Athletes who desire improved performance over prolonged periods have found that keto diets can improve aerobic efficiency and increase the anaerobic threshold.
Catabolism is the process of breaking down of sugars like glucose, fatty acids and amino acids.
Oxidative metabolism is often referred to as cellular respiration because the energy released can be utilized at cellular level.
There are several layers to this and, frankly, there are some things we can’t fully explain – I’ll always acknowledge this. Take a look again at the figure below, which shows you how many calories folks are consuming on each diet and, more importantly, where those calories come from. You’ll note that people on these diets, including the strictest low-fat high-carb diets, significantly reduce their total amount of carbohydrates (therefore reducing the amount of insulin they secrete).
The reason, I believe, most of these diets have some efficacy – at least in the short-term – is that they all reduce sugar and highly refined carbohydrate intake, either explicitly or implicitly. Someone made a great point in response to my post on why fruits and vegetables are not actually necessary for good health. I know a lot of people who eat this way and, I’ve got to say, these folks do not eat a lot of sugar or a lot of highly refined carbohydrates. While I do plan to write an entire post on this topic of what one can and cannot conclude from an experiment, I do want to at least make the point here: The biggest single problem with nutrition “science” is that cause and effect are rarely linked correctly.
I am, to be clear, not implying this is the case for this trial, but I want you to understand why it’s important to read papers fully.
This trial, The Lifestyle Heart Trial, prospectively randomized a group of not-so-healthy patients into two treatment groups: the control group and the experimental group (or what we’d call the “treatment” or “intervention” group). First off, and perhaps most importantly from the standpoint of drawing conclusions, compliance was reported to be excellent and the differences between the groups were statistically significant on every metric, except total average caloric intake. Take a moment to look over the rest of the table (or just skip reading it since I’m going to keep talking about it anyway). Though not shown in this table, the experimental group also reported less chest pain severity (though chest pain frequency and duration were not statistically different). Let’s take a leap of faith and hypothesize that the dietary intervention (rather than, say, the social support) had the greatest impact on the measured parameters in the subjects. It’s certainly the most likely factor in my mind. But what, exactly, can I conclude?
People don’t like to be hungry, and if they are reducing their caloric intake by reducing fat intake, they seldom find themselves satiated. Semi-starvation reduces basal metabolic rate, so your body actually adjusts to the “new” norm and slows down its rate of mobilizing internal fat stores. I argue that reduction of fat intake has nothing to do with it and that the reduction of total calories has a transient effect. It’s *really* tough to study this stuff properly, especially compared to studying things blood pressure lowering pills, which are complex in their own right, but MUCH easier to control in a study. A nutrition department of a university accepts funds from a company that makes confectionery.
Do you think the Academy’s supporters want to hear that if you eliminate their products you will no longer need to rely on the products provided by the biggest supporters of the Diabetic Association? Pretty much solely because of their report, Suzuki was forced to eventually withdraw the Samurai from production in the US although they later won the lawsuit that was filed as a result of the forged report by showing videos from the actual testing of the car conducted by CR. Ironically, the fact that CR had to admit it was faked somehow wasn’t plastered all over their magazines and the front pages of a bunch of newspapers. At that point, everything they publish became suspect and may as well line a birdcage somewhere. Peter, I have a coworker who has recently lost 80lbs over the course of a year on weight watchers. Looking forward to your next post, and of course people's comments for the current one! I will discuss all of this in great detail, hopefully in the coming month, when I do a post on PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids). Anyway, it’s nice to discover someone who takes the Taubes viewpoint on things, and also takes the time to actually post online about it with some frequency, so thanks! Oh absolutely, I was mostly referring to the fact that most of the excess carbs we eat are converted to palmitic acid, which is a SFA. There was an (1) average protein, low fat group (65% CHO), (2) High protein, low fat group , (3) Average protein, high fat, and (4) high protein, high fat (35% CHO). Thanks very much, Bob, both for the kind comments and for sharing the other data with folks. Although it has recently gained a great deal of popularity, the keto diet has been used for treating various illnesses for thousands of years.
A ketone is an organic compound composed of a carbonyl group bonded to two hydrocarbon groups. It may take 3 to 4 days after commencing the ketogenic diet before the body reaches ketosis.
A study performed in 2006 compared ketogenic diets with nonketogenic diets used for weight loss. The diets provide metabolic flexibility that can enhance endurance in an aerobic environment. These are the molecules having amino group as well as carboxylic group in their molecular structure.
This type of metabolism requires enzymatic and hormonal action in order to ensure the distribution of energy to the cell level. As a first step is hydrolysis of lipid happens in cytoplasm which produces glycerol and fatty acids. That said, many of the successes (at least weight-wise, though hopefully by now you realize there is much more to health than just body composition) of popular diets can be explained by a few simple observations. You can argue that those who are overweight probably consume an even greater amount of carbohydrates. Even the Ornish diet, which is the most restrictive diet with respect to fat and most liberal with respect to carbohydrates, still reduces carbohydrate intake by about 40% from what people were likely eating pre-diet.
No one on the Ornish Diet or Jenny Craig Diet is eating candy bars and potato chips, at least not if they are adhering to it.
The point was, essentially, that telling people to eat 5-6 servings per day of fruits and vegetables can hopefully drive a beneficial substitution effect. I have no intention of engaging in a battle with proponents of plant-based eating or no-saturated-fat diets.
Stated another way, it’s one thing to observe an outcome, but it’s quite another to conclude the actual cause of that outcome. In other words, for every intended difference between the groups a difference existed, except that on average they ate the same number of calories (though obviously from very different sources), which was not intended to be different as both groups were permitted to eat ad libitum – meaning as much as they wanted.
Ornish’s study? I think the reduction in sugar and simple carbohydrates played the largest single role in the improvements experienced by the experimental group, but I can’t prove it from this study any more than one can prove a low-fat vegetarian diet is the “best” diet. We can only conclude that it’s better than eating Twinkies and potato chips which, admittedly, is a good thing to know.
And, the majority of the benefit folks receive comes from the reduction of sugars and highly refined carbohydrates. Case in point…they recently reported that olive oil is not good for you because it does not contain omega 6.
3, has a good point about some plans (including WW) having the advantage of group support, which I think is a very major confounder. It is wonderful to watch these people glow once they have found some sort of solution to their weight problem. One of my favorite things to say to people who are scared of saturated fat is that even on an entirely plant based diet, (ala Ornish Diet), if they are restricting their caloric intake, their bodies will be running on the saturated (animal) fat that they have stored on themselves.
For example the degree of unsaturated fatty acids in our membrane bilayer probably plays a role in our insulin sensitivity, just as one example. There are two types of fats: saturated fats that primarily come from animal products and unsaturated fats that are found in plants. There are two types of simple sugars: monosaccharides such as fructose, galactose and glucose and disaccharides which are formed from two monosaccharides.
When ketone levels are elevated, the body will attempt to lower them by excreting them in the urine or breathing them out. It was concluded that nonketogenic diets were as effective as ketogenic diets and that the risks associated with ketogenic diets were not warranted.
In the absence of carbohydrates, the body will adapt to burn ketones that are produced in the breakdown of fats. The mechanism of storing the energy available from outside so that it can be spent in installments when the energy source is not there, and the mechanism of converting the stored form in to active energy to utilize for useful purpose for the activities to carry on is called metabolism. In general terms these are carriers of acidic as well as basic components with them separated by a neutral molecular chain. The food taken gets digested in the stomach with the help of various enzymes and digestive juices in to energy carriers.
Since the sugar conversion in to energy happens only with oxygen as primary source It is referred to as "oxidative metabolism". The diagram given below gives a general idea of the chain of reactions that take place in the human body.
Since glycerol belongs to three atoms of carbon alcohol, it very easily gets metabolized into an intermediate in glycolysis, dihydroxyacetone phosphate. But for the purpose of simplicity, let’s assume even the folks who go on these diets are consuming the national average of approximately 450 grams of carbohydrate per day (in compliance with governmental recommendations, as a percent of overall intake). If you tell someone who eats Twinkies, potato chips, and candy bars all day to eat more fruit (and they do), you’ve almost guaranteed an improvement in their health if they eat bananas and apples instead of the aforementioned junk food. I’m reasonably confident that the proponents of these diets are good people who really want to help others and have nothing but the best intentions.
Ornish was the principle investigator on a trial published in the journal The Lancet in 1990. In other words, there were not enough subjects in the study to determine a difference in these “hard” outcomes, so we can’t make a conclusion about such events, only the changes in “soft” outcomes.
Good science, bad interpretationGravity and insulin: the dynamic duoIf low carb eating is so effective, why are people still overweight? His clinical interests are nutrition, lipidology, endocrinology, and a few other cool things.
Eg, the criticism of the Ornish Lifestyle Heart Trial is excellent (and I LOVED the kitten-stroking quip), and really could and should have stood alone.
After short diologue with her on the particulars of her daily intake I quickly realized her consumption of carbohydrate was significantly reduced and eliminated almost all fructose.
In 1910, the first studies were performed on fasting as a treatment for epilepsy in France.
When insufficient carbohydrates are available, fats are broken down to supply carbon needed for energy production. A person in ketosis will often have a sweet, fruity scent to their breath due to the body expelling a ketone called acetone.
Other studies have found that ketogenic diets were not only effective for weight loss but included additional health benefits.
The source of energy may be direct as in plants which can convert the solar energy and store it in the form of carbohydrates by synthesizing from carbon di oxide and water. These energy carriers along with storage glycogen or body protein are the compounds involved in the process of breaking down in to smaller units.
The last reaction is readily reversible if glycerol is needed for the synthesis of a lipid. Popularity, of course, was determined by a number of factors, including compliance with current government recommendations (sorry Atkins), number of people who have tried the diet, and reported success on the diets. That doesn’t mean bananas and apples are “good for you” – it just means they are less “bad for you.” Here’s the kicker, though.
But that doesn’t mean we can or should overlook the errors being made in drawing their conclusions.
I’m not discounting soft outcomes, only pointing out the distinction for folks not familiar with them. They never factor in that the chicken was breaded or that when someone ate steak or fish they had a large amount of bread of potatoes along with it.
A chemical reaction takes place between the oxygen in the body and carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
Fats are metabolized much more slowly than carbohydrates and are not as efficient at providing energy.Proteins are composed of one or more chains of amino acids. Most keto foods are in their natural state since processed foods are often high in sugar and starch. Low carbohydrate diets lower the amount of triglcerides in the blood and may help reduce the risk of heart disease. In addition, keto diets have been found to reduce the amount of fat in the abdominal cavity more effectively than other diets.
Therefore, a diet that eliminates carbohydrates and sugars will essentially starve the cancer cells. In healthy people, this quickly minimizes a blood sugar levels that would otherwise become toxic.
In animals this mechanism is not there and they depend on those carbohydrates from plants to get energy. Anabolism is defined as a process in which simpler molecules combines to form newer and more complex compounds. For example in the oxidative metabolism of glucose, Oxidation of glucose with oxygen produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy.Production of carbon di oxide and water with the release of energy as heat occurs even in the burning of hydrocarbons but the energy released is uncontrollable. Hydroxyacetone which is obtained from the glycerol is further metabolized into useful compounds. We’re led to believe that the reason such folks get leaner and more healthy is because they are eating more fruits or more vegetables or more grains or more [fill-in-the-blank], rather than because they eliminated the most egregious offenders from their diet.
Ornish personally, and I can only assume that he is a profoundly caring physician who has dedicated his life to helping people live better lives. But as always, I STRONGLY encourage folks with access (or folks who are willing to purchase it) to read the paper in its entirety. Simple carbohydrates are metabolized first because they enter the blood stream very quickly. They are primarily used to build and replenish the body with vital structural components such membranes, hemoglobin and cardiac muscle.
One case was reported in 1995 where a ketogenic diet was used to treat two girls with brain cancer.
In people with type 2 diabetes, the cells don’t recognize insulin, making it difficult to control blood sugar levels. These carbohydrates are further transformed in to various other forms for storing (Fats) and for other activities Enzymes, Vitamins, hormones and Proteins etc.Conversion of energy into useful purposes like growth and regeneration is called anabolism.
Oxidative metabolism occurs in gradual steps and the energy released in controlled fashion is converted in to chemical energy and this chemical energy is stored in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the form of bonds.
For people who don’t want to read the study completely, or who may not have much experience reading clinical papers, I want to devote some time to digging into this paper. The end conclusion is the whole thing must be bad and therefore needs to be reduced or outright expunged from the diet. I recall hearing Gary talking about his discussion with a participant from the Biggest loser on Larry King and the rapant weight gain after the show.
Each of the three is metabolized in the same manner but carbohydrates are burned first, followed by fats, and then protein.
Complex carbohydrates are metabolized much more slowly, providing a sustained yet less dramatic increase in energy.
The blood glucose levels and glucose uptake at the cancer site was decreased by 21.8 percent after 7 days of commencing the diet. Acetyl coenzymeA in turn undergoes a series of chemical reactions to release energy and break up in to smaller units which are again used as material for anabolism step. It also finds application in gluconeogenesis and is used to produce glucose-6-phosphate which is actually glucose to blood or glycogen that depends on requirement.
It’s hard to tell if this change was statistically significant by inspection, so you glance at the p-value which tells you it was not.
That is one big difference I’ve noticed between studies cited by writers who want to condemn the entire diet consumed by Americans vs those who look at it with a more in depth eye and realize that certain components are the problem not the whole diet across the board. Russell Wilder at the Mayo Clinic developed a treatment plan for patients with epilepsy using a ketogenic diet. Any carbohydrates that aren’t used are either stored in the liver as glycogen or converted to fat. In the absence of carbohydrates and fats, muscle will be broken down to provide protein for energy production.The average western diet consists of approximately 5 to 15 percent protein, 10 to 20 percent fat and 65 to 85 percent carbohydrates. The blood becomes more acidic and it may damage vital organs such as the liver and kidneys. One showed substantial relief of symptoms, and progression of the disease was halted for 12 months. This continuous energy is supplied by various substances at the expense of their being and this process is called catabolism. With the help of the fatty acid spiral, oxidation of fatty acids takes place CoA in mitochondria to convert it to acetyl.
Why did the people in the China Study who ate more plants do better than those who ate more animals (assuming they did)? Well, for starters, reading abstracts, hearing CNN headlines, or reading about studies in the NY Times doesn’t actually give you enough information to really understand if the results are applicable to you.
Urine tests are also frequently used to monitor ketone levels in those with diabetes, eating disorders or people on a ketogenic diet. Any of the three fuels that are not used for energy production will either be excreted or stored as fat. Others point to studies that provide evidence that ketosis produces no harmful effects even with prolonged use. The diets are an effective means of lowering blood pressure and can decrease the probability of stroke, kidney failure and other diseases. The purpose of these is to catalyze chemical reactions, help fight disease and regulate body processes respectively.Protein AnabolismProtein anabolism is a process of building up of the proteins. With the help of electron transport chain and citric acid cycle acetyl CoA is changed into CO2, ATP and H2O.Most of the fatty acids are obtained from carbohydrates and sometimes from proteins.
Parenthetically, if you actually want the answer to this question, beyond my peripheral address, below, please read Denise Minger’s categorically brilliant analysis of the study.
Beyond this reason, and let me be uncharacteristically blunt, just because a study is published in a medical journal it does not imply that is worth the paper it is printed on. Around the same time, physicians at Johns Hopkins Department of Pediatrics, Howland and Gamble, noted that “prayer, a water diet and three to four weeks of fasting” reduced seizures in one pediatric patient. In a ketogenic diet, the percentage of carbohydrates is substantially decreased and fats are increased. Green leafy vegetables including lettuce, spinach, kale, collards and cucumbers good keto food as are high fiber vegetables such as broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage. With the involvement of enzymes and Ribonucleic acid (RNA) amino acids combine with their amino group in peptide linkages and forms long chain proteins which is called protein anabolism.
Glycolysis is the first step in which in the absence of oxygen glucose breaks down into pyruvic acid with the release of small amount of energy. The caloric intake is also limited to ensure the body maintains its preference for metabolizing fats. Some sweeter vegetables such as tomatoes, peppers and summer squash are allowed but must be limited due to sugar content. When there is more anabolism and less catabolism, the growth occurs and when the catabolism over powers the anabolism, the death occurs. The absence of oxygen prevents the conversion of pyruvic acid to Acetyl CoA.In the second stage the reactions of Krebs cycle takes place.
Acetyl CoA enters into citric acid cycle depending upon the requirement of energy; it is also used in the synthesis of fatty acids through the process of Lipogenesis. Steve Rosenberg, once told me that a great number of published studies are never again cited (I forget the exact number, but it was staggering, over 50%). The ketogenic diet simulates starvation similar to fasting by eliminating carbohydrates and forcing the body to burn fats.
Adenosinetriphosphate (ATP) is one of the essential conduits that help in bringing together the smaller amino acids in to proteins. In this stage firstly in presence of oxygen the puruvic acid gets converted in to Acetyl coenzyme A which in turn undergoes a series of chemical reactions to produce carbon dioxide, water and energy. Translation: whatever they published was of such little value that no one ever made reference to it again. The thing is, it is possible to eliminate wheat and still eat way too many carbs (can we say ice cream?). Livingston at Johns Hopkins found that 1000 patients following a ketogenic diet confirmed that their seizures were under control.
About 40% of the energy produced during the process of catabolism is utilized in the formation of a compound commonly known as ATP, adenosine triphosphate. Treatment using ketogenic diets began to decline with the development of anti-seizure medications.
Pancreatitis may occur in individuals who cannot process large amounts of fats in their diet.
I’m now happily in ketosis, and the best part is, I know the WHY of weight loss now, how totally liberating and hope giving.
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