This study demonstrates that focusing solely on the effect of fat and carbohydrate in isolation does not provide relevant information about what most people care about most: long-term and sustainable weight loss.
My recommendation is simple: forget about this debate and instead focus on eating a diet containing whole, unprocessed plants.
Significantly increasing your consumption of fruits and vegetables helps you achieve and maintain a healthy weight, and promotes significant health benefits beyond what can be described in a controlled research setting. And remember, before making changes to your own diet it is important to thoroughly investigate the pros and cons of limiting either fat or carbohydrate intake. There are benefits to restricting both carbohydrate and fat intake, and when making decisions about your own personal diet, be sure to read extensively and see the help of a nutrition expert in order to make educated decisions for your long-term health. Diagnosed with type 1 diabetes at the age of 22, I have spent over a decade learning the fundamentals of nutrition at the doctorate level. That's why I've spent over 10 years developing a rock solid system that can minimize blood glucose variability and insulin resistance.
There are several layers to this and, frankly, there are some things we can’t fully explain – I’ll always acknowledge this. Take a look again at the figure below, which shows you how many calories folks are consuming on each diet and, more importantly, where those calories come from.
You’ll note that people on these diets, including the strictest low-fat high-carb diets, significantly reduce their total amount of carbohydrates (therefore reducing the amount of insulin they secrete). The reason, I believe, most of these diets have some efficacy – at least in the short-term – is that they all reduce sugar and highly refined carbohydrate intake, either explicitly or implicitly. Someone made a great point in response to my post on why fruits and vegetables are not actually necessary for good health.
I know a lot of people who eat this way and, I’ve got to say, these folks do not eat a lot of sugar or a lot of highly refined carbohydrates.
While I do plan to write an entire post on this topic of what one can and cannot conclude from an experiment, I do want to at least make the point here: The biggest single problem with nutrition “science” is that cause and effect are rarely linked correctly. I am, to be clear, not implying this is the case for this trial, but I want you to understand why it’s important to read papers fully. This trial, The Lifestyle Heart Trial, prospectively randomized a group of not-so-healthy patients into two treatment groups: the control group and the experimental group (or what we’d call the “treatment” or “intervention” group). First off, and perhaps most importantly from the standpoint of drawing conclusions, compliance was reported to be excellent and the differences between the groups were statistically significant on every metric, except total average caloric intake. Take a moment to look over the rest of the table (or just skip reading it since I’m going to keep talking about it anyway). Though not shown in this table, the experimental group also reported less chest pain severity (though chest pain frequency and duration were not statistically different). Let’s take a leap of faith and hypothesize that the dietary intervention (rather than, say, the social support) had the greatest impact on the measured parameters in the subjects. It’s certainly the most likely factor in my mind. But what, exactly, can I conclude? People don’t like to be hungry, and if they are reducing their caloric intake by reducing fat intake, they seldom find themselves satiated. Semi-starvation reduces basal metabolic rate, so your body actually adjusts to the “new” norm and slows down its rate of mobilizing internal fat stores. I argue that reduction of fat intake has nothing to do with it and that the reduction of total calories has a transient effect. It’s *really* tough to study this stuff properly, especially compared to studying things blood pressure lowering pills, which are complex in their own right, but MUCH easier to control in a study.
A nutrition department of a university accepts funds from a company that makes confectionery. Do you think the Academy’s supporters want to hear that if you eliminate their products you will no longer need to rely on the products provided by the biggest supporters of the Diabetic Association? Pretty much solely because of their report, Suzuki was forced to eventually withdraw the Samurai from production in the US although they later won the lawsuit that was filed as a result of the forged report by showing videos from the actual testing of the car conducted by CR. Ironically, the fact that CR had to admit it was faked somehow wasn’t plastered all over their magazines and the front pages of a bunch of newspapers. At that point, everything they publish became suspect and may as well line a birdcage somewhere. Peter, I have a coworker who has recently lost 80lbs over the course of a year on weight watchers.
Looking forward to your next post, and of course people's comments for the current one! I will discuss all of this in great detail, hopefully in the coming month, when I do a post on PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids). Anyway, it’s nice to discover someone who takes the Taubes viewpoint on things, and also takes the time to actually post online about it with some frequency, so thanks! Oh absolutely, I was mostly referring to the fact that most of the excess carbs we eat are converted to palmitic acid, which is a SFA.
There was an (1) average protein, low fat group (65% CHO), (2) High protein, low fat group , (3) Average protein, high fat, and (4) high protein, high fat (35% CHO). Thanks very much, Bob, both for the kind comments and for sharing the other data with folks.
Astrid Brown (Author) › Visit Amazon's Astrid Brown Page Find all the books, read about the author, and more. Finally something we should all know and I already have a blog on this in the health section on here (I have posted it below this one). An explosive new book claims carb-heavy foods - including potatoes - can actually help you lose weightFor years, dieters have berated themselves for every bite of bread or pasta that has passed their lips. An explosive book that claims bread, pasta, pizza and chips are the ingredients for a perfect body is threatening to consign the Atkins diet and other high-protein regimes to history.
The book claims that resistant starch, found in carb-rich foods such as bananas, oatmeal, brown rice and potatoes, has the power to suppress appetite, boost metabolism, improve mood, reduce stress levels and speed up weight loss. According to its authors, scientists at the University of Colorado Centre for Human Nutrition in Denver found evidence that certain carb-rich foods speed up metabolism and curb hunger pangs.
In their study of 4,451 volunteers, it emerged that the slimmest ate the most carbs in the form of whole grains, fruits and vegetables, while the fattest consumed the least. If it works, the diet could spell the end for high-protein weight loss programmes such as Atkins and Dukan, which is favoured by actress Jennifer Aniston. Your body is a complex machine, it is constantly going through various chemical changes, taking nourishment to all its working parts and taking away waste and in order to do this efficiently it needs not only sufficient fuel but good quality fuel.
Next layer up in the food pyramid is cereals and cereal products, these ideally should be wholegrain and not refined. Next layer up is the fruit and vegetable layer and to receive adequate vitamins and minerals we need a good balance of both. Now a common mistake some people make if something is good for you they will take more, its not so much a problem with water soluable vitamins, however some vitamins are stored in the body in the liver namely vitamin A and high levels can be toxic and dangerous. Next layer are Proteins and split here into two sources, the Dairy source, which is milk and milk products such as cheese and yoghurt and meat, fish and pulses (pulses are high sources of vegetable proteins e.g. Proteins are the building blocks of the body and necessary for growth and repair of the body's tissues and classified into two groups, complete proteins e.g. Now we come to the tip of the food pyramid it is these foods that should be consumed sparingly, fats, oils and sweets, which include cakes and biscuits which are generally made from refined sugars and flour.
These are also needed in small quantities, but we need more of these than we need of vitamins. It's important to remember we have all of those components in the right amounts as if we don't have enough protein in our diets, we wont heal properly, not enough carbohydrates and we will be lacking in energy. Maggie Brown (Author) Visit Amazon's Maggie Brown PageFind all the books, read about the author, and more. Feed back and comments are always welcome and I look forward to your views and opinions, But please make them in English.
While not meant to be all-inclusive list this is a brief overview of foods that are typically thought of as being acceptable when pursuing a low carb lifestyle. Eggs are very low in carbs, most people count 1 per egg just to be sure but they are a great source of protein while filling you up! When shopping for dairy products opt for whole fats, do not buy low fat, as they contain a lot more carbs.
The one exception I can think of off the top of my head to the “berry rule” is elderberries, they are VERY high in sugar content so you will want to avoid them! In a nutshell, Paleo lifestyle and diet take inspiration and cues from our ancestors and the way we used to eat and live.
The diet focuses on unprocessed, whole foods – healthy fats including saturated fat, grass-fed, free-range meat and eggs, lots of fish and seafood, vegetables, fruit, berries, nuts, seeds and some natural sweeteners.
Meat and poultry (including offal) – grass-fed, free range meat is not only a kinder and more ethical way to consume animal products but it is also much higher in nutrients because of the way the cattle was fed and raised. Fruit and berries – stick to low sugar fruit and berries and keep high sugar fruit like bananas and mangos for days when you need a higher carbohydrate intake or when in season and tasting delicious. Nuts and seeds – these guys are nutritious but many nuts and seeds are high in Omega-6 fatty acids which can be pro-inflammatory if consumed in large quantities and when your diet is not balanced by an equal amount of Omega-3 fatty acids found in oily fish like salmon and sardines, eggs and leafy greens. Refined sugars and carbohydrates – bread, pasta, cookies, white sugar, artificial sugar, high fructose syrup, sodas, fruit juices and so on. Processed vegetable oils and fats such as canola oil (rapeseed), soybean oil, vegetable (Is it really made from vegetables?
Dairy should mainly be avoided, especially if you suffer from gut problems and gluten intolerances, but if you’re in good health and have no sensitivities to lactose (sugars in milk) or casein (protein in milk) then a little healthy dairy can go a long way.
Natural sweeteners – honey, maple syrup, molasses, dried fruit, dark chocolate, palm sugar, rice malt syrup for those avoiding fructose. Pseudograins like quinoa, amaranth and buckwheat are less harmful but they are still dense sources of carbohydrates and contain similar antinutrients to grains. Looking for a plan or a program to help you reset and recharge, check out this 9-week Happy Body Program kicking off in February 2016. This eBook guide to paleo is a fantastic resource that is beautifully designed and easy to follow. What we do know from previous studies is that long-term sustainable weight loss is achieved by balancing energy in vs. That said, many of the successes (at least weight-wise, though hopefully by now you realize there is much more to health than just body composition) of popular diets can be explained by a few simple observations. You can argue that those who are overweight probably consume an even greater amount of carbohydrates.
Even the Ornish diet, which is the most restrictive diet with respect to fat and most liberal with respect to carbohydrates, still reduces carbohydrate intake by about 40% from what people were likely eating pre-diet.
No one on the Ornish Diet or Jenny Craig Diet is eating candy bars and potato chips, at least not if they are adhering to it. The point was, essentially, that telling people to eat 5-6 servings per day of fruits and vegetables can hopefully drive a beneficial substitution effect. I have no intention of engaging in a battle with proponents of plant-based eating or no-saturated-fat diets.
Stated another way, it’s one thing to observe an outcome, but it’s quite another to conclude the actual cause of that outcome. In other words, for every intended difference between the groups a difference existed, except that on average they ate the same number of calories (though obviously from very different sources), which was not intended to be different as both groups were permitted to eat ad libitum – meaning as much as they wanted.
Ornish’s study? I think the reduction in sugar and simple carbohydrates played the largest single role in the improvements experienced by the experimental group, but I can’t prove it from this study any more than one can prove a low-fat vegetarian diet is the “best” diet. We can only conclude that it’s better than eating Twinkies and potato chips which, admittedly, is a good thing to know.
And, the majority of the benefit folks receive comes from the reduction of sugars and highly refined carbohydrates. Case in point…they recently reported that olive oil is not good for you because it does not contain omega 6. 3, has a good point about some plans (including WW) having the advantage of group support, which I think is a very major confounder.
It is wonderful to watch these people glow once they have found some sort of solution to their weight problem.
One of my favorite things to say to people who are scared of saturated fat is that even on an entirely plant based diet, (ala Ornish Diet), if they are restricting their caloric intake, their bodies will be running on the saturated (animal) fat that they have stored on themselves. For example the degree of unsaturated fatty acids in our membrane bilayer probably plays a role in our insulin sensitivity, just as one example.
The key is UNREFINED CARBOHYDRATES, where the carbs are providing fibre, unrefined carbs take longer for the body to break down, thus expending energy to do so and because we are talking wholegrain are rich in nutrients. Firstly water we are composed of 70% water so it stands to reason we need to replenish this constantly.
Wholegrain has much more nutrients, it takes longer for the body to break down, thus keeping the blood sugar levels stable for longer and provides the body with fiber.
With vitamin C however by taking copious amounts thinking it will do you good, all you will do is manufacture expensive urine as the body can only use so much and will excrete the rest.
We do have to consume a little fat (if you are on a fat reduced diet because of gall bladder disease etc consult with your medical practioner) as we need some fat for fat soluble vitamins.
There is no chemical similarity between these chemicals; the similarity between them is entirely biological.
Too much fat or too much carbohydrates will cause us to become overweight if we don't balance the amount of fuel (food) with our activities. But beware of processed meats as sometimes the fillers used contain carbs that add to your count. If the item you want to eat is not labeled Google “carbs in _____” The Internet has a wealth of information awaiting you! We have a great little interview with a cattle farmer talking about the benefits of grass-fed, pasture raised cattle meat here. As for salt, use good quality sea salt or Celtic salt to get beneficial minerals and be sensible with it.
White rice is the least harmful of all grains and is added to dishes on occasions or for variety, it’s also part of the Perfect Health Diet protocol, which is what I follow. There are some debates over whether some legumes are safe to consume in moderation, if prepared properly (soaked for 12 hours and then cooked really well to remove the phytic acid and make them easier to digest). We don’t think so), and sunflower oils, as well as margarines and spreads made with such oils. They should be prepared carefully to remove some of the anti-nutrients such as phytic acid.
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Mechanisms of disease: the role of intestinal barrier function in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal autoimmune diseases.
Tight Junctions, Intestinal Permeability, and Autoimmunity Celiac Disease and Type 1 Diabetes Paradigms. Low to moderate sugar-sweetened beverage consumption impairs glucose and lipid metabolism and promotes inflammation in healthy young men: a randomized controlled trial. Dietary pattern analysis and biomarkers of low-grade inflammation: a systematic literature review.
Consumption of Fructose and High Fructose Corn Syrup Increase Postprandial Triglycerides, LDL-Cholesterol, and Apolipoprotein-B in Young Men and Women.
The Ratio of Macronutrients, Not Caloric Intake, Dictates Cardiometabolic Health, Aging, and Longevity in Ad Libitum-Fed Mice. A descriptive study of individuals successful at long-term maintenance of substantial weight loss.
Persons successful at long-term weight loss and maintenance continue to consume a low-energy, low-fat diet. But for the purpose of simplicity, let’s assume even the folks who go on these diets are consuming the national average of approximately 450 grams of carbohydrate per day (in compliance with governmental recommendations, as a percent of overall intake). If you tell someone who eats Twinkies, potato chips, and candy bars all day to eat more fruit (and they do), you’ve almost guaranteed an improvement in their health if they eat bananas and apples instead of the aforementioned junk food. I’m reasonably confident that the proponents of these diets are good people who really want to help others and have nothing but the best intentions.
Ornish was the principle investigator on a trial published in the journal The Lancet in 1990. In other words, there were not enough subjects in the study to determine a difference in these “hard” outcomes, so we can’t make a conclusion about such events, only the changes in “soft” outcomes.
Good science, bad interpretationGravity and insulin: the dynamic duoIf low carb eating is so effective, why are people still overweight?
His clinical interests are nutrition, lipidology, endocrinology, and a few other cool things. Eg, the criticism of the Ornish Lifestyle Heart Trial is excellent (and I LOVED the kitten-stroking quip), and really could and should have stood alone.
After short diologue with her on the particulars of her daily intake I quickly realized her consumption of carbohydrate was significantly reduced and eliminated almost all fructose. She currently freelances and writes periodically for an online magazine and works for a large well known international psychic company as a professional psychic medium. We need fiber for our intestines to help them work properly, preventing constipation and try to see fiber as a brush to sweep out our intestines of any toxic matter that can accumulate there and cause trouble later on. Leafy dark green vegetables such as spinach, broccoli and savoy cabbage are rich in iron, needed to make red blood cells and also vitamin C, this too is needed to form red blood cells.
Too much vitamin C can cause diarrhoea and because vitamin C is ascorbic acid, will irritate your anal region.
Fat as well as a source of stored energy is our insulation under the skin and protects some organs such as the kidneys. Many vitamins work together and some cannot be absorbed unless the other is present e.g zinc is absorbed better with trace copper and vitamin C is needed to make haemaglobin in the blood as well as iron. Some people include healthy dairy foods like kefir, full fat natural yogurt, some aged cheese and butter.
Soak such grains in salted water for 8-12 hours, rinse and then cook well before consuming. Popularity, of course, was determined by a number of factors, including compliance with current government recommendations (sorry Atkins), number of people who have tried the diet, and reported success on the diets. That doesn’t mean bananas and apples are “good for you” – it just means they are less “bad for you.” Here’s the kicker, though. But that doesn’t mean we can or should overlook the errors being made in drawing their conclusions. I’m not discounting soft outcomes, only pointing out the distinction for folks not familiar with them. They never factor in that the chicken was breaded or that when someone ate steak or fish they had a large amount of bread of potatoes along with it. A truly holistic blog providing information on all aspects of psychic mediumship, spiritualism, philosophy, holistic therapies, nutrition, health, stress, mental health and beauty with a little bit of Wicca for good measure.
Ideally this should be plain water and no harm will come of adding fruit squash providing it's not sugary and some of this could be fruit juice.
Vitamin C is a water soluable vitamin, it dissolves in water and a common mistake is to over boil green vegetables, all the vitamin C is thus transferred to the cooking water, so the best way to cook these vegetables is by steaming or microwave.
You’d be surprised how many chains add pancake batter in them to make them more fluffy! I am always around so you can contact me through this site OR hop over to the Facebook page and we can chat! Whenever possible, try to activate nuts and seeds by soaking and then dehydrating them back, which makes them easier to digest. We’re led to believe that the reason such folks get leaner and more healthy is because they are eating more fruits or more vegetables or more grains or more [fill-in-the-blank], rather than because they eliminated the most egregious offenders from their diet. Ornish personally, and I can only assume that he is a profoundly caring physician who has dedicated his life to helping people live better lives. But as always, I STRONGLY encourage folks with access (or folks who are willing to purchase it) to read the paper in its entirety. As for tea and coffee, this should be in moderation as the caffeine contained is a diuretic, this causes the body to excrete more urine, so if you must drink tea and coffee for every cup you drink, drink a glass of water.
This layer forms what is known as carbohydrates and it is these that are the main source of fuel. The body cannot store water soluable vitamins like vitamin C so adequate levels need to be ingested daily.
Paleo is about learning from ancestors but it is mostly fuelled by modern scientific and medical research and common sense. We love this way of eating because it also focuses on local, organic produce and good farming practices.
For people who don’t want to read the study completely, or who may not have much experience reading clinical papers, I want to devote some time to digging into this paper. The end conclusion is the whole thing must be bad and therefore needs to be reduced or outright expunged from the diet. I recall hearing Gary talking about his discussion with a participant from the Biggest loser on Larry King and the rapant weight gain after the show.
Don't wait until you are thirsty either, for when you feel this symptom you are already dehydrated, a little and often is the key. These starches are broken down in the body to eventually form simple sugars to be used by our body's cells for energy. Another important aspect of fruit and vegetable are what's known as Bioflavonoids these are plant pigments that are largely responsible for colors of many fruits and flowers.
It’s hard to tell if this change was statistically significant by inspection, so you glance at the p-value which tells you it was not. That is one big difference I’ve noticed between studies cited by writers who want to condemn the entire diet consumed by Americans vs those who look at it with a more in depth eye and realize that certain components are the problem not the whole diet across the board. Skin suffers dreadfully when we are dehydrated, because it is not such as an important organ such as our internal organs, it will be last on the list. This is why it is important to have a varied and balanced diet to provide all of the essential amino acids and form a complete protein. Remember you want to be sure your body does have enough fats to burn as that is what it is going to use for fuel when you take away it’s carbs and sugar. Why did the people in the China Study who ate more plants do better than those who ate more animals (assuming they did)? Well, for starters, reading abstracts, hearing CNN headlines, or reading about studies in the NY Times doesn’t actually give you enough information to really understand if the results are applicable to you.
Our skin is constantly being renewed and on average the upper skin layer, the one you can see, it is roughly a period of 28 days from the time the cells are created until they die and are sloughed off. Oily fish are a rich source of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids which can help reduce the risks of heart disease.
Above all, paleo is not a set of strict rules, it’s more of a framework that you can adapt based on your own goals, health, gender, age, location and current lifestyle. Parenthetically, if you actually want the answer to this question, beyond my peripheral address, below, please read Denise Minger’s categorically brilliant analysis of the study.
Beyond this reason, and let me be uncharacteristically blunt, just because a study is published in a medical journal it does not imply that is worth the paper it is printed on. In the deeper layers of the epidermis the cells are plumper however as they mature they become drier and tougher due to the protein Keratin, this forms protection, however if they don't receive adequate water the skin will look dull and loose it's lustre.
Seafood in general contains an abundance of essential minerals which include, iron, zinc, iodine and selenium.
Steve Rosenberg, once told me that a great number of published studies are never again cited (I forget the exact number, but it was staggering, over 50%).
Translation: whatever they published was of such little value that no one ever made reference to it again.
The thing is, it is possible to eliminate wheat and still eat way too many carbs (can we say ice cream?).
I’m now happily in ketosis, and the best part is, I know the WHY of weight loss now, how totally liberating and hope giving.
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