t work.
One way to start in motivating yourself is by thinking how much you have achieved so far and concentrate on the positive. If you have hit the dreaded plateau point and you are not sure how to get going again try being more physically active.
It is time to stop being negative about yourself and start loving what you see in the mirror every day. Change that attitude towards to a more positive and loving way, your body is something precious and it does deserve the best you can give to it.
It is all good and well to say you need to lose the weight but it won’t come off by talking.
If you leave it to an abstract ‘I am going to start’ it may never happen or there may 100s of excuses why it should be tomorrow.
People often have a reason why they slip off their goals or why they find it hard to get back on. There are ways to work around busy lifestyles when ‘dieting’, or opt for weight loss regimes which are flexible and suit your taste and lifestyle rather than strict weight loss plans, or little tricks you can do to cut down on the biscuits and sweets (see also how to control your desire for food). The Pilates technique was introduced by Joseph Pilates as a form of exercise in America (1926) and ever since they have grown into popularity and are now accepted in their use. The supporters and developers of different Pilates techniques claim a number of benefits to their name from improving posture and balance to losing weight, and those who use them will vouch that miracles do happen. Although the different Pilates methods developed can vary in their technique, they are all based in the ‘classic’ technique created by Joseph Pilates.
Research in Pilates in general tends to be of poor quality and has been a controversial subject. There is very little research which has looked into Pilates in weight loss and is not of high quality. In theory it is a form of physical activity, and as with any kind of physical activity some energy expenditure and some fitness gains will be achieved. Here is a step-by-step guide on how to lose weight with pilates and generally what you need to have in mind when choosing Pilates for weight loss. Pilates is not the appropriate exercise choice if you are looking to increase calorie expenditure radically or you need to achieve large improvements in aerobic and strength components. For those who are in general inactive and do not exercise at all Pilates will provide a challenge to the muscles and could result in higher energy expenditure (in very simple terms calorie burning). Regulations on Pilates certifications are not strict or very clear cut and a number of instructors may have just completed a weekend course which in some cases does not provide them with the appropriate skills. They could also help with reducing fat deposition in the abdominal and waist area (what some people can refer to as ‘love handles’) and the hips.
This article will look into some basic metabolic principles and how does energy expenditure (calorie burning) work so as to understand better how to lose weight if you have a slow metabolism. In order to understand what ‘slow’ or ‘fast’ metabolism is and how it affects weight gain, we will first explain some basic metabolic principles.
The rate in which the cells break food into energy (or simplified the rate in which we burn calories) is the metabolic rate. Each person’s metabolic rate depends on genetics, hereditary factors and amount of lean body mass (i.e. An important thing to understand here is that regulation of energy metabolism and body weight takes place by highly complex systems and is not as simple as ‘slow’ and ‘fast’ metabolism. A second step is to look into which factors can cause substantial changes in the metabolic regulation and affect the metabolic rate and what makes some people to burn calories slower or faster. Some of the factors are summarised in table1 below; for the purposes of this article we will concentrate only at the aspects which can cause the metabolism to slow down. Hypothyroidism: in simple words is when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones. There are a number of different conditions and these can range in the way they affect metabolism and weight gain. This could include very low calorie diets, fasting for religious or other purposes, anorexia etc. During menopause a number of hormonal changes take place some of which influence metabolism.
You could try every trick on the book for metabolism or weight loss but if not appropriate you could actually be harming yourself and worsening a condition. Any form of physical activity will increase the rate in which we burn calories so you don’t necessarily have to join the gym, simple things such as going for a walk, taking the kids swimming, or cleaning the house can help. These are just guidelines and calorie intake does depend on individual factors such as levels of physical activity, age and body build. There are healthy ways of decreasing calories or increasing energy expenditure instead for losing weight without having to resolve into very low calorie diets.
Although in cold weather we do burn more calories, chronic exposure to cold can actually lead into weakening of the immune system and being ill.
Answer: (b) Fried foods often add unwanted inches to the abdominal area as the majority of their calories come from saturated fat. Answer: (c) Cranberries are specifically helpful in flushing any impurities from the kidneys. Used in conjunction with resistance trainingor an anaerobic exercise such as weightlifting, you will indeed lose weight in the abdominal area. Answer: (a) Believe it or not, it’s been found that you can eat a small amount of dark chocolate without any adverse effects. If you do not have a personal goal and are unsure how much weight loss to aim for, there are ways to work it out. Below we have summarised some of the methods, most commonly used to classify people according to their weight and body measurements.
Regardless of how much weight you want to lose don’t aim in losing more than 1-1.5 kg per week. You may be on your ideal weight or even slightly underweight but you know that there is a bit of a tummy, or an annoying big bottom etc. You may need to lose 200 lbs in order to reach your ideal weight but you don’t particularly want to be America’s next top model. Firstly being obsessed may not be a good place to be, secondly all these numbers are guides and not a setting stone. Here we have summarized the following, body mass index (BMI) measurement, waist-to-hip ratio and waist circumference.
For example, you may be within your ideal weight range but you may have a high waist circumference which could indicate a high risk to specific health conditions. Ideally you can have direct body composition measurements, such as bioelectrical impedance, which can determine the percentage of fat, lean mass, and water in the body.
BMI is a simple way to classify individuals within ranges according to their weight and height.
Once you have calculated your current BMI then you can look on the table below to see at which category you are. Once you have calculated your WHR you can look at the table below to see if you are within a range which increases risk of developing health conditions. For example if you are on a normal range BMI but have a high WHR you could be looking at losing weight from your abdominal area (belly). The table below shows the classifications of waist circumference in relation to the health risk. I know that sometimes physician may tell you that you must lose weight for your health but often don’t tell you how or how much.
In this article I am going to present 5 foods to avoid while dieting or at least reduce their consumption to a minimum in order to succeed in your weight lost and reach an optimum health.
All the following foods can have some harmful effects, so try to avoid all of them and start eating healthier today.
Many people who are committed to having a healthy life style have been convinced in believing that processed unfermented soy products are good for health. Soy contains natural toxins (anti-nutrients) which interfere with enzymes needed for protein digestion.
Moreover, majority of soy on US market is genetically modified (GMO) (European soy should be “GMO clean”, but there is no guarantee due to contamination through natural pollination). Scientific theories suggest that in nature foods would not normally contain large amounts of fructose. One theory of how this happens suggests that fructose has a greater potential in turning into fat in the liver in comparison to glucose (ordinary sugar). Everybody needs some fat in their diet, however, the chemical structure of fat plays an important role in the way is processed in the body and the health implications it can have.
In brief it is suggested by studies that trans fats can cause more health problems than saturated fats.
I think, these days, just about everybody is aware about the harmful effects of sugar in both the waistline and health.
In addition, to the high calorific properties of sugar it can also increase health risks such as development of insulin resistance and diabetes. In addition sugar can make insulin to rise in the body sharply and fall sharply which amongst others it can make you feel hungry, irritable, and tired.
Moreover, you can replace the morning cereal with a protein based breakfast which can make you feel full for longer and can provide a better insulin response. If you are experiencing any issues or health complaints with any of the above mentioned is always recommended to consult a health professional before making any changes to your diet.
Some of the contaminants studies refer to are concentrations of dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB),3 polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and some pesticides.
Some studies have argued that the level of contaminants in farmed salmon depend on the region it has been raised.
A solution to the issue could be to aim for either wild salmon or chose farmed salmon which could be less contaminated.
In summary the 5 foods to avoid while dieting are: unfermented soy products, fructose, trans-fats, sugar and farmed salmon. We all know that a diet rich in fresh fruit and vegetables is ideal for good health.A However, it is not always easy to store fruit and vegetables correctly to prolong their life and keep them fresh for the maximum time. Beware of tricks used by supermarkets to make produce look fresher.A Fruit and vegetables are often sprayed with a fine mist of water to appear a€?dewya€™ and fresh, and whilst market vegetables may be imperfect to look at, chances are they are actually fresher. Different fruits require different storage techniques to keep them fresh for the longest time possible.A Fruit should be kept unwashed and gently rinsed in cold water before eating, unless they are very dirty, in which case they should be washed carefully and completely dried before storage. Berries also freeze well, but should be places spread out on a tray to freeze initially, to prevent the berries freezing together.A Once they are frozen they can be stored together in a freezer bag. Many of the fruits we buy are under ripe, and so require ripening before we can eat them.A This is best done at room temperature. Lemons and limes:A These can absorb flavours from the fridge and last a long time at room temperature anyway.
Oranges: These should also be stored at room temperature, and will usually last up to two weeks when ambient temperature isna€™t too high. Corn:A For best results leave corn in husks and eat as soon as possible as even in the crisper, these will only last one to two days.
We have all been in the situation when we have a large quantity of fruit or vegetables on our hands that is reaching the end of its days and if left longer will be inedible.A Rather than waste this food, there are numerous ways to use up produce if there is simply too much to eat before it goes off. Omelettes:A Any vegetable can be thrown into a omelette for a quick, nutritious lunch or dinner. Ice cream or frozen yogurt:A Ripe fruit is ideal in as an ingredient in a frozen dessert as they give more flavour and add nutritional value.
Pickles:A Pickling vegetables is a great way to use up a surplus of stock and the finished product will last for ages. Soups:A Cook up a quick vegetables soup to use up an excess of stock, then freeze to eat as a quick healthy meal later.
In this article we have gathered 5 exercises which they use your own bodya€™s weight but they can still provide a fat burning and muscle building workout. These exercises are not the only a€?besta€™ exercises you can do as there is a plethora of exercises which will deliver good results. If you slipped out of your goals and had a bit more than you should dona€™t go back thinking that you have to make up for it. Go back to the beginning and think what makes you slip up, what is hard about it and why it doesna€™t work.
It is all good and well to say you need to lose the weight but it wona€™t come off by talking.
If you leave it to an abstract a€?I am going to starta€™ it may never happen or there may 100s of excuses why it should be tomorrow. There are ways to work around busy lifestyles when a€?dietinga€™, or opt for weight loss regimes which are flexible and suit your taste and lifestyle rather than strict weight loss plans, or little tricks you can do to cut down on the biscuits and sweets (see also how to control your desire for food).
Although the different Pilates methods developed can vary in their technique, they are all based in the a€?classica€™ technique created by Joseph Pilates.
They could also help with reducing fat deposition in the abdominal and waist area (what some people can refer to as a€?love handlesa€™) and the hips.
In order to understand what a€?slowa€™ or a€?fasta€™ metabolism is and how it affects weight gain, we will first explain some basic metabolic principles. Each persona€™s metabolic rate depends on genetics, hereditary factors and amount of lean body mass (i.e. An important thing to understand here is that regulation of energy metabolism and body weight takes place by highly complex systems and is not as simple as a€?slowa€™ and a€?fasta€™ metabolism. Any form of physical activity will increase the rate in which we burn calories so you dona€™t necessarily have to join the gym, simple things such as going for a walk, taking the kids swimming, or cleaning the house can help. Answer: (a) Believe it or not, ita€™s been found that you can eat a small amount of dark chocolate without any adverse effects.
Regardless of how much weight you want to lose dona€™t aim in losing more than 1-1.5 kg per week. You may need to lose 200 lbs in order to reach your ideal weight but you dona€™t particularly want to be Americaa€™s next top model. Here we haveA summarizedA the following, body mass index (BMI) measurement, waist-to-hip ratio and waist circumference.
I know that sometimes physician may tell you that you must lose weight for your health but often dona€™t tell you how or how much. Moreover, majority of soy on US market is genetically modified (GMO) (European soy should be a€?GMOA cleana€?, but there is no guarantee due to contamination through natural pollination). Some of these monographs may be thought of as an anthology of maps, which, like all anthologies, reflects the taste and predilection of the collector.
Cartography, like architecture, has attributes of both a scientific and an artistic pursuit, a dichotomy that is certainly not satisfactorily reconciled in all presentations.
The significance of maps - and much of their meaning in the past - derives from the fact that people make them to tell other people about the places or space they have experienced. It is assumed that cartography, like art, pre-dates writing; like pictures, map symbols are apt to be more universally understood than verbal or written ones. As previously mentioned, many early maps, especially those prior to the advent of mass production printing techniques, are known only through descriptions or references in the literature (having either perished or disappeared).
Many libraries and collections were not in the habit of preserving maps that they considered a€?obsoletea€? and simply discarded them.
A series of maps of one region, arranged in chronological order, can show vividly how it was discovered, explored by travelers and described in detail; this may be seen in facsimile atlases like those of America (K.
As mediators between an inner mental world and an outer physical world, maps are fundamental tools helping the human mind make sense of its universe at various scales.
The history of cartography represents more than a technical and practical history of the artifacts. The only evidence we have for the mapmaking inclinations and talents of the inhabitants of Europe and adjacent parts of the Middle East and North Africa during the prehistoric period is the markings and designs on relatively indestructible materials.
Although some questions will always remain unanswered, there can be no doubt that prehistoric rock and mobiliary art as a whole constitutes a major testimony of early mana€™s expression of himself and his world view. Despite the richness of civilization in ancient Babylonia and the recovery of whole archives and libraries, a mere handful of Babylonian maps have so far been found.
Egypt, which exercised so strong an influence on the ancient civilizations of southeast Europe and the Near East, has left us no more numerous cartographic documents than her neighbor Babylonia.
In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extant Egyptian achievement is represented by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (see monograph #102) . In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extent that Egyptian achievement is represented is by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (#102). It has often been remarked that the Greek contribution to cartography lay in the speculative and theoretical realms rather than in the practical realm, and nowhere is this truer than in the Archaic and Classical Period. To the Arab countries belongs chief credit for keeping alive an interest in astronomical studies during the so-called Christian middle ages, and we find them interested in globe construction, that is, in celestial globe construction; so far as we have knowledge, it seems doubtful that they undertook the construction of terrestrial globes. Among the Christian peoples of Europe in this same period there was not wanting an interest in both geography and astronomy.
Above the convex surface of the earth (ki-a) spread the sky (ana), itself divided into two regions - the highest heaven or firmament, which, with the fixed stars immovably attached to it, revolved, as round an axis or pivot, around an immensely high mountain, which joined it to the earth as a pillar, and was situated somewhere in the far North-East, some say North, and the lower heaven, where the planets - a sort of resplendent animals, seven in number, of beneficent nature - wandered forever on their appointed path.
Now, it is remarkable that the Greeks, adopting the earlier Chaldean ideas concerning the sphericity of the earth, believed also in the circumfluent ocean; but they appear to have removed its position from latitudes encircling the Arctic regions to a latitude in close proximity to the equator.
Notwithstanding this encroachment of the external ocean - encroachment which may have obliterated indications of a certain northern portion of Australia, and which certainly filled those regions with the great earth - surrounding river Okeanos - the traditions relating to the existence of an island, of immense extent, beyond the known world, were kept up, for they pervade the writings of many of the authors of antiquity. In a fragment of the works of Theopompus, preserved by Aelian, is the account of a conversation between Silenus and Midas, King of Phrygia, in which the former says that Europe, Asia, and Africa were lands surrounded by the sea; but that beyond this known world was another island, of immense extent, of which he gives a description.
Theopompus declareth that Midas, the Phrygian, and Selenus were knit in familiaritie and acquaintance. The side of the boat curves inwards, so that when reversed the figure of it would be like an orange with a slice taken off the top, and then set on its flat side. Comparing these early notions, as to the shape and extent of the habitable world, with the later ideas which limited the habitable portion of the globe to the equatorial regions, we may surmise how it came to pass that islands--to say nothing of continents which could not be represented for want of space - belonging to the southern hemisphere were set down as belonging to the northern hemisphere. We have no positive proof of this having been done at a very early period, as the earlier globes and maps have all disappeared; but we may safely conjecture as much, judging from copies that have been handed down. Early maps of the world, as distinguished from globes, take us back to a somewhat more remote period; they all bear most of the disproportions of the Ptolemaic geography, for none belonging to the pre-Ptolemaic period are known to exist.
We have seen that, according to the earliest geographical notions, the habitable world was represented as having the shape of an inverted round boat, with a broad river or ocean flowing all round its rim, beyond which opened out the Abyss or bottomless pit, which was beneath the habitable crust. The description is sufficiently clear, and there is no mistaking its general sense, the only point that needs elucidation being that which refers to the position of the earth or globe as viewed by the spectator.
Our modern notions and our way of looking at a terrestrial globe or map with the north at the top, would lead us to conclude that the abyss or bottomless pit of the inverted Chaldean boat, the Hades and Tartaros of the Greek conception, should be situated to the south, somewhere in the Antarctic regions. The internal evidence of the Poems points to a northern as well as a southern location for the entrance to the infernal regions. Another probable source of information: The Phoinikes of Homer are the same Phoenicians who as pilots of King Solomona€™s fleets brought gold and silver, ivory, apes and peacocks from Asia beyond the Ganges and the East Indian islands. European mariners and geographers of the Homeric period considered the bearing of land and sea only in connection with the rising and setting of the sun and with the four winds Boreas, Euros, Notos, and Sephuros. These mariners and geographers adopted the plan - an arbitrary one - of considering the earth as having the north above and the south below, and, after globes or maps had been constructed with the north at the top, and this method had been handed down to us, we took for granted that it had obtained universally and in all times.
Such has not been the case, for the earliest navigators, the Phoenicians, the Arabs, the Chinese, and perhaps all Asiatic nations, considered the south to be above and the north below.
It is strange that some historians, in pointing out so cleverly that the Chaldean conception was more in accordance with the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe than had been suspected, fails, at the same time, to notice that Homer in his brain-map reversed the Chaldean terrestrial globe and placed the north at the top. During the middle ages, we shall see a reversion take place, and the terrestrial paradise and heavenly paradise placed according to the earlier Chaldean notions; and on maps of this epoch, encircling the known world from the North Pole to the equator, flows the antic Ocean, which in days of yore encircled the infernal regions. At a later period, during which planispheric maps, showing one hemisphere of the world, may have been constructed, the circumfluent ocean must have encircled the world as represented by the geographical exponents of the time being; albeit in a totally different way than expressed in the Shumiro-Accadian records. It follows from all this that, as mariners did actually traverse those regions and penetrate south of the equator, the islands they visited most, such as Java, its eastern prolongation of islands, Sumbawa, etc., were believed to be in the northern hemisphere, and were consequently placed there by geographers, as the earliest maps of the various editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography bear witness.
These mistakes were the result doubtless of an erroneous interpretation of information received; and the most likely period during which cognizance of these islands was obtained was when Alexandria was the center of the Eastern and Western commerce of the world.
But to return to the earlier Pre-Ptolemaic period and to form an idea of the chances of information which the traffic carried on in the Indian Ocean may have offered to the Greeks and Romans, here is what Antonio Galvano, Governor of Ternate says in 1555, quoting Strabo and Pliny (Strabo, lib. Now as the above articles of commerce, mentioned by Strabo and Pliny, after leaving their original ports in Asia and Austral-Asia, were conveyed from one island to another, any information, when sought for, concerning the location of the islands from which the spices came, must necessarily have been of a very unreliable character, for the different islands at which any stay was made were invariably confounded with those from which the spices originally came. From these facts, and many others, such as the positions given to the Mountain of the East or North-East of the Shumiro-Accads, the Mountain of the South, or Southwest, of Homer, and the Infernal Regions, we may conclude that the North Pole of the Ancients was situated somewhere in the neighborhood of the Sea of Okhotsk.
It is in the Classical Period of Greek cartography that we can start to trace a continuous tradition of theoretical concepts about the size and shape of the earth. Likewise, it should be emphasized that the vast majority of our knowledge about Greek cartography in this early period is known primarily only from second- or third-hand accounts.
There is no complete break between the development of cartography in Classical and in Hellenistic Greece.
In spite of these speculations, however, Greek cartography might have remained largely the province of philosophy had it not been for a vigorous and parallel growth of empirical knowledge. That such a change should occur is due both to political and military factors and to cultural developments within Greek society as a whole. The librarians not only brought together existing texts, they corrected them for publication, listed them in descriptive catalogs, and tried to keep them up to date. The other great factor underlying the increasing realism of maps of the inhabited world in the Hellenistic Period was the expansion of the Greek world through conquest and discovery, with a consequent acquisition of new geographical knowledge.
Among the contemporaries of Alexander was Pytheas, a navigator and astronomer from Massalia [Marseilles], who as a private citizen embarked upon an exploration of the oceanic coasts of Western Europe. As exemplified by the journeys of Alexander and Pytheas, the combination of theoretical knowledge with direct observation and the fruits of extensive travel gradually provided new data for the compilation of world maps. The importance of the Hellenistic Period in the history of ancient world cartography, however, has been clearly established. In the history of geographical (or terrestrial) mapping, the great practical step forward during this period was to locate the inhabited world exactly on the terrestrial globe. Thus it was at various scales of mapping, from the purely local to the representation of the cosmos, that the Greeks of the Hellenistic Period enhanced and then disseminated a knowledge of maps. The Roman Republic offers a good case for continuing to treat the Greek contribution to mapping as a separate strand in the history of classical cartography. The remarkable influence of Ptolemy on the development of European, Arabic, and ultimately world cartography can hardly be denied.
Notwithstanding his immense importance in the study of the history of cartography, Ptolemy remains in many respects a complicated figure to assess.
Still the culmination of Greek cartographic thought is seen in the work of Claudius Ptolemy, who worked within the framework of the early Roman Empire. When we turn to Roman cartography, it has been shown that by the end of the Augustan era many of its essential characteristics were already in existence. In the course of the early empire large-scale maps were harnessed to a number of clearly defined aspects of everyday life. Maps in the period of the decline of the empire and its sequel in the Byzantine civilization were of course greatly influenced by Christianity.
Continuity between the classical period and succeeding ages was interrupted, and there was disruption of the old way of life with its technological achievements, which also involved mapmaking. The Byzantine Empire, though providing essential links in the chain, remains something of an enigma for the history of the long-term transmission of cartographic knowledge from the ancient to the modern world.
It may be necessary to emphasize that the ancient Greek maps shown in this volume are a€?reconstructionsa€? by modern scholars based upon the textual descriptions of the general outline of the geographical systems formed by each of the successive Greek writers so far as it is possible to extract these from their writings alone. China is Asiaa€™s oldest civilization, and the center from which cultural disciplines spread to the rest of the continent. An ancient wooden map discovered by Chinese archaeologists in northwest China's Gansu Province has been confirmed as the country's oldest one at an age of more than 2,200.
The map of Guixian was unearthed from tombs of the Qin Kingdom at Fangmatan in Tianshui City of Gansu Province in 1986 and was listed as a national treasure in 1994. Unlike modern maps, place names on these maps were written within big or small square frames, while the names of rivers, roads, major mountains, water systems and forested areas were marked directly with Chinese characters. Whoever sets out to write on the history of geography in China faces a quandary, however, for while it is indispensable to give the reader some appreciation of the immense mass of literature which Chinese scholars have produced on the subject, it is necessary to avoid the tedium of listing names of authors and books, some of which indeed have long been lost.
As for the ideas about the shape of the earth current in ancient Chinese thought, the prevailing belief was that the heavens were round and the earth square. The following attempts to compare rather carefully the parallel march of scientific geography in the West and in China. A lot of people would be happy to know a handful of exercises which they can do at home and still have the fat burning benefits.
I don’t believe in absolute statements such as ‘the very best of exercises’ or ‘the only exercises’.
You can use these in combination to another workout or pick the ones you like and use them with others you may have in your list. When you are exercising your body will use calories (energy) to fuel the exercise, no matter what exercise it is.
In very simple terms, the exercise must place some considerable challenge in your body and muscles in order to ‘build muscle’. The more muscle mass you have the more calories and fat you will burn even when you’re resting. You can buy ‘special’ skipping ropes but in my opinion any rope which is suitable for your height is fine. Perform for 3 min at the start of your workout to get your muscles and cardiopulmonary systems going, and then for another 5 min at the end. There are a number of variations in performance and when performed on the floor with straight legs then they also work leg tummy and buttocks as stabilisers. Extended legs and toes tacked in to the floor (raise on to your toes), keep your back straight. A good exercise which can offer some relief from upper back stiffness especially if cause from sitting in a desk for a long time. The first few weeks it is easy to keep motivated especially if you can see the pounds falling off. It is unlikely that one day’s overeating will tip the scales, but if you give up now it will be even harder to start again. Your body keeps adjusting to losing weight and it can slow down in the speed it loses weight. Following a specific diet for a couple of weeks can be easy, but following the same all diet for months can be like a prison sentence and no surprise people want to just escape from it. I have already mentioned above about re-evaluating your regime and whether it works for you.
Plateaus and slowdown can generate a lot of frustration and you can easily give up on your goals. Maybe you have a few or a lot of extra pounds and it could be that you are fed up with the way you look. Losing the extra weight is not about punishing yourself for all the takeaways and binges of the last years but more like looking after ‘you’. Having someone to do it together can provide the drive and the motivation to start again and stick to a weight loss regime.
This reason can be different for each one and could range from not being able to resist a chocolate to I haven’t got time to cook.
If you want to follow a relatively low calorie diet, and lose a lot of weight fast, but without giving up sweets or chips it may not be possible. In its essence the ‘Pilates method’ is a series of exercises which use the body’s own weight and resistance. The little research that has been carried out does suggest that Pilates exercises can help to lower the Body Mass Index (BMI)and achieve weight loss. Pilates exercises, especially those for beginners, are a more ‘gentle’ form of exercise and will not result in burning huge amounts of calories.
The apparatus provide resistance, and increase the difficulty of the exercise and in result the effort made to carry out the exercise.
If any exercise is not performed properly and to the appropriate difficulty level, it can lead to back injuries, muscle strains, joint and ligament injuries etc. If a muscle becomes more conditioned and works more efficiently it will in return burn fat more efficiently. Results of Pilates on weight loss may be more prominent in terms of losing ‘inces’ in and around the areas conditioned (see previous point) rather than in kilos lost. It could be more suitable for people who to start off can’t sustain heavy or intense exercise or prefer classes rather than gym sessions.
For more radical results in achieving weight loss is best combined with other forms of exercise and physical activity.
As with every exercise, for muscular effects to take place it can take approximately 4 weeks.
Muscles need an appropriate amount of challenge for fitness gains, and a good fitness professional should be able to provide you with the correct level, program and routine for your individual needs. Firstly metabolism is the combination of processes that take place in the body in order to function and maintain life. Some of these can affect directly the metabolic rate and others can affect hormones or organs which are involved in metabolic regulation and result in dysfunctional metabolism.
One of the effects of hypothyroidism is decreased metabolic rate, and changes in the metabolic regulation.
It affects production of some hormones which are involved in metabolic and appetite regulation.
Menopause has been associated with low energy expenditure at rest and exercise and increase in central fat deposit and fasting insulin levels. Some scientist will argue that the decrease in the metabolic rate starts as early as 25 years of age. Increase your muscle mass: Probably one of the most important ways of increasing the metabolic rate. Avoid very low calorie diets: As mentioned above very low calorie diets can decrease the metabolic rate (see table 1).
For a sedentary person who consumes 3000 calories a day is safe to aim reducing the calories within the recommended ranges. Do not skip meals: Delaying having breakfast will actually help in burning more fat as fuel. In other words avoid loads of small meals and snacks (healthy or not) but aim to have all the meals in a day (i.e.
Increase protein intake: Some studies have shown that protein does help in increasing the metabolic rate.
Caffeine: Caffeine is considered to increase the metabolic rate and the use of fat as fuel. Sleep well: As mentioned earlier sleep deprivation can affect the body’s metabolic processes. Cold: Cold does increase metabolic rate as the body works harder in order to sustain its body temperature.
So torturing yourselves with a T-shirt in the snow or with iced baths is definitely not recommended. Take the following multiple choice quiz and see if you know all there is to know about how to shrink you waistline and keep the inches off.
This type of fat is made from animal products and is also known to raise the level of cholesterol in the bloodstream.
Low-fat dairy foods, such as yogurt or skim milk are actually helpful in getting rid of belly fat as they release fat from fat cells in the abdominals and therefore reduce the amount of fat that is absorbed. Hot peppers of any kind contain capsaicin which increases the capacity for the body to burn calories by as much as five to ten percent. Combined, all of the above approaches work as they speed up the body’s ability to burn calories and therefore reduce belly fat. Therefore, by simply doubling your fiber intake, how much weight, on average, can you lose in a year? It’s been shown that if you simply alter your eating habits and include foods that contain more fiber, you will also see a lower number on the bathroom scale.
Although crunches are good for toning and strengthening the abdominal area, they will not necessarily reduce the fat. That’s because resistance training causes you to keep burning calories even after you’ve completed your session of exercise.
All of the foods listed are rich in fiber and can help you lose weight if consumed in conservative portions. These methods can help you determine if you are overweight, obese or even within a healthy weight range. Have the weight you feel comfortable with and happy with even if slightly over the line, as long as this does not affect your health. Don’t get obsessed with numbers such as your weight, your body mass index (see below), calories etc. As mentioned earlier in the case where you need to lose abdominal fat, a healthy balance dietmay be most adequate. Even 2 people who appear to have the same height do not necessarily mean that they would have the same weight. Once you have an idea of your body measurements you can start planning on what you need to concentrate on. This brings us to the point of don’t just look at finding an exact weight goal from day one. It takes about 2 weeks for your body to make long term changes and adapt (this can vary depending on each individual). If your weight loss is for mainly health reasons then it is also advisable to consult an appropriate medical professional. In that matter it is always recommended to advise a medical professional before taking any exercise or diet regime, especially if you there are pre-existing health complaints. I am sure you are familiar with several foods which are detrimental for your health and I may cover some of them, but I hope I will introduce something new for you. Soy is seen as miracle healthy food of 21st century. The soy industry is a huge business and its popularity and success was the result of a massive investment in marketing. This form of soy is resistant to toxic herbicides Roundup; therefore it is loaded with this toxic pesticide.
In other words when you consume fructose it is more likely to be turned into fat and stored than if you were consuming ordinary sugar. The amount of fructose contained in fruit does not really translate in high amounts unless your diet consists of just fruit. Often people connect saturated fats with health risks and conditions, but if there is one fat to really watch is the trans-fat. They are believed to increase the risk for coronary heart disease and components of the metabolic syndrome.
When it comes to trying to avoid trans fats it can be a mind field as most food labels do not list the amount of trans fats they contain. It does make me sad to say that sugar has to go as I do love cakes, chocolate, sweets, cheesecakes…the list goes on. If your aim is weight loss then sugar is your number 1 enemy and it is definitely one of the foods to avoid while dieting. In simple words when sugar enters the system, your body produces a hormone called insulin which one of its roles is to signal to the cells to absorb sugar. When the cells are chronically stimulated by insulin they can become kind of insensitive to it which can then lead to what is called insulin resistance and diabetes.
A few studies have looked into the level of contaminants contained in farmed salmon and the health risks these can impose. These names may not make much sense for a lot of people; however, the main argument about all these contaminants is mainly that they increase the risk of cancer amongst some other health issues.
For example Chilean and South American farmed raised salmon is believed to contain less contaminant than European farmed raised salmon.
In addition, why not try other oily fish which can taste as good and still contain all the necessary nutrients beneficial for health?
I dona€™t believe in absolute statements such as a€?the very best of exercisesa€™ or a€?the only exercisesa€™. In very simple terms, the exercise must place some considerable challenge in your body and muscles in order to a€?build musclea€™. The more muscle mass you have the more calories and fat you will burn even when youa€™re resting.
You can buy a€?speciala€™ skipping ropes but in my opinion any rope which is suitable for your height is fine. It is unlikely that one daya€™s overeating will tip the scales, but if you give up now it will be even harder to start again.
Losing the extra weight is not about punishing yourself for all the takeaways and binges of the last years but more like looking after a€?youa€™. This reason can be different for each one and could range from not being able to resist a chocolate to I havena€™t got time to cook.
In its essence the a€?Pilates methoda€™ is a series of exercises which use the bodya€™s own weight and resistance. Pilates exercises, especially those for beginners, are a more a€?gentlea€™ form of exercise and will not result in burning huge amounts of calories. Results of Pilates on weight loss may be more prominent in terms of losing a€?incesa€™ in and around the areas conditioned (see previous point) rather than in kilos lost. It could be more suitable for people who to start off cana€™t sustain heavy or intense exercise or prefer classes rather than gym sessions. Sleep well: As mentioned earlier sleep deprivation can affect the bodya€™s metabolic processes.
Combined, all of the above approaches work as they speed up the bodya€™s ability to burn calories and therefore reduce belly fat. Ita€™s been shown that if you simply alter your eating habits and include foods that contain more fiber, you will also see a lower number on the bathroom scale. Thata€™s because resistance training causes you to keep burning calories even afterA you’veA completed your session of exercise. When it comes to weight loss a€?too much too fasta€™ is not recommended for health reasons. Dona€™t get obsessed with numbers such as your weight, your body mass index (see below), calories etc. This brings us to the point of dona€™t just look at finding an exact weight goal from day one. Soy is seen as miracle healthy food of 21st century.A The soy industry is a huge business and its popularity and success was the result of a massive investment in marketing. It may also be likened to a book of reproductions of works of art, in the sense that the illustrations, even with the accompanying commentary, cannot really do justice to the originals.
A knowledge of maps and their contents is not automatic - it has to be learned; and it is important for educated people to know about maps even though they may not be called upon to make them. Some maps are successful in their display of material but are scientifically barren, while in others an important message may be obscured because of the poverty of presentation. Maps constitute a specialized graphic language, an instrument of communication that has influenced behavioral characteristics and the social life of humanity throughout history. Maps produced by contemporary primitive peoples have been likened to so-called prehistoric maps. In earlier times these maps were considered to be ephemeral material, like newspapers and pamphlets, and large wall-maps received particularly careless treatment because they were difficult to store. When, in 1918, a mosaic floor was discovered in the ancient TransJordanian church of Madaba showing a map of Palestine, Syria and part of Egypt, a whole series of reproductions and treatises was published on the geography of Palestine at that time.
Kretschner, 1892), Japan (P.Teleki, 1909), Madagascar (Gravier, 1896), Albania (Nopcsa, 1916), Spitzbergen (Wieder, 1919), the northwest of America (Wagner, 1937), and others. Indeed, much of its universal appeal is that the simpler types of map can be read and interpreted with only a little training. Crone remarked that a€?a map can be considered from several aspects, as a scientific report, a historical document, a research tool, and an object of art. It may also be viewed as an aspect of the history of human thought, so that while the study of the techniques that influence the medium of that thought is important, it also considers the social significance of cartographic innovation and the way maps have impinged on the many other facets of human history they touch. It is reasonable to expect some evidence in this art of the societya€™s spatial consciousness. There is, for example, clear evidence in the prehistoric art of Europe that maps - permanent graphic images epitomizing the spatial distribution of objects and events - were being made as early as the Upper Paleolithic.
In Mesopotamia the invention by the Sumerians of cuneiform writing in the fourth millennium B.C. In the former field, among other things, they attained a remarkably close approximation for a?s2, namely 1.414213. The courses of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers offered major routes to and from the north, and the northwest, and the Persian Gulf allowed contact by sea along the coasts of Arabia and east to India.
Within this span of some three thousand years, the main achievements in Greek cartography took place from about the sixth century B.C.
Stevenson, it is not easy to fix, with anything like a satisfactory measure of certainty, the beginning of globe construction; very naturally it was not until a spherical theory concerning the heavens and the earth had been accepted, and for this we are led back quite to Aristotle and beyond, back indeed to the Pythagoreans if not yet farther.
We are now learning that those centuries were not entirely barren of a certain interest in sciences other than theological. It has now been ascertained and demonstrated beyond doubt that the earliest ideas concerning the laws of the universe and the shape of the earth were, in many respects, more correct and clearer than those of a subsequent period. Ragozin, says the Shumiro-Accads had formed a very elaborate and clever idea of what they supposed the world to be like; they imagined it to have the shape of an inverted round boat or bowl, the thickness of which would represent the mixture of land and water (ki-a) which we call the crust of the earth, while the hollow beneath this inhabitable crust was fancied as a bottomless pit or abyss (ge), in which dwelt many powers. The account of this conversation, which is too lengthy here to give in full, was written three centuries and a half before the Christian era. Of the familiaritie of Midas, the Phrigian, and Selenus, and of certaine circumstances which he incredibly reported. This Selenus was the sonne of a nymphe inferiour to the gods in condition and degree, but superiour to men concerning mortalytie and death. The Chaldean conception, thus rudely described, shows a yet nearer approximation to the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe, when we bear in mind that this actually is in shape a flattened sphere, with the vertical diameter the shorter one. A curious example of the difficulties that early cartographers of the circumfluent ocean period had to contend with, and of the sans faA§on method of dealing with them, occurs in the celebrated Fra Mauro mappamundi (Book III, #249), which is one of the last in which the external ocean is still retained. The influence of the Ptolemaic astronomical and geographical system was very great, and lasted for over thirteen hundred years. There are reasons to believe however, apart from the evidence we gather in the Poems, that these abyssal regions were supposed or believed to be situated around the North Pole.
Homer, The Outward Geography Eastwards: a€?The outer geography eastwards, or wonderland, has for its exterior boundary the great river Okeanos, a noble conception, in everlasting flux and reflux, roundabout the territory given to living man. The Phoenician reports referred to came most likely therefore, not so much from the north, as from these regions which, tradition tells us (Fra Mauroa€™s mappamundi #249), were situated propinqua ale tenebre. These winds covered the arcs intervening between our four cardinal points of the compass, which points were not located exactly as with us; but the north leaning to the east, the east to the south, the south to the west and the west to the north (see Beatusa€™ Turin map, Book II, #207). The reason for this is plausible, for whereas the northern seaman regulated his navigation by the North Star, the Asiatic sailor turned to southern constellations for his guidance.
This is all the more strange when we take into consideration that, in the light of his context, the fact is apparent and of great importance as coinciding with other European views concerning the location of the north on terrestrial globes and maps. The Chaldeans placed their heaven in the east or northeast; Homer placed his heaven in the south or southwest. In this ocean we find also EA the Exalted Fish, but, deprived of his ancient grandeur and divinity, he is no doubt considered nothing more than a merman at the period when acquaintance is renewed with him on the SchA¶ner-Frankfort gores of Asiatic origin bearing the date 1515 (Book IV, #328). The divergence was probably owing in a great measure to the inability of representing graphically the perspective appearance of the globe on a plane; but may be also traceable to an erroneous interpretation of the original idea, caused by the reversion of the cardinal points of the compass. According to this division other continents south of the equator were supposed to exist and habited, some said, but not to be approached by those inhabiting the northern hemisphere on account of the presumed impossibility of traversing the equatorial regions, the heat of which was believed to be too intense. We shall see, when dealing with Ptolemy's map of the world, some of the results of this confusion. Thomas, after the dispersion of the Apostles, preached the Gospel to the Parthians and Persians; then went to India, where he gave up his life for Jesus Christ. That he corroborates Homera€™s views as to the sphericity of the earth by describing Cratesa€™ terrestrial globe (Geographica; Book ii.
That he accentuates Homera€™s views concerning the black races that lived some in the west (the African race) others in the east (the Australian race). That he shows the four cardinal points of the compass to have been situated somewhat differently than with us, for he says (Book 1, c. That he appears to be perpetuating an ancient tradition when he supposes the existence of a vast continent or antichthonos in the southern hemisphere to counterbalance the weight of the northern continents.
The relativeness of these positions appears to have been maintained on some mediaeval maps. To appreciate how this period laid the foundations for the developments of the ensuing Hellenistic Period, it is necessary to draw on a wide range of Greek writings containing references to maps.
We have no original texts of Anaximander, Pythagoras, or Eratosthenes - all pillars of the development of Greek cartographic thought. In contrast to many periods in the ancient and medieval world and despite the fragmentary artifacts, we are able to reconstruct throughout the Greek period, and indeed into the Roman, a continuum in cartographic thought and practice. Indeed, one of the salient trends in the history of the Hellenistic Period of cartography was the growing tendency to relate theories and mathematical models to newly acquired facts about the world - especially those gathered in the course of Greek exploration or embodied in direct observations such as those recorded by Eratosthenes in his scientific measurement of the circumference of the earth.
With respect to the latter, we can see how Greek cartography started to be influenced by a new infrastructure for learning that had a profound effect on the growth of formalized knowledge in general. Thus Alexandria became a clearing-house for cartographic and geographical knowledge; it was a center where this could be codified and evaluated and where, we may assume, new maps as well as texts could be produced in parallel with the growth of empirical knowledge.
In his treatise On the Ocean, Pytheas relates his journey and provides geographical and astronomical information about the countries that he observed.
While we can assume a priori that such a linkage was crucial to the development of Hellenistic cartography, again there is no hard evidence, as in so many other aspects of its history, that allows us to reconstruct the technical processes and physical qualities of the maps themselves. Its outstanding characteristic was the fruitful marriage of theoretical and empirical knowledge. Eratosthenes was apparently the first to accomplish this, and his map was the earliest scientific attempt to give the different parts of the world represented on a plane surface approximately their true proportions.
By so improving the mimesis or imitation of the world, founded on sound theoretical premises, they made other intellectual advances possible and helped to extend the Greek vision far beyond the Aegean.
While there was a considerable blending and interdependence of Greek and Roman concepts and skills, the fundamental distinction between the often theoretical nature of the Greek contribution and the increasingly practical uses for maps devised by the Romans forms a familiar but satisfactory division for their respective cartographic influences. The profound difference between the Roman and the Greek mind is illustrated with peculiar clarity in their maps. Through both the Mathematical Syntaxis (a treatise on mathematics and astronomy in thirteen books, also called the Almagest and the Geography (in eight books), it can be said that Ptolemy tended to dominate both astronomy and geography, and hence their cartographic manifestations, for over fourteen centuries. A modern analysis of Ptolemaic scholarship offers nothing to revise the long-held consensus that he is a key figure in the long term development of scientific mapping. In its most obvious aspect, the exaggerated size of Jerusalem on the Madaba mosaic map (# 121) was no doubt an attempt to make the Holy City not only dominant but also more accurately depicted in this difficult medium. In both Western Europe and Byzantium relatively little that was new in cartography developed during the Dark Ages and early Middle Ages, although monks were assiduously copying out and preserving the written work of many past centuries available to them. Researcher He said that the map, drawn in black on four pine wood plates of almost the same size, had clear and complete graphics depicting the administrative division, a general picture of local geography and the economic situation in Guixian County in the Warring States era. Only a few examples can be given, but it should be understood, even when it is not expressly said, that they must often stand simply as representative of a whole class of works. It may be said at the outset that both in East and West there seem to have been two separate traditions, one which we may call a€?scientific, or quantitative, cartographya€™, and one which we may call a€?religious, or symbolic, cosmographya€™.
The type of fuel, whether it is fat, sugar or other will depend on the type of exercise, the intensity, the meal consumed before and when and a number of other reasons.
However, this doesn’t mean that you should jump to intermediate level when you never exercised before in your life so you get maximum results.
The one I usually use to train is a children’s one which I bought from a shop for a couple of dollars. Keep the elbows tacked in your body and the turning of the rope should come from the wrists.
Skipping is more of an aerobic exercise and for maximising the fat you burn it is better if you perform resistance exercises 1st and aerobic exercise at the end. Lay prone on the floor with palms flat on the floor placed slightly wider under your shoulders. However, do consult a doctor if you have any previous complaints in that area and don’t take it for granted that every treatment fits everybody. As time progress, weight loss can slow down, maybe hit a plateau, hit a few parties, or simply lose interest and perspective.
It is common for people to say I had that chocolate at dinner so I will skip supper, or I had a bit extra last night I will eat less today. Firstly is best to opt for weight loss regimes which promote a healthy balance diet rather than restrictive diets. Physical activity whether is structured exercise or just going for a walk can increase the amount of calories you burn and kick start the weight loss again. However, if you are always negative about your weight you will only make yourself feel bad and struggle through ‘must do’ weight loss diets. STOT Pilates, modified Pilates APPI technique, contemporary Pilates and so on) using apparatus such as the reformer, with books written about them, and DVDs for people to take home and practice. In theory, it teaches the body how to use its own mechanisms to recruit the ‘core’ muscles throughout the body.
However, due to the limited amount of good quality studies available there is no strong scientific evidence to support a statement such as ‘Pilates will lead to weight loss’.
Some mat-based techniques tend to use apparatus such as gym balls and thera-bands (resistance elastic bands) which can similarly increase resistance and muscular effort. At a beginners levels exercises may not appear as they provide any muscular benefits or may seem very easy. As with every form with exercise if you have any medical conditions consult a medical professional before starting. Additionally, it may be more suitable for those who just want a light firming form of exercise to top up their weight loss or just sustain a firm body shape. Moreover, any gains will depend on the intensity, duration and frequency of the exercise i.e. Is there such a thing as slow metabolism and if so what can someone do in order to lose weight?
The means in which we take in nutrients and deliver energy as required is called metabolic regulation. However, it must be noted that in the general healthy population these differences are very small and metabolic rate on its own will not necessarily lead to measurable weight changes. Weight gain can be common in hypothyroidism, not only due to the slowing down of the metabolic rate and the hormonal changes but also as a result of other symptoms.
It is important to receive the appropriate medical treatment for any medical conditions, as these could have serious implications to health if not treated properly. In order to lose weight decreasing the calorie intake may be necessary and metabolic rate may show some decrease in order for the body to adapt. For a sedentary person whose calorie intake is within the upper recommended limits then a small decrease up to 500 calories should be sufficient and safe.
However, you do need to include carbohydrates as well as very low carbohydrate intake can have negative effects in thyroid hormone production. However, caffeine is a stimulant and can induce a stress response among other negative effects. If you are actually one of those people who lose weight when under stress you may be tempted to think that is not a bad thing. Some people have gone as far to create the ‘cold diets’ in which they recommend to drink iced water and turn the heating off in the winter. Therefore, fried foods are not only bad for your waistline but for the health of your heart as well. Any low-fat dairy product is helpful in lowering the amount of absorbed fat in the abdominal region and therefore reduces any accumulation of fat. Dark chocolate contains monounsaturated fat, which is produced from plants and is an acceptable food to eat provided you consume only a small portion as it’s also dense calorically.
Regardless of your score, remember to keep a healthy perspective, which is the best way to lose belly fat. For some people it may be a matter of losing a couple of pounds for others it may be a lot more. These classifications are only a guide and they do come with their flaws so do use them as they intended; as a guide. Maybe just eating the right foods, or adding some exercise to firm the areas which bother you could be the answer. Or on the other hand you could be exercising and carrying a lot of muscle which can lead to a high BMI (i.e. WHR is another simple way of categorising individuals’ health risk according to the circumference of their waist and hip. Waist Circumference it is often used to determine overall health risks in relation to the circumference of a person‘s waist. Are you overweight, in a risk of having a lot of abdominal fat, within normal weight range? This could be just losing a couple of pounds to feel more comfortable in yourself, or losing some inches of your tummy or losing more weight to get within a normal range of weight.
Keep in mind that you did not put on the weight in one day so it is unlikely that you will lose it in one day. A medical professional should provide you with the guidance you need regarding your health and weight. It also contains genes from bacteria that produce a protein which has never been part of the human food supply. Moreover, some scientists have implicated HFCS as a possible contributor in excess energy consumption (eating too many calories). In addition, studies suggest that trans fats may exacerbate diabetes as they can increase insulin resistance (in simple words the cells resist the effects of insulin and respond slower or not at all). In general is best to try and avoid processed food, fast food, margarines, and deep fried food.
The studies are more or less in agreement that the level of contaminants is higher in farmed salmon than in wild salmon; the question however is what does that mean in terms of health? A lot of these points, as well as the argument of whether the benefits of consuming salmon outweigh the risk, have not been fully explored and answered. However, this doesna€™t mean that you should jump to intermediate level when you never exercised before in your life so you get maximum results.
The one I usually use to train is a childrena€™s one which I bought from a shop for a couple of dollars.
However, do consult a doctor if you have any previous complaints in that area and dona€™t take it for granted that every treatment fits everybody.
However, if you are always negative about your weight you will only make yourself feel bad and struggle through a€?must doa€™ weight loss diets.
In theory, it teaches the body how to use its own mechanisms to recruit the a€?corea€™ muscles throughout the body.
However, due to the limited amount of good quality studies available there is no strong scientific evidence to support a statement such as a€?Pilates will lead to weight lossa€™.
Some people have gone as far to create the a€?cold dietsa€™ in which they recommend to drink iced water and turn the heating off in the winter. Dark chocolate contains monounsaturated fat, which is produced from plants and is an acceptable food to eat provided you consume only a small portion as ita€™s also dense calorically. It is always best to use a combination of them for a better picture of your bodya€™s weight.
WHR is another simple way of categorising individualsa€™ health risk according to the circumference of their waist and hip. Waist Circumference it is often used to determine overall health risks in relation to the circumference of a persona€?s waist. They have often served as memory banks for spatial data and as mnemonics in societies without the printed word and can speak across the barriers of ordinary language, constituting a common language used by men of different races and tongues to express the relationship of their society to a geographic environment.
Certain carvings on bone and petroglyphs have been identified as prehistoric route maps, although according to a strict definition, they might not qualify as a€?mapsa€?.
In the present work, reconstruction of maps no longer extant are used in place of originals or assumed originals. Since the maps were missing, he drew them himself from indications in the ancient text, and when the work was finished, he commemorated this too in verse. The map answered many hitherto insoluble or disputed questions, for example the question as to where the Virgin Mary met the mother of John Baptist.
A series of maps of a coastal region (for example, that of Holland or Friesland) or of river estuaries (the Po, Mississippi, Volga, or lower Yellow River) gives information on the rate of changes in outline and their causes. Maps represent an excellent mirror of culture and civilizationa€?, but they are also more than a mere reflection: maps in their own right enter the historical process by means of reciprocally structured relationships.
But when it comes to drawing up the balance sheet of evidence for prehistoric maps, we must admit that the evidence is tenuous and certainly inconclusive. The same evidence shows, too, that the quintessentially cartographic concept of representation in plan was already in use in that period. Our divisions into 60 and 360 for minutes, seconds and degrees are a direct inheritance from the Babylonians, who thought in these terms.
The Pharaohs organized military campaigns, trade missions, and even purely geographical expeditions to explore various countries. From earliest times much of the area covered by the annual Nile floods had, upon their retreat, to be re-surveyed in order to establish the exact boundaries of properties.
We find allusions to celestial globes in the days of Eudoxus and Archimedes, to terrestrial globes in the days of Crates and Hipparchus.
In Justiniana€™s day, or near it, one Leontius Mechanicus busied himself in Constantinople with globe construction, and we have left to us his brief descriptive reference to his work.
But above all these, higher in rank and greater in power, is the Spirit (Zi) of heaven (ana), ZI-ANA, or, as often, simply ANA--Heaven. On this map of the world the islands of the Malay Archipelago follow the shores of Asia from Malacca to Japan.
Even the Arabs, who, after the fall of the Roman Empire, developed the geographical knowledge of the world during the first period of the middle ages, adopted many of its errors. Volcanoes were supposed to be the entrances to the infernal regions, and towards the southeast the whole region beyond the river Okeanos of Homer, from Java to Sumbawa and the Sea of Banda, was sufficiently studded with mighty peaks to warrant the idea they may have originated. Many cartographers of the renascence, whose charts indeed we cannot read unless we reverse them, must have followed Asiatic cartographical methods, and this perhaps through copying local charts obtained in the countries visited by them.
Taprobana was the Greek corruption of the Tamravarna of Arabian, or even perhaps Phoenician, nomenclature; our modern Sumatra. Geographical science was on the eve of reaching its apogee with the Greeks, were it was doomed to retrograde with the decline of the Roman Empire.
John III, King of Portugal, ordered his remains to be sought for in a little ruined chapel that was over his tomb, outside Meliapur or Maliapor.
In some cases the authors of these texts are not normally thought of in the context of geographic or cartographic science, but nevertheless they reflect a widespread and often critical interest in such questions.
In particular, there are relatively few surviving artifacts in the form of graphic representations that may be considered maps. Despite a continuing lack of surviving maps and original texts throughout the period - which continues to limit our understanding of the changing form and content of cartography - it can be shown that, by the perioda€™s end, a markedly different cartographic image of the inhabited world had emerged. Of particular importance for the history of the map was the growth of Alexandria as a major center of learning, far surpassing in this respect the Macedonian court at Pella.
Later geographers used the accounts of Alexandera€™s journeys extensively to make maps of Asia and to fill in the outline of the inhabited world. Not even the improved maps that resulted from these processes have survived, and the literary references to their existence (enabling a partial reconstruction of their content) can even in their entirety refer only to a tiny fraction of the number of maps once made and once in circulation. It has been demonstrated beyond doubt that the geometric study of the sphere, as expressed in theorems and physical models, had important practical applications and that its principles underlay the development both of mathematical geography and of scientific cartography as applied to celestial and terrestrial phenomena. On his map, moreover, one could have distinguished the geometric shapes of the countries, and one could have used the map as a tool to estimate the distances between places. To Rome, Hellenistic Greece left a seminal cartographic heritage - one that, in the first instance at least, was barely challenged in the intellectual centers of Roman society. Certainly the political expansion of Rome, whose domination was rapidly extending over the Mediterranean, did not lead to an eclipse of Greek influence.
Such knowledge, relating to both terrestrial and celestial mapping, had been transmitted through a succession of well-defined master-pupil relationships, and the preservation of texts and three-dimensional models had been aided by the growth of libraries. The Romans were indifferent to mathematical geography, with its system of latitudes and longitudes, its astronomical measurements, and its problem of projections.
Yet Ptolemy, as much through the accidental survival and transmission of his texts when so many others perished as through his comprehensive approach to mapping, does nevertheless stride like a colossus over the cartographic knowledge of the later Greco-Roman world and the Renaissance. Pilgrims from distant lands obviously needed itineraries like that starting at Bordeaux, giving fairly simple instructions. When we come to consider the mapping of small areas in medieval western Europe, it will be shown that the Saint Gall monastery map is very reminiscent of the best Roman large-scale plans. Some maps, along with other illustrations, were transmitted by this process, but too few have survived to indicate the overall level of cartographic awareness in Byzantine society. Eighty-two places are marked with their respective names, locations of rivers, mountains and forested areas on the map.
Experts said that graphics, symbols, scales, locations, longitude and latitude are key elements of a map. Thus in the Ta Tai Li Chi, Tseng Shen, replying to the questions of Shanchu Li, admits that it was very hard to see how, on the orthodox view, the four comers of the earth could be properly covered.
It is always best to train muscles in balance and throughout the body to avoid muscle imbalances and injuries in the long term. The 3 and 5 min may not seem as much but trust me if you never skipped before (being a child was the last time) you will find that is not as easy.
If that is too hard then just do 4 and try to build on it or go for one of the easier variations and build on it.
When lowering your arm squeeze the shoulder blades together so when your arms have slide down the shoulder blades have gone back into their place. If you keep dithering about that meal last night, or the party last week and how much you eaten or drank, then you will be spending your energy on things you cannot change. Cycling calories through the days can have a benefit, but torturing or starving yourself to make up for calories will only feel hard and you are likely to give up altogether. Even if a regime worked for a period of time it may be good to re-evaluate and see what you could change, add, remove adapt.
Is it to look good on your wedding, or for health reasons, to fit in an outfit or to feel better about yourself? The first ones tend to allow more freedom in choosing menus and the foods you can eat and so it is harder to feel bored. Planning is a very helpful tool for achieving your goals and it can be your starting point.
A very close friend of mine wanted to lose weight but could never stick to it or stay away from temptations until her husband decide to be her weight loss ‘coach’. Make a list of all the things you may think will be affecting you or do affect you in reaching those weight loss goals.
It is easy to want to jump to a higher level which could provide you with more challenge, more calorie burning, and faster. You can practice some elements of Pilates when sitting in your office, in the car, or watching TV, however, it is not natural to have any muscle contracted constantly. Not trying to undermine the home exercise regimes, however, in the case of Pilates exercises precision and control is vital. A medical professional will be the most appropriate person to advise you in terms of weight loss and exercise which will most suit any medical needs. Symptoms such as fatigue, depression, and weakness can lead to decreased physical activity and associated bad eating habits.
In addition, for some medical conditions it is important to follow the appropriate and recommended diets.
The recommended calorie intake is 1500-2000 kcal per day for women and 2000-2500 kcal for men. Some scientist will argue that the body needs both periods of fasting and periods of feeding.
Therefore, it would not be recommended to have large amount of caffeine especially if you are experiencing other day to day stresses.
Chronic stress can have number of implications to health and could actually result in chronic conditions.
Foods high in monounsaturated fats are actually good for the abdominals if they are consumed in conservative portions. A cardio workout like running assists in increasing the heart rate and the body’s ability to burn fat and calories.
Green tea too is a good beverage to consume if you want to reduce inches from your waist as it’s been proven to boost the metabolism and therefore burn fat. On the other hand it could just be the shape of your body, and learning to love what you got is even better.
Well weight loss can be more complicated than just losing weight; your body’s composition can change, as well as other factors. Waist circumference can be recommended for those people who may be classified within a healthy range with using BMI measurements but may have excess fat on their abdomen.
There are a number of changes that your body will make during a day, a month and even more during a weight loss regime. Lowering the risk of developing health conditions and being at the weight you feel satisfied is a good place to start. Do you just want to go down a couple of dress sizes even if you are still in an overweight range? There is such a thing as losing fat mass but not necessarily translating to pounds but more in inches or sometimes it is not as clear at all.
For example you want to lose 10lbs in one month, so you will aim for approximately 2lbs per week. A very close friend of mine wanted to lose weight but could never stick to it or stay away from temptations until her husband decide to be her weight loss a€?coacha€™.
A cardio workout like running assists in increasing the heart rate and the bodya€™s ability to burn fat and calories.
Green tea too is a good beverage to consume if you want to reduce inches from your waist as ita€™s been proven to boost the metabolism and therefore burn fat.
Well weight loss can be more complicated than just losing weight; your bodya€™s composition can change, as well as other factors.
This implies that throughout history maps have been more than just the sum of technical processes or the craftsmanship in their production and more than just a static image of their content frozen in time. The reconstructions of such maps appear in the correct chronology of the originals, irrespective of the date of the reconstruction. After the fall of Byzantium in 1453, its conqueror, the Turkish Sultan Mohammed II, found in the library that he inherited from the Byzantine rulers a manuscript of Ptolemya€™s Geographia, which lacked the world-map, and he commissioned Georgios Aminutzes, a philosopher in his entourage, to draw up a world map based on Ptolemya€™s text. Comparison of travelersa€™ maps from various periods show the development and change of routes or road-building and allows us to draw conclusions of every kind about the development or decay of farms, villages and towns. They were artistic treasure-houses, being often decorated with fine miniatures portraying life and customs in distant lands, various types of ships, coats-of-arms, portraits of rulers, and so on. The development of the map, whether it occurred in one place or at a number of independent hearths, was clearly a conceptual advance - an important increment to the technology of the intellect - that in some respects may be compared to the emergence of literacy or numeracy. The historian of cartography, looking for maps in the art of prehistoric Europe and its adjacent regions, is in exactly the same position as any other scholar seeking to interpret the content, functions, and meanings of that art.
Moreover, there is sufficient evidence for the use of cartographic signs from at least the post-Paleolithic period. They are impressed on small clay tablets like those generally used by the Babylonians for cuneiform inscriptions of documents, a medium which must have limited the cartographera€™s scope. The survey was carried out, mostly in squares, by professional surveyors with knotted ropes. We find that the Greek geographer Strabo gives us quite a definite word concerning their value and their construction, and that Ptolemy is so definite in his references to them as to lead to a belief that globes were by no means uncommon instruments in his day, and that they were regarded of much value in the study of geography and astronomy, particularly of the latter science. With stress laid, during the many centuries succeeding, upon matters pertaining to the religious life, there naturally was less concern than there had been in the humanistic days of classical antiquity as to whether the earth is spherical in form, or flat like a circular disc, nor was it thought to matter much as to the form of the heavens. Hyde Clarke has more than once pointed out in The Legend of the Atlantis of Plato, Royal Historical Society 1886, etc., that Australia must have been known in the most remote antiquity of the early history of civilization, at a time when the intercourse with America was still maintained. Between the lower heaven and the surface of the earth is the atmospheric region, the realm of IM or MERMER, the Wind, where he drives the clouds, rouses the storms, and whence he pours down the rain, which is stored in the great reservoir of Ana, in the heavenly ocean. Then in a northeasterly direction Homera€™s great river Okeanos would flow along the shores of the Sandwich group, where the volcanic peak of Mt. Aristotlea€™s writings, for example, provide a summary of the theoretical knowledge that underlay the construction of world maps by the end of the Greek Classical Period. Our cartographic knowledge must, therefore, be gleaned largely from literary descriptions, often couched in poetic language and difficult to interpret.
The ambition of Eratosthenes to draw a general map of the oikumene based on new discoveries was also partly inspired by Alexandera€™s exploration. In this case too, the generalizations drawn herein by various authorities (ancient and modern scholars, historians, geographers, and cartographers) are founded upon the chance survival of references made to maps by individual authors. Yet this evidence should not be interpreted to suggest that the Greek contribution to cartography in the early Roman world was merely a passive recital of the substance of earlier advances. If land survey did play such an important part, then these plans, being based on centuriation requirements and therefore square or rectangular, may have influenced the shape of smaller-scale maps. This is perhaps more remarkable in that his work was primarily instructional and theoretical, and it remains debatable if he bequeathed a set of images that could be automatically copied by an uninterrupted succession of manuscript illuminators.
While almost certainly fewer maps were made than in the Greco-Roman Period, nevertheless the key concepts of mapping that had been developed in the classical world were preserved in the Byzantine Empire. What is more surprising is that the map marks the location of Wei Shui, now known as the Weihe River, and many canyons in the area. The map of Guixian County has all these elements except longitude and latitude, according to historians.
However, the length is important, as if it is too short for your height you will be tripping yourself with it.
If you are fit and can do a couple of sets or more push up by all means judge it and go for it.
Easier variation includes assuming the plank position with placing your elbows bend under your shoulders and resting your forearms on the floor. Maybe the regime you are following has worked for thousands of people or it was great 2 years ago when you did it but this time it may not be what you need. An example is Mediterranean style diets which tend to include foods from all categories and have a vast amount of recipes and menus.
Some ideas are: start a class like dancing or Pilates, start swimming possibly as a family activity, join a sport or see if there are running groups in your area. Set a day for planning, a day for choosing your regime, a day for getting all ready (shopping, clearing cupboards etc) and a day for starting. He supported by eating healthy and even went as far as preparing meals and packed lunches for work. Are you too busy, don’t like weight loss diets, or are there too many biscuit tins in work?
However, one of the principles in which Pilates exercises are based on is precision and this is for a reason.
Pilates exercises concentrate on the deep and superficial muscles of the abdomen (tummy), back and gluts (hips). In the average healthy person what makes the difference in having a ‘lower’ or ‘faster’ metabolism is muscle mass (more specifically what is called lean body mass which is the muscle mass and organs). This could help in improving metabolic flexibility which is the ability of the body to adapt easily in utilizing carbohydrates (sugar) and fats as a fuel and transition between them. On the other hand, coffee dehydrates the system and is not a good choice if you want to lose weight in the abdominal area.
If you are however borderline underweight or your goals bring you to an underweight range do reconsider. It may be that one week you lose 1lb and one week you lose 3lbs but overall you have reached your monthly goal. Are you too busy, dona€™t like weight loss diets, or are there too many biscuit tins in work? In the average healthy person what makes the difference in having a a€?lowera€™ or a€?fastera€™ metabolism is muscle mass (more specifically what is called lean body mass which is the muscle mass and organs). This could help in improving metabolic flexibility which is the ability of the body to adapt easily inA utilizingA carbohydrates (sugar) and fats as a fuel and transition between them. Indeed, any history of maps is compounded by a complex series of interactions, involving their intent, their use and their purpose, as well as the process of their making. All reconstructions are, to a greater or lesser degree, the product of the compiler and the technology of his times. He knew it would be out of date, but that is precisely what he wanted - an ancient map; to perpetuate it, he also had a carpet woven from the drawing. Inferences have to be made about states of mind separated from the present not only by millennia but also - where ethnography is called into service to help illuminate the prehistoric evidence - by the geographical distance and different cultural contexts of other continents. Two of the basic map styles of the historical period, the picture map (perspective view) and the plan (ichnographic view), also have their prehistoric counterparts. However, the measurement of circular and triangular plots was envisaged: advice on this, and plans, are given in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus of ca.
From Ptolemaic Egypt there is a rough rectangular plan of surveyed land accompanying the text of the Lille Papyrus I, now in Paris; also two from the estate of Apollonius, minister of Ptolemy II. There is, however, but one example known, which has come down to us from that ancient day, this a celestial globe, briefly described as the Farnese globe. Yet there was no century, not even in those ages we happily are learning to call no longer a€?darka€?, that geography and astronomy were not studied and taught, and globes celestial as well as armillary spheres, if not terrestrial globes, were constructed. Here however he makes his hero confess that he is wholly out of his bearings, and cannot well say where the sun is to set or to rise (Od.
Although these views were continued and developed to a certain extent by their successors, Strabo and Ptolemy, through the Roman period, and more or less entertained during the Middle Ages, they became obscured as time rolled on. The bones of the holy apostle were found, with some relics that were placed in a rich vase. Again, if we consider the Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans as devoid of the American Continent, and the Atlantic Ocean as stretching to the shores of Asia, as Strabo did, the parallel of Iberia (Spain) would have taken Columbusa€™ ships to the north of Japan--i.e.
At the time when Alexander the Great set off to conquer and explore Asia and when Pytheas of Massalia was exploring northern Europe, therefore, the sum of geographic and cartographic knowledge in the Greek world was already considerable and was demonstrated in a variety of graphic and three-dimensional representations of the heavens and the earth. In addition, many other ancient texts alluding to maps are further distorted by being written centuries after the period they record; they too must be viewed with caution because they are similarly interpretative as well as descriptive.
Eudoxus had already formulated the geocentric hypothesis in mathematical models; and he had also translated his concepts into celestial globes that may be regarded as anticipating the sphairopoiia [mechanical spheres]. And it was at Alexandria that this Ptolemy, son of Ptolemy I Soter, a companion of Alexander, had founded the library, soon to become famous through the Mediterranean world. It seems, though, that having left Massalia, Pytheas put into Gades [Cadiz], then followed the coasts of Iberia [Spain] and France to Brittany, crossing to Cornwall and sailing north along the west coast of England and Scotland to the Orkney Islands.
On the contrary, a principal characteristic of the new age was the extent to which it was openly critical of earlier attempts at mapping. Disregarding the elaborate projections of the Greeks, they reverted to the old disk map of the Ionian geographers as being better adapted to their purposes. This shape was also one which suited the Roman habit of placing a large map on a wall of a temple or colonnade. 90-168), Greek and Roman influences in cartography had been fused to a considerable extent into one tradition. The Almagest, although translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona in the 12th century, appears to have had little direct influence on the development of cartography. Ptolemya€™s principal legacy was thus to cartographic method, and both the Almagest and the Geography may be regarded as among the most influential works in cartographic history. However, the maps of Marinus and Ptolemy, one of the latter containing thousands of place-names, were at least partly known to Arabic geographers of the ninth to the 10th century. The most accomplished Byzantine map to survive, the mosaic at Madaba (#121), is clearly closer to the classical tradition than to maps of any subsequent period. He Shuangquan, a research fellow with the Gansu Provincial Archaeological Research Institute, has made an in-depth study of the map and confirmed its drawing time to be 239 B.C. You can build different variations as you become more confident, such as alternate legs or cross arms etc.
Harder variations include placing your legs on a bench or Swiss ball and also alternating from side with one arm to centre to alternate side.
For more motivation tips also read our ‘I want to lose weight but have no motivation’ article. Carrying out exercises, at the beginning at least, supervised by a certified professional will have the benefit of carrying exercises in the correct technique, keeping safe and working on the appropriate level and routine of exercises. They tend to give a flat tummy effect by conditioning the abdominal muscles and improving posture. For example if you are a dress size 18 and want to just go down to a size 16 your goal could be losing 1-2 stones.
Aiming for a healthy body state, a change towards a healthier diet and lifestyle rather than stressing about how many pounds you should be is probably a better thing to do.
For more motivation tips also read our a€?I want to lose weight but have no motivationa€™ article. Therefore, reconstructions are used here only to illustrate the general geographic concepts of the period in which the lost original map was made. It was said that as the Archangel Gabriel appeared to Zacharias in the holy of holies, Zacharias must have been High Priest and have lived in Jerusalem; John the Baptist would then have been born in Jerusalem. I have not been able to find any such evidence or artifacts of map making that originated in the South America or Australia.
This is described in an inscription in the Temple of Der-el-Bahri where the ship used for this journey is delineated, but there is no map. It is of marble, and is thought by some to date from the time of Eudoxus, that is, three hundred years before the Christian era. The Venerable Bede, Pope Sylvester I, the Emperor Frederick II, and King Alfonso of Castile, not to name many others of perhaps lesser significance, displayed an interest in globes and making. See the sketch below of an inverted Chaldean boat transformed into a terrestrial globe, which will give an idea of the possible appearance of early globes.
Indeed, wherever we look round the margin of the circumfluent ocean for an appropriate entrance to Hades and Tartaros, we find it, whether in Japan, Iceland, the Azores, or Cape Verde Islands. Terrestrial maps and celestial globes were widely used as instruments of teaching and research. Despite what may appear to be reasonable continuity of some aspects of cartographic thought and practice, in this particular era scholars must extrapolate over large gaps to arrive at their conclusions. By the beginning of the Hellenistic Period there had been developed not only the various celestial globes, but also systems of concentric spheres, together with maps of the inhabited world that fostered a scientific curiosity about fundamental cartographic questions. The library not only accumulated the greatest collection of books available anywhere in the Hellenistic Period but, together with the museum, likewise founded by Ptolemy II, also constituted a meeting place for the scholars of three continents. From there, some authors believe, he made an Arctic voyage to Thule [probably Iceland] after which he penetrated the Baltic. Intellectual life moved to more energetic centers such as Pergamum, Rhodes, and above all Rome, but this promoted the diffusion and development of Greek knowledge about maps rather than its extinction.
The main texts, whether surviving or whether lost and known only through later writers, were strongly revisionist in their line of argument, so that the historian of cartography has to isolate the substantial challenge to earlier theories and frequently their reformulation of new maps.
There is a case, accordingly, for treating them as a history of one already unified stream of thought and practice. With translation of the text of the Geography into Latin in the early 15th century, however, the influence of Ptolemy was to structure European cartography directly for over a century.
It would be wrong to over emphasize, as so much of the topographical literature has tended to do, a catalog of Ptolemya€™s a€?errorsa€?: what is vital for the cartographic historian is that his texts were the carriers of the idea of celestial and terrestrial mapping long after the factual content of the coordinates had been made obsolete through new discoveries and exploration.
Similarly, in the towns, although only the Forma Urbis Romae is known to us in detail, large-scale maps were recognized as practical tools recording the lines of public utilities such as aqueducts, displaying the size and shape of imperial and religious buildings, and indicating the layout of streets and private property. But the transmission of Ptolemya€™s Geography to the West came about first through reconstruction by Byzantine scholars and only second through its translation into Latin (1406) and its diffusion in Florence and elsewhere. But as the dichotomy increased between the use of Greek in the East and Latin in the West, the particular role of Byzantine scholars in perpetuating Greek texts of cartographic interest becomes clearer. Forested areas marked on the map also tallies with the distribution of various plants and the natural environment in the area today.
No one person or area of study is capable of embracing the whole field; and cartographers, like workers in other activities, have become more and more specialized with the advantages and disadvantages which this inevitably brings. Nevertheless, reconstructions of maps which are known to have existed, and which have been made a long time after the missing originals, can be of great interest and utility to scholars. It has been shown how these could have appealed to the imagination not only of an educated minority, for whom they sometimes became the subject of careful scholarly commentary, but also of a wider Greek public that was already learning to think about the world in a physical and social sense through the medium of maps. The relative smallness of the inhabited world, for example, later to be proved by Eratosthenes, had already been dimly envisaged.
The confirmation of the sources of tin (in the ancient Cassiterides or Tin Islands) and amber (in the Baltic) was of primary interest to him, together with new trade routes for these commodities.
Indeed, we can see how the conditions of Roman expansion positively favored the growth and applications of cartography in both a theoretical and a practical sense. The context shows that he must be talking about a map, since he makes the philosopher among his group start with Eratosthenesa€™ division of the world into North and South.
Here, however, though such a unity existed, the discussion is focused primarily on the cartographic contributions of Ptolemy, writing in Greek within the institutions of Roman society.
In the history of the transmission of cartographic ideas it is indeed his work, straddling the European Middle Ages, that provides the strongest link in the chain between the knowledge of mapping in the ancient and early modem worlds.
Finally, the interpretation of modem scholars has progressively come down on the side of the opinion that Ptolemy or a contemporary probably did make at least some of the maps so clearly specified in his texts. Some types of Roman maps had come to possess standard formats as well as regular scales and established conventions for depicting ground detail. In the case of the sea charts of the Mediterranean, it is still unresolved whether the earliest portolan [nautical] charts of the 13th century had a classical antecedent. Byzantine institutions, particularly as they developed in Constantinople, facilitated the flow of cartographic knowledge both to and from Western Europe and to the Arab world and beyond.
The possibilities include those for which specific information is available to the compiler and those that are described or merely referred to in the literature. Some saw in the a€?hill countrya€™ Hebron, a place that had for a long time been a leading Levitical city, while others held that Juda was the Levitical city concerned. The fact that King Sargon of Akkad was making military expeditions westwards from about 2,330 B.C. The whole northern region, of sea as he supposed it, from west to east, was known to him only by Phoenician reports. If a literal interpretation was followed, the cartographic image of the inhabited world, like that of the universe as a whole, was often misleading; it could create confusion or it could help establish and perpetuate false ideas. It had been the subject of comment by Plato, while Aristotle had quoted a figure for the circumference of the earth from a€?the mathematiciansa€? at 400,000 stades; he does not explain how he arrived at this figure, which may have been Eudoxusa€™ estimate. It would appear from what is known about Pytheasa€™ journeys and interests that he may have undertaken his voyage to the northern seas partly in order to verify what geometry (or experiments with three dimensional models) have taught him. Not only had the known world been extended considerably through the Roman conquests - so that new empirical knowledge had to be adjusted to existing theories and maps - but Roman society offered a new educational market for the cartographic knowledge codified by the Greeks.
Ptolemy owed much to Roman sources of information and to the extension of geographical knowledge under this growing empire: yet he represents a culmination as well as a final synthesis of the scientific tradition in Greek cartography that has been highlighted in this introduction.
Yet it is perhaps in the importance accorded the map as a permanent record of ownership or rights over property, whether held by the state or by individuals, that Roman large-scale mapping most clearly anticipated the modern world.
If they had, one would suppose it to be a map connected with the periploi [sea itineraries]. Our sources point to only a few late glimpses of these transfers, as when Planudes took the lead in Ptolemaic research, for example. 9:15: "And Jesus said unto them, Can the children of the bride-chamber mourn, as long as the bridegroom is with them? Viewed in its development through time, the map is a sensitive indicator of the changing thought of man, and few of these works seem to reflect such an excellent mirror of culture and civilization. Of a different order, but also of interest, are those maps made in comparatively recent times that are designed to illustrate the geographical ideas of a particular person or group in the past but are suggested by no known maps.
Many solutions to this problem were put forward, but it was solved once and for all by the Madaba map, which showed, between Jerusalem and Hebron, a place called Beth Zachari: the house of Zacharias.
The paucity of evidence of clearly defined representations of constellations in rock art, which should be easily recognized, seems strange in view of the association of celestial features with religious or cosmological beliefs, though it is understandable if stars were used only for practical matters such as navigation or as the agricultural calendar.
The celestial globe had reinforced the belief in a spherical and finite universe such as Aristotle had described; the drawing of a circular horizon, however, from a point of observation, might have perpetuated the idea that the inhabited world was circular, as might also the drawing of a sphere on a flat surface. Aristotle also believed that only the ocean prevented a passage around the world westward from the Straits of Gibraltar to India.
The result was that his observations served not merely to extend geographical knowledge about the places he had visited, but also to lay the foundation for the scientific use of parallels of latitude in the compilation of maps. Many influential Romans both in the Republic and in the early Empire, from emperors downward, were enthusiastic Philhellenes and were patrons of Greek philosophers and scholars. In this respect, Rome had provided a model for the use of maps that was not to be fully exploited in many parts of the world until the 18th and 19th centuries.
But in order to reach an understanding of the historical processes involved in the period, we must examine the broader channels for Christian, humanistic, and scientific ideas rather than a single map, or even the whole corpus of Byzantine cartography. The maps of early man, which pre-date other forms of written communication, were attempts to depict earth distributions graphically in order to better visualize them; like those of primitive peoples, the earliest maps served specific functional or practical needs. Excavations on this site revealed the foundations of a little church, with a fragment of a mosaic that contained the name a€?Zachariasa€?. What is certainly different is the place and prominence of maps in prehistoric times as compared with historical times, an aspect associated with much wider issues of the social organization, values, and philosophies of two very different types of cultures, the oral and the literate. Later we encounter itineraries, referring either to military or to trading expeditions and provide an indication of the extent of Babylonian geographical knowledge at an early date.
Another of a land, also in the north, where a man, who could dispense with sleep, might earn double wages, as there was hardly any night.
There was, however, evidently no consensus between cartographic theorists, and there seems in particular to have been a gap between the acceptance of the most advanced scientific theories and their translation into map form.
Viewed in this context, some of the essential cartographic impulses of the 15th century Renaissance in Italy are seen to have been already active in late Byzantine society. We should fast because fasting was a part and parcel of the life of our Lord, Jesus Christ (Matt. Maps were also frequently used purely for decoration; they furnished designs for Gobelins tapestries, were engraved on goblets of gold and silver, tables, and jewel-caskets, and used in frescoes, mosaics, etc.
They do not go so far as to record distances, but they do mention the number of nights spent at each place, and sometimes include notes or drawings of localities passed through.
He probably had the first account from some sailor who had visited the northern latitudes in summer; and the second from one who had done the like in winter.
The influence of these views on Chinese cartography, however, remained slight, for it revolved around the basic plan of a quantitative rectangular grid, taking no account of the curvature of the eartha€™s surface. It was not until the 18th century, however, that maps were gradually stripped of their artistic decoration and transformed into plain, specialist sources of information based upon measurement. As in Greek and Roman inscriptions, some documents record the boundaries of countries or cities. At the same time Chinese geography was always thoroughly naturalistic, as witness the passage about rivers and mountains from the LA? Shih Chhun Chhiu. Fasting enables one to become a conductor of spiritual power for either blessing others or for bringing blessings to himself.A 7.
When unable to pray (like David,) it enables one to be so anointed that his prayer reaches through to God. Fasting intensifies the power of prayer many times so that even short prayers bring results.A 10. Fasting is the greatest faith producer because the fasting and the faith organ are one and the same . Fasting is more closely related to faith than any other Christian work, and, in fact, is the very gateway to trust and have faith in God after conversion. Fasting enables one to transcend the natural and takes one quickly into the spiritual realm. There is more judgment pronounced upon those given to food addiction than to alcoholic drunkards (in the Bible). Sin is sin whether it comes under the good name of "food" or under some more insidious term. Most Christians are unknowingly bound to the sin of "habit hunger" (actually food addiction). A protracted fast will break this yoke in as little as three daysa€™ time, and will keep an individual free with temperate eating.A 22.
Fasting will undo all sins of intemperance (after Jesusa€™ blood has first washed away our sins).A 23. Fasting will crucify the flesh and all unnatural desires associated with lusts of any appetite gratification.A 24.
Fasting places our natural appetites into a dormant condition, thus physical pleasures are not enjoyed while our flesh becomes sublimated.
A revival spirit comes about inside us, along with the proper burdens that we should carry for others.A 28. Fasting will change a life of defeat into one of victory and will bring healing and new life to both body and soul.A 29.
Fasting, when properly entered into, is the surest method of consecration and sanctification.A 30.
Fasting develops the fruit of the Spirit and enables one to grow into maturity, with matured fruit.A 31. Most Christians, like the children of Israel, are wasting forty years of their lifetime (even with speaking in tongues) without deeper spiritual gift manifestations and without the fruit of the Spirit, just because they fail to fast as they should. Fasting brings one into the misery and sufferings of the fleshly nature in such a manner that he can see himself in the same light that Jesus sees him. Fasting will always enable one to obtain the direction and anointing needed for the work to which he is called.A 37. Fasting will give a well-size or even unlimited capacity to enjoy the riches of heaven, immortality, glory, honor, and power. Fasting and its related terms of expression are mentioned one third as many times in the Bible as prayer. To every two sermons you hear preached on prayer, you should hear a third sermon on fasting. The author asks the reader this question: How many times has he ever heard a sermon on fasting in his lifetime?
It is truly deplorable that author asks the reader this question: How many times has he ever heard a sermon on fasting in his lifetime? It is truly deplorable that such a major doctrine in both the Old and New Testaments has been so neglected, ignored, and disrespected.A 39.
The present-time impartation of the continuous healing fire is being presented today with ever-widening enthusiasm to those who heed this reformation message.A 40 Physical Health Reasons(See Isaiah 58th Chapter)A We are again discussing why we should fast, only this time we are considering the subject from the scientific physical standpoint instead of the spiritual.
Bear in mind that any person, saved or unsaved, can receive the secondary physical blessings of fasting, but only the consecrated child of God can receive the full spiritual blessings.When we go into food abstention, we give the stomach a vacation and vacate into the Spirit.
Nothing can clean up the house of the Holy Spirit more effectively and quickly than giving the stomach a holiday. If the physical benefits were all that were received, they would be worth fasting for, and people would live 25 to 35 years longer (according to some authorities). Many of Goda€™s people are committing "Slow Suicide" by being continually on a three meal a day stuffing habit, not satisfied with stuffing God and faith out of their lives, but stuffing out their own life years ahead of time as well. Fasting rids the body of practically all the unwanted poisonous filth of autointoxication.A 45. It even cleanses the blood vessels so that the blood circulates all through vessels that may have heretofore been clogged up. Fasting gives the overworked stomach a vacation as well as nearly all other parts of the body.A 50. Oftentimes the very disease itself is turned into food fuel for its own destruction, any value in it being utilized for nourishment.A A 51.
Fasting quickly heals simple diseases such as boils, skin blemishes, indigestion, dyspepsia, constipation (although at first the fast seems to aggravate the condition), rheumatism, fever, anemia, asthma, change of life and irregular periodical functions in females, restoring to normal and healing other diseases.
Major fasting will also cure most other major diseases caused by impurities in the system.A 53. Fasting improves the mental faculties, making it easier to think, study, remember, and concentrate. Fasting eradicates mucous, stringy, ropy fecal material and floating food particles within the body.A 55. After ten or fifteen days of fasting the individual usually becomes stronger, physically, day by day, after the initial cleansing of the body takes place.A 56.
Fasting will remove ordinary headaches and the coffee or caffeine headache, along with the overuse of coffee or any other abnormal habits.A 58. Fasting will also eradicate tobacco, drug and drinking habits in as little time as three days, water only taken during the fast, with temperate eating habits after the fast.
Some of these are poisonous, contaminated, rotten food particles that have been on the walls of the stomach for months.
Some doctors have said that dehydrated food and even worms were found impacted in the walls of the intestinal tract for more than 15 years. This very condition invites disease and demons, and with fasting they are starved out.A 60.
Regular fasting prolongs life from twenty to forty years, depending on how much and how properly the fasts are entered into.A 62.
Fasting will remove tumors as large as watermelons, also ulcers, cancer and goiters, and will revitalize the glands.A 63. The weakness felt while fasting generally disappears after the worst poisons and pollutions are removed by the house cleaning process. Fasting, after two weeks, more or less, causes the breath that was so foul during the first of the fast to become clean and pure like that of a child.A 65.
Fasting will so purify the skin that often the complexion becomes rosy and like a young persona€™s.A 67.
The older a person becomes the more often he should fast, though shorter fasts should be taken. History and the Bible show us that the men and women who fasted the most lived the longest. Fasting develops patience, aids temperance, and enables one to have proper spiritual growth as well as physical prosperity.A 70.
Fasting draws the intestinal tract up and into its normal size and overcomes and prevents colitis and piles.A 72. Thin persons might not realize that they need to fast, in some cases even more than a heavy person. The thin individual has so many times overworked his organs by overeating, that he is incapable of putting on weight. I have seen many an underweight person fast from two to three weeks and weigh more after breaking the fast properly than he weighed before fasting.
At first an automatic blood transfusion is set up within the body by the blood remaining from the weight that is lost.
This excess blood goes through the body to bathe the organs and it enters into the head causing sleeplessness for a time. This, in turn, causes habit hunger (lust hunger) which is entirely different from true hunger. Actually, when folk have great difficulty in fasting, they are under bondage to the food addiction habit in the same manner as those who are under alcohol, drug, tobacco, or other types of bondages. Fasting should be frequent, to clean and keep clean the temple and home of the Holy Spirit and to keep from food addiction habits.A 80. Couples having family difficulties and discord oftentimes come together in a new understanding with new love and success after a major fast (see I Cor. When we (really and truly) possess the experiences of both bodyfelt and heartfelt salvation, we have no more sickness, tiredness, or sin, ever, just as long as we continue serving Jesus, the giver of these blessings.It was never intended for man to always be on a two, three, or more meal a day stuffing program.
By obtaining the above double blessing experience of getting our body saved as well as our soul, we, then, by fasting become loosened from the food-addiction-bondage. After we become weaned away from the food bondage and food slavery addiction appetite, our attentions are focused to the new menu of eating from the life giving menu of the Lorda€™s everlasting body. We, then, lose our natural appetite for things that are corruptible, carnal, temporal and earthly. Franklin Halla€?Have Faith As A Grain Of Mustard Seed And Nothing Shall Be Impossible Unto You By Prayer And Fastinga€?(St. This was `habit hunger`A --- but real, true hunger demands food to nourish the body and is necessary. His very Life was an example of fasting and prayer.A Fasting is called a pillar of the Christian religion. Jesus stressed fasting in His Sermon on the Mount in the same manner in which He stressed `giving` and ` prayer` (St.
When the Christ goes away, they were to tarry in Jerusalem and He would give them the Comforter (St.
Let all of us obey His Commandments and Teachings;Let us follow our Jesus all the way through to see results. Fasting would give them the FAITH so they too, could go out and do everything that Jesus had done (St. John 14:12) and because Jesus fasted often and, also, He fasted forty days, then Jesus went out, with all FAITH, to undo the works of Satan. Jesus said they would do even greater things than He had done but, however, not without fasting because proper fasting brings out the glory of the Spirit and the power of Faith.A Again in St. Matthew, chapter 17, given at the beginning, we are given a great revelation as to WHY JESUS FASTED.He fasted so that He, too, would have the FAITH that removes mountains.
It is the power of prayer amplified many times: Prayer that reaches beyong ordinary prayer. Prayer That Sees No Defeat!!A One explanation why the average person who has very little faith, cannot understand why fasting gives faith, is for the simple reason that FASTING IS TOO MUCH LIKE FAITH ITSELF. We do not go by sight when we go by faith, and fasting is so much related to FAITH that it is the very threshold of FAITH itself. FAITH IS ILLUMINATED LIKE ATOMIC ENERGY THROUGH FASTING!!A A person without the `fasting faith` is like an automobile without sufficient power to climb a hill.
The car will run on the level, but where great power is required, it becomes a failure, like the powerless disciples were, when they had not fasted.A The very weakness that one develops, through fasting, is the building of faith. When one seems to be groping around in the dark and accomplishing nothing during a fast, that is actually the building of faith. IMPORTANT NOTICE LITTLE BLOOMS CHILDREN`S ORPHANAGE INDIA MY INDIA MISSIONS TRIP APOSTOLIC BIBLICAL THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY NEW DELHI INDIA NAZARENE ISRAELITE ??? INTERESTING VIDEOS OPEN LETTER TO PRESIDENT OBAMA NAZI GENOCIDE PERSECUTION OF THE JEWISH RACE HITLER`S HOLOCAUST BLUEPRINT CHRIST KILLERS???
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