Objective: In the present study, the impact on ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients in response to a rye bread high-fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet was investigated. Design: Ten participants that had undergone ileostomy consumed standardized iso-caloric diets, including low-fiber wheat bread (20 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks followed by high-fiber rye bread (52 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks. Results: The results showed that intake of rye bread high-fiber diet compared to the refined wheat low-fiber diet caused an increase in ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact on ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients in response to a rye bread high-fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet, as well as meal frequency.
Throughout the study the participants were provided with all foods constituting a standardized daily menu. Ileostomy effluent was collected on day 3 of each dietary treatment (high-fiber nibbling, high-fiber ordinary, low-fiber nibbling, and low-fiber ordinary). Before chemical analyses, samples were ground in a Cyclotec Sample Mill (Tecator AB, Sweden) to pass a 0.5-mm screen. Crude protein (Nx6.25) was analyzed by a standard AOAC method (24) and crude fat was analyzed gravimetrically by extraction with petroleum ether after acid hydrolysis with HCl (25).
The ileostomy effluents were further analyzed for content of sugar residues, including also low-molecular-weight carbohydrates and starch after direct acid hydrolysis of the effluent (28). Gross energy was determined by combustion in a bomb calorimeter (Gallenkamp Automatic Diabetic Bomb Calorimeter, Loughborough, Leicestershire, UK).
Intake of macronutrients, ash, total dry matter, and gross energy per 24 h (Table 1) was very similar between the ordinary and nibbling meal frequencies within respective diets. 1Dietary fiber was calculated as the sum of non-starch polysaccharide residues, amylase-resistant starch and Klason lignin.
2Arabinoxylan was defined as the sum of arabinose and xylose residues in the dietary fiber analysis. The ileal excretion as percentage of intake (Table 2) of dry matter, ash, protein, fat, amylase-available starch, and gross energy was significantly higher during the rye bread high-fiber diet than during the refined wheat low-fiber diet with the exception of fat with ordinary meal frequency.
The analysis of total carbohydrates (Table 3) as described in this article as well as organic acids helped to explain approximately 85% of the dry effluent. Gross energy (MJ, measured by bomb calorimeter) of the ileostomy effluents (24 h) after consumption of refined wheat low-fiber diet (LFD) and rye bread high-fiber diet (HFD) in nibbling and ordinary meal frequencies (n=10).
Two diets including high-fiber rye breads or low-fiber wheat breads were consumed with different meal frequencies, three or seven meals per day. Lower digestibility of the high-fiber diet provides more material that may facilitate colonic fermentation and this process may induce perceived fullness and lower the desire to eat through satiety-related signals such as GLP-1, oxyntomodulin, and PYY (10–37). The present findings are in agreement with earlier results observing lower apparent absorption of macronutrients with high-fiber diets (9, 17, 18, 38–45).
In conclusion, this study showed that intake of a rye bread high-fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet decreased the apparent absorption of macronutrients from the small intestine, whereas meal frequency appeared to have no effect.
The authors have not received any funding or benefits from industry or elsewhere to conduct this study. Relation between changes in intakes of dietary fiber and grain products and changes in weight and development of obesity among middle-aged women.
Changes in whole-grain, bran, and cereal fiber consumption in relation to 8-y weight gain among men.
Identification of a food pattern characterized by high-fiber and low-fat food choices associated with low prospective weight change in the EPIC-Potsdam cohort. Whole grain consumption and weight gain: a review of the epidemiological evidence, potential mechanisms and opportunities for future research. Cereal grains, legumes, and weight management: a comprehensive review of the scientific evidence. Calorie conversion factors – an experimental reassessment of factors used in calculation of energy value of human diets.
Inulin-type fructans modulate gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite regulation (glucagon-like peptide-1 and ghrelin) in rats. Oligofructose promotes satiety in rats fed a high-fat diet: involvement of glucagon-like peptide-1.
Dietary resistant starch upregulates total GLP-1 and PYY in a sustained day-long manner through fermentation in rodents. Interplay between obesity and associated metabolic disorders: new insights into the gut microbiota. Increased plasma PYY levels following supplementation with the functional fiber PolyGlycopleX in healthy adults.
Effect of cereal test breakfasts differing in glycemic index and content of indigestible carbohydrates on daylong glucose tolerance in healthy subjects.
Content and molecular-weight distribution of dietary fiber components in whole-grain rye flour and bread.
Effect of rye bran on excretion of bile-acids, cholesterol, nitrogen, and fat in human-subjects with ileostomies. Intake of rye bread by ileostomists increases ileal excretion of fiber polysaccharide components and organic acids but does not increase plasma or urine lignans and isoflavonoids. The influence of higher protein intake and greater eating frequency on appetite control in overweight and obese men.
Experimental model for in vivo determination of dietary fiber and its effect on the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. Effects of meal frequency and high-fibre rye-bread diet on glucose and lipid metabolism and ileal excretion of energy and sterols in ileostomy subjects.
Total dietary fiber determined as neutral sugar residues, uronic acid residues, and Klason Lignin (The Uppsala method): Collaborative study. Recovery of inulin from jerusalem-artichoke (helianthus-tuberosus l) in the small-intestine of man. Effect of rye bread breakfasts on subjective hunger and satiety: a randomized controlled trial.
Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast. Dietary fiber decreases the metabolizable energy content and nutrient digestibility of mixed diets fed to humans. Nutrients excreted in ileostomy effluents after consumption of mixed diets with beans or potatoes. Whole flaxseeds but not sunflower seeds in rye bread reduce apparent digestibility of fat in healthy volunteers.
Effect of oat bran on plasma-cholesterol and bile-acid excretion in 9 subjects with ileostomies. Particle size of whole meal rye bread does not affect the digestibility of macro-nutrients and non-starch polysaccharides and the energy value of dietary fibre in humans. Digestibilities of energy, protein, fat and nonstarch polysaccharides in a low fiber diet and diets containing coarse or fine whole meal rye are comparable in rats and humans. Effects of enzyme supplementation of diets based on wheat, rye or triticale on their productive value for broiler-chickens. 8, 2012 I had a live blood microscopy with Rick Panson, a microbiologist, at the Live-Live store in NYC. Furthermore, the effect of meal frequency on apparent absorption of nutrients was studied for the first time. The diets were consumed in an ordinary (three meals per day) and a nibbling (seven meals per day) meal frequency in a cross-over design. Recent reviews conclude that body weight is inversely associated with the intake of high-fiber and whole-grain foods but not with the intake of refined-grain foods (5–7). Rye, which is used in breads and breakfast products in the Nordic and Eastern European countries, is of special interest because it contains as much as 20% dietary fiber (16). A recent acute study showed lower glucose and insulin concentrations in the blood during 11 h when 13 men consumed the exact same diet divided into six eating occasions instead of three (19).
The intake of carefully standardized iso-caloric diets and the 24-h ileal excretion allowed exact comparisons between intake and output of macronutrients and energy between two diets and eating regimens in ileostomy subjects. All participants had undergone proctocolectomy 8–29 years before the study as a result of ulcerative colitis, and had conventional well-functioning ileostomies with no sign of inflammation. All participants started on a refined wheat low-fiber bread diet for 2 weeks, followed by the high-fiber rye bread diet for the following 2 weeks.
Thus amounts and types of foods and drinks were identical every day during each diet period, except for the breads. On that day, the participants were admitted to the research ward and stayed in a nearby hotel overnight.
Amylase-available starch (including free glucose, maltose, and malto-oligosaccharides) was analyzed by a method using a thermostable amylase (26). Fructose residues in oligo- and polysaccharides which are degraded during this hydrolysis were determined separately after weak hydrolysis in 32 mM sulphuric acid (29). From the gross energy values and nutrient contents, the proportions of energy from fat, protein, total carbohydrates, and organic acids in ileostomy effluent were calculated. The rye bread high-fiber diet provided higher amounts of protein, dietary fiber, total dry matter and ash, and somewhat less starch than the refined wheat low-fiber diet, with corresponding meal frequency. Higher ileostomy output occurred irrespective of meal frequency, thus dividing diets into three or seven meals had no effect on the digestibility and absorption of the diets.
As a mean of the two eating regimes, protein, fat, total carbohydrates plus Klason lignin, organic acids, and residual material contributed around 28, 16, 31, 2, and 23%, respectively, to excreted energy during the refined wheat low-fiber diet period, whereas the corresponding contribution to excreted energy during the rye bread high-fiber diet was 23, 12, 43, 2, and 20% (Fig.
The high-fiber diet increased the ileal excretion of macronutrients and gross energy compared to a low-fiber diet. Thus, a high intake of rye fiber products results in less energy available for small intestinal digestion and absorption and increased amounts of substrates made available for colonic fermentation. Endosperm and whole grain rye breads are characterized by low post-prandial insulin response and a beneficial blood glucose profile.
Whole grain rye porridge breakfast improves satiety compared to refined wheat bread breakfast. Ileal effluents were collected during 24 h at the third day of each of the four dietary periods and analyzed for gross energy and nutrient contents. This suggests that a high intake of rye may result in lower availability of macronutrients for small intestinal digestion and absorption. The effect is thought to be partly mediated by an increased satiety (8) which may contribute to a lower energy intake. A high intake of rye fiber has been shown to increase ileal excretion of bile acids, cholesterol, nitrogen, and fat (17) and dietary fiber polysaccharide components and organic acids (18) in humans with ileostomies. Improved glucose tolerance and reduced postprandial blood insulin concentrations have been reported earlier when eating frequency was shifted from 3 to 10 meals per day (20).
All participants were in good general health based on physical examination and blood tests before the experiment. Dietary fiber was analyzed as the sum of non-starch polysaccharide residues, amylase-resistant starch, and Klason lignin (27). This procedure increases the amount of analyzed carbohydrate compared to when only amylase-available starch and dietary fiber polysaccharides by the Uppsala method are analyzed.
Two-way ANOVA was performed to evaluate the effects of meal frequency (nibbling or ordinary) and diets (high-fiber or low-fiber). This was a result of the contents of the breads, because all other foods included in the diet were the same. Residual energy reflects the difference between total energy measured by bomb calorimeter and the calculated energy from analyzed components. Despite a possibly lowered energy utilization from a rye-based diet, results from previous studies show that rye products lowered hunger ratings and increased post meal satiety compared to iso-caloric wheat bread breakfast (32, 33) up to 8 h after intake (34, 35). Thus eating the same diet divided into three or seven meals per day had no effect on apparent digestibility and absorption in the small intestine.
He spent an hour going over what he saw in my blood as well as giving me pointers that would move me into a greater state of health.
Another plausible explanation of the protective effect is lowered digestibility of macronutrients and thereby lowered energy value of the diet (9). It has also been shown that shifting daily meal frequency from 3 to 17 during 2 weeks reduced fasting total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B fasting levels (21). Meal frequency was changed in the middle of the 2-week periods and arranged in a cross-over design. Arabinoxylan content, the main type of dietary fiber in rye, was defined as the sum of arabinose and xylose residues in the dietary fiber analysis.
Total carbohydrates in effluents were thus defined as the sugar residues analyzed after acid hydrolysis plus fructose residues.
Higher absolute amounts of macronutrients, ash, total dry matter, and gross energy were excreted after consumption of rye bread high-fiber diet than after the refined wheat low-fiber diet, with corresponding meal frequencies. Large differences in ileal excretion of gross energy measured by bomb calorimeter were found.
Diets high in dietary fiber provide substrates for colonic fermentation, which may be of importance for satiety and weight management (10–15). However, the effect of meal frequency on apparent absorption of macronutrients has previously not been studied before. Details about the ingredients and composition of the breads and diets as well as administration method have been described earlier (23). A representative sample of the food was collected on the sampling days and treated in the same way as the ileostomy effluents. The concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (including acetic, propionic, and butyric acid) and lactic acid (together denoted as organic acids) in ileostomy effluent were analyzed (30).
It is one thing to have lab work and testing, and quite another to witness firsthand what is transpiring in your blood. Beneficial effects on metabolic parameters could partly be an effect of lower digestibility of macronutrients.
The first 2-week period was followed by a 1-week wash-out when the participants kept their ordinary diet. Digesta escaping small intestinal digestion and absorption can be measured by the ileostomy model, hence giving information about type and amount of substrate potentially available for fermentation in the large intestine (22). However, not all combustible energy is available to the human body for weight maintenance (46). The energy that remains after accounting for important losses to feces, urine, and gaseous energy from microbial fermentation is referred to as metabolizable energy. An important difference between gross energy and metabolizable energy is the energy available from dietary fiber, which contains the same amount of combustible energy as other carbohydrates, but it is by definition incompletely metabolized and therefore provides less energy to the human body. To make an estimate of the energy content of the ileal effluents which can be related to hypothesized metabolizable energy – conversion factors for metabolizable energy can be used for protein, fat, and carbohydrates. At the bottom of the page are images that various people suffering with Morgellons graciously contributed to this site.A note on the photos. Rick provided me with photos for this page and I've filled in some of the gaps with screen grabs taken from the video that was taping our session.Nov.
Using those factors shows that the difference between the two diets is about 0.2 MJ (50 kcal) per day from protein, fat, and amylase-available starch. This difference corresponds to 2% of daily energy intake and is of relevance for public health. There are several stages of microorganisms? here which include yeast, bacteria and fibrin, fungus and mold.
It has been estimated (47) that affecting energy balance by 100 kcal per day would prevent weight gain in most populations. Dietary fiber is not digestible by human enzymes and the energy content of dietary fiber is only partly available to the human body after colonic fermentation. In the background are 'shadow cells' which were healthy red blood cells that 'popped' due to the loss of their phospolipid membranes. This can occur from an acid producing diet, and poor assimilation of nutrients.Rick's comments "Healthy blood cells will be perfectly round, nice and dark with a glowing halo around them. At arriving at this factor, it is assumed that 70% of dietary fiber in a total diet is fermentable (50). Usually, if they have enough moisture inside them they are fully round because there is more pressure inside the cell then outside.""These 'shadow' or ghost cells were once perfectly healthy cells, you can see by their shape and color that they were—and they've now disappeared into the background. It is further recognized that about 60% of the energy of the fermented fiber comes out as short-chain fatty acid and that virtually all of those are taken up in the colon and available as energy for the human body.
That total energy availability from a high-fiber diet is lowered is supported in animal studies, indicating a role for arabinoxylans as the inhibiting factor for feed digestibility and animal growth (51, 52). Every cell in the body has a double membrane of fat made up of phospholipids, a two layer membrane.
The acids can disentegrate the cell membrane as well as when your body ferments sugar, alcohol is the byproduct, and alcohol can easily melt the cell membrane.""Whatever is happening in the blood cells is happening to the rest of the body.
Clotted mass of blood cells due to changes in the cells polarity, loss of natural negative electrical charge. When there are this many cells and this little water, we are looking at the hydration level of the body. These nets act as a defense mechanism for the bacteria so that the white blood cells can't get to them. There is no doubt that that is not part of normal healthy blood, and it's way bigger then what I think could survive in your cardiovascular system without being filtered out by your filter organs. That's why I don't think it's a fiber, per se, because it's so big compared to everything else.
From a biology point of view, my best guess is that it would be a contaminent that has nothing to do with you. The red blood cells are fermenting as the yeast eats the cell itself.Above: Neutrophils You go guys! The other arrow is free-floating yeast, and you can see there is quite a bit of it in the blood.
Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) is the most important and most effective alkalizer your body makes to try and keep alkaline balance.
This is not the greatest water filter but what it does is alkaline the water, so instead of drinking water that is pH 5 or 6, one is drinking water with a pH of 8-10 giving the body a running start on staying alkaline. The benefits of this water are it's antioxidant properties which nullify free radical scavengers, plus the extra oxygen in the water is supposed to give energy and boost alertness and memory.Candida detox Next on the plate is to tackle the candida with capyrilic acid and olive leaf extract (for about 2 months).
I'm just going to take the recommended dosages on the bottles adding in one teaspoon of l-glutamine powder per day. The glutamine assists in strengthening the gut wall and helps patch any holes left by the yeast (which could lead to leaky gut syndrome and the problems it leads to, such as food allergies and parasites) Respiration "The biggest acid you make everyday is carbonic acid.
Every cell in your body is producing carbon dioxide from the bottom of your feet to the top of your head that is also surrounded by water and the carbon dioxide plus water makes carbonic acid, that's a very simple thing to keep in mind. By looking for acid based balance the amount of acid produced per day must be equal to the amount excreted or nutralized per day. The thing that is happening is, if your body can't neutralize or eliminate the acid you stay at that level, you can't go beyond that level of health. You are taking the chest cavity, ribs and the lungs and trying to get them to be fantastic. Do 10 deep breaths a day 3x's a day (with long exhalation), in one month you are going to have a respiratory function that is 10%-15% better then you have now. Which means 10%-15% more energy and 10-15% less fermentation because fermentation only takes place where there is no oxygen. It's the greatest tool you have and it's free."Alkalizing with baking soda "The methods of getting rid of acidity from the body are respiration, perspiration, defecation and urination. Rick gave me a great little tool (from the vet) that allows me to carry the soda in my back pocket making it more convienient to take. This is problematic for those of us taking supplements upon rising which are not supposed to be taken with clay.
However, I'm trying to fit it in somewhere along the line.Magnesium oxide also called Oxy-Mag (NOW makes it). The process of oxygenating the bowel breaks down and eliminates solidified waste lodged in the large and small intestines. Beware, if you take it (up to one teaspoon at night in water with the juice of 1-2 lemons), you must leave time the next morning to eliminate fully. Rick says that eventually this watery stool will cease when the body is cleaned of accumulated waste. I try and do this once a week.Food During our session together I became increasingly confused about food. All those veggies will eventually turn to sugar so they have to be balanced out with oils and proteins. I was told by Nancy that each meal should have a carb, oil and protein and have been following that for some time. Rick has said the same thing and suggested I start the day with a chia smoothie."The perfect breakfast would be 2 tablespoons of chia seeds, ground to be chia meal with 2 tablespoons of chlorophyl, (spirulina, chlorella or grass powders (greener grasses, alkavision greens). Ground flax seeds can be added." "Chlorophyll is very cleansing and is a blood builder and it has a molecular structure that looks almost identical to red blood cells. When you take the chia seed and the flax seeds which are 28% protein 40-50% omega 3 fatty acids, that's very little carbohydrate there. The greens are 100% carbohydrate and when you mix them together, now you have carbs that burn like paper and you've got fats and oils, with proteins that don't really burn. The fats and oils are like the charcoal—now you have a sustained burn going on and then you don't ferment the sugars because the coal, the fatty acids, are there. So that breakfast with the chia seeds or flax seeds, or both, and any of those chlorophyls you are using can be a very beneficial superfood breakfast.
They time release and give it back to you so you have have nice long sustained energy with oils, proteins and carbs all day. You'd be surprised, you don't need a lot of food, what you need is the right food."Rick suggested the more chia seeds used, the less hungry one will be. In fact, chia seeds have the highest known whole-food source levels of Omega-3 acids, as measured by percent of weight.• ?Rich In Antioxidants.
Chia is a great natural source of antioxidants, including chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, myricetin, quercetin and flavonols.• Full of Important Nutrients. Chia is an excellent source of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, iron, zinc and copper.
About five percent of this fiber is soluble, which can help reduce cholesterol.• Builds Endurance. Chia builds stamina and endurance because it steadily releases slow-burning glucose into the bloodstream.• ?Gluten-Free. Since essential amino acids are not produced by the body, it's important to get amino acids from nutrient-rich sources like chia seeds. Research suggests leucine may help regulate blood sugar levels and aid in muscle recovery after exercise.• ?Stays Fresh.
16, 2012 • 2nd Live blood microscopyI saw Rick for a second live blood analysis on November 16, 2012. No ghost cells, no rouleax or sticky blood, the red blood cells are fuller, look stronger and are hydrated.
Candida has been greatly reduced in just 2+ months.?The treatment of olive leaf extract, caprylic acid and l-glutamine powder as per his suggestion for candida is working. I began addressing it by taking one capsule of both the olive leaf and caprylic acid plus one heaping tsp. After I was sure I had no reactions to this, upped the dosage to 2 caps of each with one tsp. That is not to say that the Morgellons has been effected, we saw two fibers in the dried blood samples.
There seemed to me to be more bacteria in the blood and the white blood cells although they are strong and were very active were not plentiful. I attribute the lower level of white blood cell activity to the fact that I was more sedentary these past two months then normally due to a foot problem that kept me off it. Rick suggested that I do lymphatic drainage work using a brush or mitt, followed by getting on a rebounder to jumpstart the lymph moving. He feels that getting the lymphatics going will produce more white blood cells to remove the bacteria from the blood.The chia seeds in the morning are wonderful. Rick suggests way to activate more white blood cell activity by way of the lymphatic system.
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