So what could a Stay-At-Home-Mom do for money considering there is already so little time after all the dishes and laundry and cooking and cleaning are done? Blog - I started a blog when my first born was about 2 years old and began earning USD4-5 thousand monthly very soon after. Write for others - This is if you can write, you could be a freelance writer for advertising agencies who are always on the lookout for part-timers. Bake - there are many, many Moms baking for income which means lots of competition but there is only one you. Start a little home business - this could be anything from making something to being a trader to being a marketing affiliate. Failing which, allow me to interview you and I will think of what you could do for a living from home.
I have been working with a company for 18 years and for the past 7 years, I have been working full time from home. My kids were 3yo and 1yo then and I knew I wanted to spend those precious growing years with them and not having to depend on anyone else to care for them.
Working from home does not mean that you can sit at home, shake legs and catch the latest Korean drama Yes - unfortunately for some. This is important because if you’re going to be in conference calls for a least 30 mins, the last thing you want is to be holding the handset to your head. In between work, I need to step to for my school run and this timing is fixed and has been shared with my manager and peers.
If you’re going to be spending 8-10 hours of your day sitting in front of a computer, make sure your workspace is ergonomic.
Remember to take mini breaks and stretch or go for a little walk to get that blood circulating.
She was excited initially (we did some prep talk weeks before), thinking that she will be going into the same class as her older brother. We didn’t have a party for Honeybun, we had a small celebration for her at her play school and also with our families.
Her favourite for the past few months has been rubber duckies (and bath toys) and particularly characters from a cartoon called Lucky Duck.
It took me more than a year to resign from my previous job as an engineer in a multinational oil & gas company. However, as time went by, I started to think about my children who were about to enrol in primary school.
But if you really want to change your profession from FTWM (fulltime working mum) to WAHM (working at home mum), I’d like to share some tips that might help you to have something in mind. I always suggest to friends who wanted to let go their jobs for a home business, to get some ideas about how and what their home businesses would be. I like to recommend to my fellow friends who want to resign and start a business, begin before you sign your resignation. Don’t leave your job if you just can’t take it, leave it if you figure out there are other priorities than your career. I was at the Asia Model Festival Awards 2015 in Seoul, Korea but had to rush back to attend Ashton’s School Day.
Mother’s Day is coming so I would to wish all mommies, “Happy Mother’s Day and enjoy motherhood! He was in an art class holiday program which he enjoyed a lot; learning crafty things and the best part was that he had a good friend participating in the same program.
He also attended a three-day Speech and Drama program in which the main program focuses on the kids having to perform a mini sketch. I will not deny that a couple of months ago, I bought a tab (of course, it’s slightly smaller than my iPad) for my then 2-year old. Even when my son was younger, I started to expose him to technology – I absolutely loved the idea that my son will not feel like an outcast had he not been exposed to one from an early age.
Fast forward two months later, we re-introduced the iPad & the tab to him BUT very gradually. As parents, I guess the hardest part of actually spending more time with Nooh to do these exciting fun-filled family activities is….
Gradually moving away from these gadgetries and being less attached to these smart electronic ‘imps’ really does make us better parents.
Especially for kindergarten - if they can’t make it for a full day, we can send them for maybe an hour or so. Set boundaries and set some rules during schooldays so that the child won’t feel attached to home during his school time. Our bottom line is to plan properly, get mutual understanding with our spouse, decide and stick to the plan.
But then whenever I look at my son (who himself loves other people’s birthday celebration), I feel guilty of not organising his own birthday celebration. So much has happened in the last year that this New Year 2015, is a year full of changes for me and my family. I found out that it is impossible for women to get along in a group of more than a hundred. Although everyone knows what is good for you for great health, they are still not practising good healthy habits. So after all the stress that I went through last year, there was one blessing that entered my life despite having to quit my job and make regular visits to the hospital. Ashton went on a holiday without us for the first time and it was also the first time he was away from us. When he was walking pass the immigration check point at the airport, he kept looking back at us.
It is the school holidays and I am already cracking my head on kids’ activities as we are not planning any trips this time.
Last but not least, they had a ride on a pony. The fee had increased from last year and even the ride’s duration was shortened! Letting kids take a year out from school or at any time during the course of their educational path is a great choice that many parents are reluctant to make due to the kiasu nature of Asian parenting in always wanting to get ahead and staying ahead. The thing is, at 15 or 16 or even at 20, did you know exactly what you wanted to do with your life? We ourselves here have experienced taking a year out merely by accident but nonetheless a good thought out coincidence because my kids are only 10 and 5 this year yet they have already experienced what it is like to not only NOT go to school every single day but were given the great opportunity to explore the world and get to know themselves a bit better. NEW EXPERIENCES & EXPLORATION – With not going to school, we actually had the opportunity to participate and attend many events that being in school would not have allowed us to do due to scheduling conflicts. EXTRA TIME - Being at home every day gave them the extra time to learn new languages and skills such as how to make glue, how to make sago Melaka, how to make Sugee Cake, how to prepare for a public exhibition, how to present publicly, etc. GETTING CLOSER TO SELF – Inherently, I feel that one succeeds in this world when one is comfortable in their own skin. Iceland had always been my dream destination because I would like to see its midnight sun during summer solstice, where there is no night in Iceland.
When my husband told us that the next country on our list would be Iceland during the mid-year school holiday (in June), I took it as a gift! However, we were lucky as the weather was so good from day one – the sun shone brightly for us. Iceland is a land of fairies; many locals still believe that trolls and elves still exist around the island. Ashton is at the willfull stage – I made my decision already, I am not going to change my mind! And he has a ready reason for everything he wants to do too.
I asked Ashton for his opinion on his coming birthday party and he surprised me with “I am already a big boy, I don’t want Angry Bird party.
Ever since the kids were comfortable in the water, it has been part of our family weekly activity – Swimming!
When you hear the words ‘successful exercise program,’ you may be inclined to think of scales, measuring tape and the seemingly unreachable goal of wearing a smaller size of pants. But a new study suggests that even light to moderate exercise that yields no weight loss or change in body fat has a positive mental health effect on overweight and obese teens.
In this study, Goldfield wanted to know how exercise impacts psychosocial factors like body dissatisfaction, social alienation and low self-esteem in overweight teens, since these teens are often at higher risk for these factors. About HALOThe Healthy Active Living and Obesity Research Group (HALO) was established in 2007 in response to the escalating obesity crisis and the increasing complexity of related co-morbidities.
If we don’t get enough carbohydrates into our diet then our energy, performance and body’s ability to function optimally is restricted (so we won’t burn as many calories efficiently throughout the day – this is why ‘low Carb’ doesn’t work for long!) but if we have too many carbohydrates in our diet our body stores them … in the form of fat! The key of how to stop comfort eating pure and simply is that it’s all about the food you eat, your sugar levels throughout the day and your hormone levels. Homeopathic individualized medicines versus fluoxetine for moderate to severe depression: double-blind, randomized non-inferiority trial. So far, we have been taking the kids on holidays to no other than beach destinations in and out of Malaysia and the kids loved every bit of it, even more especially after they had learnt how to swim. If you don’t, you just need to be that much more disciplined but it can be done and I am pure testament to that.
But then blogosphere got crowded and I got pregnant again and then went back to full time employment for a bit so the blog got put aside for awhile. Finding something you could do from the computer is an easy and fast way to save some pocket money. I switched from a consulting job to a desk-bound program support job which enabled me to work from home full time and support the Asia Pacific region. So when I got this job, I thanked God and my colleague, Agnes because she was the one who roped me into her team. Therefore, it’s important that you invest in a good headset with the ability to mute your line. I also block off my time in Microsoft Outlook for school runs so that my colleagues will know that I will be out of office at specific times of the day. We are all given a notebook to work from but since I am a teleworker, I am able to order additional accessories for my notebook which include a docking station, monitor stand and a 24 inch monitor so that I can comfortably work in front of the computer (like a geek). We should resign from our job in a way that reinforces our professional image and keep our current employer relationships positive. It might be different for those who resign and decide to stay at home taking care of family, without any proposal to do home-based business or work. If you start now, you’ll get the rhythm and it’ll be easier to adapt later when you leave the office. Sugar is not just defined as the raw sugar that you put into your coffee but sugar from fruit, sugar from carbohydrates such as white flour, rice, noodles, bread and pastry. Although you may lose weight purely by limiting the portions and the quality of food that you eat, exercise is still incredibly important because it not only strengthens your bones and muscles but promotes the circulatory system within your body.
In order to live a great, healthy life that will not succumb to illnesses, the body requires an ovoerfluous amount of vegetables. It is so worth it to do so because I have seen too many people suffer from poor health being once a patient of poor health myself. Recently, he modelled for Lord’s Tailor at the Pavilion Fashion Week show (he stole the limelight!) and was the opening model for the Go Go Green Charity show. Chinese schools give their students a lot of homework so my husband and I have to watch him finish his homework every day. He is the first person I want to see, the first person I want to kiss, the first person I miss.
Every night, as mummy is lazy to read bedtime stories, he’ll ask me to have a chat with him before he goes to bed. Well, really I had intended it for my own use, but over time I felt it was more convenient (and lighter) for me to bring around just to console my son whenever my husband and I needed some “rest time” during our family outings. He’ll get to use it if he truly behaved and finished his food or slept earlier the night before.
We even introduced Nooh very light housechores for him to assist Mommy & Daddy with, and we began to seriously organise more fun-filled family activities on alternate weekends. My cousin makes really beautiful cakes, so I’m going to ask her to make a customised birthday cake for Nooh. Over the last year, I learnt several lessons along the way that I would like to share with you in hope that it will benefit you in some way.
To be fair, not everyone in Malaysia is educated enough about health but they should really take the initiative to learn it up as it is their own bodies and they should never take that for granted.
We had planned for the trip to a theme park in China well in advance but I could not make it as it was just 3 days after my operation. I spoke to him every day for the 5 days that he was there. The first day he asked, “Mommy are you okay? Sometimes, he gets drinks of water for me and tells me that when I am sick, I need to drink a lot of water. We plan to have a small do with just my family but my friends asked me to hold a small party. We had been there before last year but it is still a fun place, especially for young toddlers. I can never understand this concept why it is so important for children to be the youngest graduate.
By widening your children’s eyes, stretching their ears, increasing their perspectives in having a broader mind, they get to think more, do more, and ultimately make better decisions about what they like and do not like.
This year alone, we got to participate in entrepreneurial markets where my eldest daughter got to learn how to barter, trade and sell. They also managed to hone in on their language skills and dug deeper into any subject of interest such as loom bands and art and model making.
The world becomes clear and there is no pretence on any part when you know who you are, what you are capable of, where you want to go and how you are going to get there.
When people are directionless sometimes, they take a year out from the hustle and bustle of work and spend a year traveling or doing other things to decide where they truly want to be. It is extremely enlightening and if you ever have the opportunity, don’t think too hard about letting your kids take a year out. We departed from KLIA to Schipol, Amsterdam and transited for about 8 hours to taste the freshness of raw herring, standing on the bridge overlooking a canal near Central Station. Our target was to drive from Reykjavik to the South, around Iceland, and back to Reykjavik from Sn?fellsnes Peninsula.
One minute, you might be blinded by the hot sun whilst the next minute, you could be soaked by an extreme downpour. According to an Icelandic we met, they were having bad weather for weeks before we arrived.
I asked my children about going back to Iceland and they replied that they really wanted to visit Iceland again. I want Pocoyo party!“ So, he is going to have an entirely different themed party this year after having Angry Bird themed parties for three years. He has set ideas on colours for girls and boys - pink and red are for girls and blue is for boys.
My son already knows simple arithmetic like 1+2=3, 4+5=9 and can count the money I give him . I was going, “The Angry Bird opens his hands to pick up the things” when he said, “NO NO Mommy, Stop!
Gary Goldfield, a registered psychologist, clinical researcher at the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) Research Institute, and associate professor in the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Ottawa. He says previous research tended to show that people who lost the most weight in exercise interventions reaped the greatest psychosocial benefits.
Today the HALO team consists of 17 staff (including 6 researchers), a childhood obesity clinical team (Centre for Healthy Active Living), 17 graduate students, and many community volunteers. When our body digests sugar it causes a sugar ‘spike’ in our blood stream – this tells our body to reduce a hormone called insulin. Click here For more information on how your hormone levels can affect your weight as I am going to focus on what you eat and when you eat it in order to answer the question; how to stop comfort eating.
Ubiratan Cardinalli Adler, UNIFESP (Federal University of SA?o Paulo, Brazil), Av Rouxinol, 1041 cj. If we have the chance to visit Melbourne again, we’ll definitely take a train to spend our own sweet time at those places. Whatever it is, whatever it takes, you either have a project going or take time out to be by yourself, do something.
Many of us waste far too much time on Facebook when some of that time could be spent more productively.
All you need to do is to have samples of your writing in hand and inform them that you are available.
Get out of your comfort zone and start a business where you will be in complete control of your life. When I work from home, I am very productive because I already save time to get ready for work and to commute to and from work and there have been times that I work through lunch as well. It’s important that they are not neglected as well because the whole idea to work from home is so that you can spend quality time with the kids right?
But the good news is; on the 1st week itself, the teacher informed us that she just sobbed a little and stopped after we left. This can be anything from processed cheeses, processed cereals, canned food, snacks that you buy from the convenience store wrapped in plastic, even commercial muesli bars; they all add toxins into the body over time.
Good circulation ensures that every part of your body functions well and gets good quality oxygenated blood that is filled with the nutrients that each part of your body needs.
Usually this is not possible and especially not for children when they are fussy eaters and thus, good, natural supplements are necessary. This is because water has Hydrogen and Hydrogen is everywhere in our cells binding our DNA. If you do not sleep enough, you are giving the free radicals more opportunity to multiply within your body.
Think of your children, they need you thus you owe it to them to care best for your own body at no sacrifice. The place was pretty packed which limited us to much fewer activities in comparison to the first time we were there. Of course, occasionally work beckons, but it is more important to be connected with your own children – especially during their formative years. Now at 4 years old, he still carry that same temperament even though I had sent him to kindergarten since he was 2 years old with a change to another school since then. However, after meeting his friends and as the learning session begins, he starts to enjoy himself.
As much as I tried to moderate little tiffs and differences in opinions, some women are so set in their ways and are unforgiving. She had always been a sparkle of health doing daily morning brisk walks and eating mostly vegetables and fish with very little oil and lots of fruit, but still despite the clean health record from the Doctors, she died suddenly when her heart stopped without warning. Instead of taking prescribed drugs from the Doctors which could potentially lead to other problems, let alone side effects and what not, I am now healing with only these natural supplements and it has been very positive. My husband also stayed behind to be with me so my mother-in-law and father-in-law took Ashton on the trip.
Your tummy is okay?” Second day, he asked: “Mommy why so long you aren’t here yet?” I had to explain to him again that I told him I cannot go and he sounded disappointed.
We had a great time with the orphans and I am very glad that Amber Chia Academy and Pensonic supported this campaign.
He keeps asking me, “How many days are there to Christmas?” Christmas and his birthday are the 2 occasions that he looks forward to the most.
It is not entirely stroller friendly as there are a couple of bumpy rides but overall, a stroller comes in handy especially with younger toddlers.
Had we been at school, the most we could have taken off would be 2-3 weeks but since we weren’t at school, 5 weeks was our Haven.
With all this time, the world was their oyster and they only needed to drown themselves in anything that they wished.
Unfortunately for us, this was also a year that my Mother-in-Law passed away, my Mother passed away and the diagnosis of my heart disease happened, all within this last 2 months. It is nourishment for their soul to find themselves and it is only when you know who you are that you can truly succeed in this amazing world.
We had no internet connection and relied only on the hotels’ wifi (which we didn’t book any, except Reyjavik’s), a GPS and our travel book. We went to the district which is famous for the hidden valley of elves, fairies, and puffin! I think it is because of the different experiences they had while they were in Iceland - rivers, waterfalls, larva field, fjords, valleys, hills, glaciers, icebergs, beaches, lagoons, towns, villages, and many more.
We went back to Keflavik, had a little rest before catching our flight back to Kuala Lumpur via Amsterdam at 2.30 o’clock in the morning.
What was most important thing was the kids: as long as they enjoyed themselves, the whole trip would be the best we ever had. Ashton will be turning four soon, at the end of this month and it’s time for me to plan for baby number two. It is a different stage of motherhood, a different set of experience and I enjoy every moment of it. Recently, I asked him to try on a wig so that we can have an idea of how his sister will look like. I think it became a habit from the time he was little when I would ask him about his day without fail.
Sometimes when I ask him about a certain character, he will go to Youtube and tell me the history. Goldfield has conducted many treatment studies for overweight teens, including nutrition and web-based interventions. Insulin is the hormone that controls our blood sugar levels so they don’t go too high or too low! So, we narrowed it down to Hong Kong (as they have Disneyland there), Japan (Disneyland too, but main language is in Japanese) and Australia (heard good reviews from people who travelled there with young children). Generally, the people there are ever willing to give an extra hand and give way to people with strollers.
We also managed to visit the SeaLife Aquarium, spent some time at the DFO South Wharf by Yarra River.
We of course pray that it never happens, but is it not wise to just be prepared even if a little?
This is also something I have done before and is a good way to earn if you do not like moving about. Actually, I should start this business on what to recommend for Stay-At-Home-Moms to do to earn an income! Instead of spending every waking moment in front of the TV, spend some time actually building something for yourself.
If you consume it in very low quantities, you can probably get away with it, but if you are a regular consumer of processed food, at some point in your life or your child’s life, there are bound to be consequences. If you have poor circulation, certain parts of your body will start deteriorating and over time, disease sets in. However, if you can be diligent to juice several times daily in order to make up for the lack of nutrients that your body requires, then you could almost negate the supplements but honestly, how many of us have the time to juice 6-7 times a day on top of eating 3 meals that are filled with several dishes of fruit and vegetables? Sometimes, it is a struggle, “Mommy I don’t like Chinese!” I think he is picking up Mandarin well. For the first few days, he kept asking and looking for the iPad & tab – pining like a lost lover! Nooh is now 3-years young, and every time we look at him, we know we’ll miss his baby face and cheekiness when he eventually goes off to college to pursue his studies. I have led a life of over indulgence eating lots of sugary desserts and chocolate, and I literally ate anything I wanted to as nobody slapped me into consciousness. I have much more energy as a busy Stay-At-Home-Mom now (previously I would collapse in exhaustion whenever my Oxygen levels were low and sleep during the day for up to 4 hours) and I haven’t had a bout of chest pain since.
By choice, we did not visit all the touristy sites in Europe because we decided from the start that this was a children’s trip to experience another continent, the weather, the food, the people, learn about currencies, and to observe most of all how people lived other than in our home country. We attended the Home schooling Sports Day which was completely different from a typical school’s sports day where the community just stuck together with support and trust with everyone seen helping one another and not being at competition with each other.
When you truly know yourself, you get to dictate your own terms on how you will live your life and not have the urge to compare yourself and your life to anyone else like the majority of people do.
This makes me realise that there is a reason for everything and had we not taken a gap year, the stress of these changes might have flung me towards a nervous breakdown. We wanted to discover Iceland’s glory for ourselves and decided that the best way to explore the country was on a road trip. During that flight, the man who sat next to me would not allow us to change seats with him despite my child crying in front of him. It was 11 o’clock and supposedly near midnight in our country but thanks to the midnight sun, it was bright as day.
I have been trying to conceive for a year and I thought a relaxing holiday may well do the trick. The other day, he told me, “Mommy, it is okay to have a boy” because I am used to comforting him with, “Ashton, it is okay…” whenever he is not happy with something. There is a need for large-scale longitudinal data on treatment utilization and outcomes, stress, emotion, and pain.
It is similar to a science centre; older children would be able to relate more on the exhibits. We learnt how to take a train to Brighton Beach where the famous colourful bathing boxes are located (those boxes are basically storage space for surfers).
One would go mental and seriously lose a lot of self-esteem plus not to mention that once the kids leave the nest, you’d be crippled. I’m too lazy to bake these days so I’d most likely order from you instead if your cake tastes good.
If you are interested, send me your CV and tell me what you like to do and I will find you a work from home job based on your interests, your time that you want to put in versus how much money you would like to make.
Processed food contain food preservatives, additives, fillers, food conditioners and flavourings, or you would not be able to keep them in your pantry for more than a few days.
Because it not only feeds our already existing but dormant cancer cells within our body but overworks our pancreas and gallbladder into producing excessive insulin. Exercise will also strengthen bones and build muscles, keep a healthy heart and give you overall great health. Of course there is a thing as too much water so the correct amount to drink per person is based on their weight in pounds (lbs) divided by 2 in ounces (oz).
Sleep is the time when our cells regenerate and heal, so if you sleep very little, there is very little opportunity for your cells to do a thorough and complete cell renewal process.
And as much as I tried to diffuse situations, it was only me in the end that ended up getting burnt to charcoal. The lesson learnt is that if you have spent quality time with your loved ones continuously, the tragedy of loss will be much easier on the heart. I was an emotional eater too and that didn’t help so it was a very bad habit, this daily eating bad food habit. I am praying very hard that these supplements will heal my heart so well that I will not have to go for an open heart surgery as the Doctors have suggested. Some just want their kids to get into the working world as fast as possible to either be ahead of their peers or to start earning as early as possible.
From the batch of my classmates and peers, I’d say less than 50% are performing what they graduated in. It was an amazingly rich experience for us just spending the whole 35 days as a family unit moving from city to city, having to make decisions, compromise and spend quality time with host families in every country.
The kids got to participate in story telling sessions, yoga classes, baking classes, started Capoeira classes, went ice-skating, made an array of new dishes in the kitchen, learnt how to prepare a full dinner without my intervention, visited Bank Negara, the National Musuem, etc and you know what? Having this time out of school undeniably has given my girls a chance to get to know themselves better. I have to really study all the cartoon characters as Ashton is getting more knowledgeable about the cartoons than me. Sugar cannot be stored as sugar in the body so therefore it has to be converted to something else – and this something else is FAT! It’s a great tool for many reasons but is reading and posting about what you ate yesterday going to change your life? They are stuck because they never had the forethought to keep something for themselves and when shits hit the fan, they are well and truly stuck with not enough options. Whenever we consume sugar, our body produces a spurt of insulin to balance out our body’s blood sugar level. For example, take a heavy, large me who is 80kg which is 176lbs, divide that by 2 to make 88 ounces, which is the amount of water for my body to function optimally, which converted into litres is 2.64 litres. So when’re you can, do sleep and best by 11pm because that is the best time the body starts its healing work.
Where are you?” It can be frustrating at times when I am busy at events but I enjoy the sweet feeling that he misses me. The ring is not my style but I love it and wear it because it was given to me by my beloved son.
At that moment, I saw a different side of my son, the expressive side and the confident side. I truly think now that if you want your kids to love school, to give them a year out and keep them at home but do NOTHING with them until they get so bored that they are begging to go back to school. I am thankful that we did just that and so although we are terribly saddened by their deaths, we are not crippled and celebrate their passing with continuing their legacies in our daily living. And suddenly last year, when I least expected it just before my Mother passed away, I had a bout of chest pain and was diagnosed with heart disease. Another blessing is that I found a business that I could run from home and am exploring other business opportunities too!
I want him to know that there are children who are not as fortunate as him, children who do not have parents but are still able to stay positive. Some did a degree of their parent’s choice because they just couldn’t decide and didn’t know how to decide, some are just going with the flow and carrying on with the degrees they’d graduated with. It has given them a quiet confidence that no school could ever instil as it is a solo journey of self-discovery. He can also explain somewhat the meaning of words – “Surprise is when you see something and you are happy” and “Disgusting is when the people are very ugly”. When I asked him to tell me bed time stories instead, he insists that it is Mommy’s job to do that. The simple fact is the more sugar you eat, the more blood sugar and insulin ‘spikes’ you will get and if you’re not burning it off – you will gain weight! Randomized long-term trial of camel milk as an adjunct to insulin therapy in type-1 diabetes.
You could have your own definition but better still if whatever you do actually contributed to the family income, wouldn’t that be fantastic? It takes many years of experience to know what works and what doesn’t and I have experimented with various blogs to learn all that. Over time, our body becomes insulin resistance and despite the pancreas producing more insulin, it no longer works to remove the sugar from our blood.
However if you exercise or are active and sweat a lot, then there is no harm drinking a little more than your recommended water intake. If you have work to do, wake early to do it even at 4am, but sleep early rather than sleep late. It is not that I have no confidence in him but he is such an active character, always bouncing about, moving and learning ever so quickly that I am amazed he could listen to the drama teacher’s instructions pretty well. Just be the politician and be nice to everyone even if you do not really agree with what others do. Some people are not so fortunate and feel a deep sense of regret, sometimes for the rest of their lives. I hope he continues with this habit in future as I want to be able to give him proper advice when required. When I asked him about his China trip, he told me, “Boring, Mommy!” I am looking forward to our little family holiday trip. I am very grateful that my kids had this opportunity to give themselves the time and love for the things they are truly passionate about. We grabbed a couple of souvenirs at Paddy’s Market for decent prices and our kids were overjoyed with their new kangaroo and platypus soft toys.
I’m just saying out of the very little time that you already have, spend a portion of it doing something productive. Like it or not, we will die without water and water contains good Hydrogen that will repair and cleanse out our defective cells known as free radicals from the body. I want to spend as much time as possible with him so I try to cut down on my trips and travel. So listen up, if you have not been spending quality time with your loved ones, start now because they can go.
Happy with sticking to our core degrees and spending the rest of our lives making a living out of it? Free radicals are defective cells that get produced from bad food, stress, environmental pollutants, smells, creams, pollution, and the mere act of breathing because our body is like a car and cars produce fumes as a by product from burning fuel. If any of you are Stay-At-Home-Moms and want to have something for yourself apart from children and the household only, there are definitely options that you could explore. Time to come home.” I am touched that he misses me so much but sometimes I feel helpless, not being able to have him understand why I cannot be with him.
Patients are recruited from web sites for patient advocacy and health enhancement programs.
However, most people aren’t consuming sugar after a long workout and their livers are already full of glycogen.
And I believe that even if you had the most forward thinking women in a group, this problem will still surface. It is a big problem because now, not only have we lost a source of big income, we have an extra expense – HOSPITAL BILLS!!! Therefore this long-term study was undertaken to assess the efficacy, safety and acceptability of camel milk as an adjunct to insulin therapy in type 1 diabetic patients. So please, please, please, make a conscious decision on how you will be improving your lifestyle health-wise today. Methods: In this 2-year randomized clinical parallel design study, 24 patients with type 1 diabetes were enrolled and divided in 2 groups. Some of this fat gets shipped out, but a part of it remains in the liver and builds up over time and you get Liver Disease. Group I (n=12) received usual care (ie, diet, exercise, and insulin), and group II (n=12) received 500 mL camel milk in addition to diet, exercise, and insulin.
Eating sugar also increases bad cholesterol and triglycerides and can contribute to Leptin resistance which will then cause weight gain, cravings, sleep problems and such. Eating sugar will create an addictive sugar response in the brain plus it doesn’t fill you up and instead encourages you to eat more.
Previous studies have found that between 30% and 60% of pediatric neurology patients have used CAM at some point in their lives. Whereas, the effect of vitamin C on conventional photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumor cells has been documented, the mechanism of vitamin C induced increase in tumor cell response to PDT is unclear.
In this report we demonstrate the presence of vitamin C during photo-oxidation of MC540 significantly increases its apoptotic activity in tumor cells.
Interestingly, we observed that the presence of vitamin C during photo-oxidation of MC540 only and not its addition to a prior photo-exposed mixture to MC540 is critical for its enhanced sensitivity.
These findings provide impetus to the approach in developing ROS generating small molecule compounds with potent apoptosis inducing activity. These data could have implications in the use of vitamin C in photo-sensitizer-mediated reactions with the view to favorably tailoring the cancer cell milieu for efficient apoptotic execution. Many patients are still not discussing their CAM use with their doctors and are using CAM alongside their conventional medicines, thereby increasing the likelihood for potential interactions. One limitation of this study is that our ability to determine between-site differences is limited by the difference in sample size. Electrodermal measures as clinical markers: Jing-point electrical impedance in adolescent women with chronic pelvic pain. Consequently, skin electrical measures at Jing points are commonly obtained and interpreted for diagnostic purposes. Denise Adams, University of Alberta, 1047 RTF Building, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E1, Canada. The objective of this study is to determine whether electrodermal measures at Jing-points are associated with clinical outcomes in adolescents with chronic pelvic pain in a randomized, sham-controlled acupuncture trial.
Methods: We recruited 18 adolescent women aged 13 to 22 years of age suffering from chronic pelvic pain and laparoscopically diagnosed with Stage I-III endometriosis. Using a Hibiki-7 device, normalized electrical impedance values were obtained at all 24 Jing-points for each treatment session.
Phase II: CAM research networks in Canada and the US will notify CAM providers of this study, so they may alert patients. Left-right asymmetry and measures for statistical dispersion (standard deviation and Gini coefficient) of Jing-point impedance values were calculated.
Parents or legal guardians may self-identify and reply on behalf of patients under 18 year of age if they meet the criteria for Phase I. With a generalized estimating equation method, we evaluated the association between the electrodermal-derived measures and clinical outcomes while accounting for treatment designation and time. Phase III: The methods for phase II were utilized but CAM associations and training organizations were substituted for CAM research networks. The majority of the cases involved the use of Traditional Chinese Medicine to improve quality of life.
Preliminary analyses indicate that, over time, subjects in the active acupuncture arm were more likely to have reduced left-right asymmetry and statistical dispersion of Jing-point measures compared to subjects in the sham-control arm. Further analyses with multivariable models will be performed to assess whether this difference is statistically significant for each electrodermal measure. The chiropractic care of children with otitis media: a systematic review of the literature utilizing whole systems research evaluation and meta-synthesis. Joel Alcantara, International Chiropractic Pediatric Association, 327 N Middletown Rd, Media, PA 19063. Key words were otitis media and related words (ie, acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion, ear infections, etc) AND chiropractic.
A narrative review of the literature was performed and augmented with a meta-synthesis of the literature with a focus on chiropractic management and the application of a whole systems research (WSR) evaluation. Results: Our systematic review revealed 20 articles consisting of 6 case reports, 5 case series, 1 retrospective cohort, 2 prospective cohorts, 2 reviews of the literature, 2 commentaries, 1 survey study and 1 prospective, parallel-group, observer-blinded, randomized feasibility study.
Due to the lack of higher-level research design, a meta-analysis of the literature was not possible.
This included the use of otoscopy and tympanogram to provide objective pretreatment and comparative outcome measures.
Eighty-nine percent of respondents reported treating pediatric patients; patients under the age of 17 made up 12% of chiropractic and 20% of both naturopathic and osteopathic patients.
Activator, Gonstead, Toftness, Chiropractic Biophysics, and Diversified Techniques were utilized with an emphasis on the upper cervical spine (the C1 or C2 vertebral bodies). Approximately two-thirds of both osteopaths and naturopaths disagree or strongly disagree that immunizations are safe compared to one-third of chiropractors. One paper described utilization of cranial technique, 2 papers described a dietary intervention, and 2 papers utilized soft-tissue massage to augment spinal manipulative therapy. Fifteen studies were amenable to the WSR evaluation resulting in a score of 7.06 from a maximum of 11. The immunizations of most concern to the 3 professions included MMR, varicella, influenza, DPTP, and hepatitis. The most common reasons for concern were related to safety, including that vaccines may contain dangerous ingredients, may produce side effects, and may be linked to future problems such as neurological damage. Conclusion: This systematic review highlights the need for more higher-level research designs in addition to incorporating new methodologies (ie, whole systems research) reflective of the holistic and vitalistic clinical and theoretical framework of chiropractic.
The chiropractic care of children with enuresis: a systematic review of the literature utilizing whole systems research evaluation.
Significantly more naturopaths advised parents against vaccinations (27%), compared to 10% of chiropractors, and 12% of osteopaths (P=.0002). Joel Alcantara, International Chiropractic Pediatric Association, 327 North Middletown Rd, Media, PA 19063. There was no significant difference between groups for those advising parents in favor of vaccinations (15% C, 14% N, 6% O) (P=.1143). Key words were enuresis, nocturnal enuresis, bedwetting as well as related words AND chiropractic. A narrative review of the literature was performed and augmented with an evaluation using WSR evaluation.
Results: Our systematic review revealed 7 articles meeting the eligibility criteria for review. Four of the 7 papers involve case reports describing the care of children aged 8 to 14 years with primary complaints of nocturnal enuresis.
Spinal manipulative therapy involved the use of Toggle recoil, Sacro-Occipital Technique, Activator Methods, Gonstead Technique, and Diversified Technique to address primarily segmental dysfunctions in the lumbosacral spine.
We conducted a systematic review to assess the nature and severity of adverse events associated with pediatric acupuncture. A large prospective cohort study (N=171) demonstrated improvement in wet nights per week from baseline following 2 weeks of care.
In a randomized clinical trial, within-group comparison of pretreatment and comparative rates of enuresis subjects demonstrated an improvement. However, the study was fraught with research design issues such as randomization and biostatistics.
Six of the 7 studies were amenable to WSR evaluation and resulted in a scoring of 7.33 from a maximum possible score of 11 points.
One reviewer screened all articles, while the second reviewed all excluded articles to ensure that no article was inappropriately excluded.
Full articles of potentially relevant references were retrieved and assessed by two independent reviewers. The use of Whole Systems Research provides promise in contributing to evidence-based practice and reflects the holistic and vitalistic chiropractic approach to patient care.
Results: Seven thousand, two hundred sixty-two potentially relevant articles were identified. Eleven of these studies included adults as the majority of patients; for these studies the age of the patient experiencing the adverse event was never reported. Most of the adverse events that have been identified in children were mild and included pain, bruising, and worsening of symptoms.
The few adverse events rated as moderate or serious included one pneumothorax, 2 infections, and 2 cases of complications from needles left in the body.
Methods: This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Life University (Atlanta, Georgia). A 26-item questionnaire was sent to 9000 subscribers of an online newsletter from Midwifery Today Magazine. The first domain identified demographics (midwife credentials, age, years in practice, and place of practice).
The second domain queried participants regarding their formal and postgraduate training on the subject of chiropractic. The third domain attempted to identify their experience (ie, positive or negative experience) with chiropractic personally and professionally as it pertains to pregnancy and infant care. The fourth domain asked their opinion about the safety of chiropractic care for pregnant and pediatric patients. The fifth domain surveyed their knowledge regarding the scope of practice of chiropractic for pregnant and pediatric patients. The respondent ranged in age from 41 to 50 years with practice experience ranging from 6 to 10 years.
With respect to their training on chiropractic, 31% (n=57) reported receiving formal education (ie, during midwifery education) on the subject of chiropractic.
Fifty-five of the 157 who did not indicated receiving some education on chiropractic through continuing education seminars. With respect to the midwife responders’ experience with chiropractic, 95% (n=176) admitted to making a professional referral to a chiropractor with 73% (n=137) having referred an infant to a chiropractor.
Ninety-two percent (n=171) reported being chiropractic patients with another 58% (n=124) presenting their child for chiropractic care. Over 90% indicated experiencing a positive experience as patients and with their child’s care. All of the respondents perceived chiropractic was safe for pregnant patients, while only 97% considered chiropractic safe for children. An overwhelming majority of the responders (98%) indicated that chiropractors work with birth professionals, while 92% indicated that they were knowledgeable about the role of chiropractic in prenatal care. Lastly, 75% indicated interest in learning more about chiropractic, with 86% wanting more evidence-based practice chiropractic. From the 809 articles reviewed, 18 articles met the full inclusion criteria and proceeded to data extraction. Identified adverse events include local pain or soreness, swelling, mild fevers, and skin rashes.
Thus far, the majority of adverse events reported have been mild with few moderate or serious adverse events occurring in pediatric patients.
Total weight and body composition changes in response to weight reduction diets of varied protein content in midlife women. Age-related changes in body composition for women include loss of lean mass and gains in total weight, fat mass and central fat deposition. There is growing evidence that diets with low-to-moderate carbohydrate and fat content and increased levels of high-quality protein are effective for weight loss. Greater subjective satiety is reported by subjects following test meals containing whey protein compared to other protein sources. The beneficial effects of whey protein on satiety, thermogenesis, and lean body mass protection suggest that whey may be a preferred protein source for weight loss treatment. The specific aims of this study are to assess weight loss in subjects receiving energy-reduced dietary regimens and to evaluate parameters of weight and body mass change between the 3 treatment groups.
Study Design: We are conducting a randomized, controlled pilot feeding study to evaluate the effect of different dietary protein sources on weight loss.
Endpoint measures include body weight and body composition data obtained at baseline and at 8 weeks for dietary treatment. The HP diet and the WP diet produced greater total fat loss and less total lean tissue loss than the CD. Conclusions: Preliminary data shows that across treatment groups, the high-protein diets conserved lean tissue and promoted reduction of fat tissue.
Trials investigating TCM must be conducted with increased methodological rigor to be of value in evaluations. The single included study suggesting that acupuncture may be safe and efficacious in CFS is limited in applicability by the use of sham acupuncture as the control. Integration and interface between naturopaths and conventional rural care: empirical findings from a grass-roots research project.
The worsening epidemic of DM in the United States, along with the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and IGT, render the identification of promising interventions for these states a matter of some urgency.
Jon Adams, University of Queensland, School of Population Health ,University of Qld, Herston, Queensland, 4006, Australia.
While lifestyle interventions based on dietary pattern and physical activity can delay or prevent the onset of diabetes and reduce cardiovascular risk, adherence at the population level is severely limiting.
Pharmacotherapy offers promise for diabetes prevention, but with associated high costs, unacceptability to many patients, and potential toxicity. In this context, the potential role of chromium (Cr), an insulin cofactor, in IGT is of great interest. Proposed, therefore, is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial conducted at the Yale Prevention Research Center to investigate the effects of daily Cr for 6 months at 2 dose levels on serum measures of glucose tolerance and on endothelial function in adults with IGT, IFG, and IR. The study is powered to detect a clinically meaningful effect of Cr supplementation at either dose on glucose control, and to compare the two doses for equivalence. The study will investigate effects of Cr on both measures of glucose tolerance (glucose, insulin, OGTT) and brachial artery endothelial function, thus combining serum measures with a physiologic test of Cr effects on the vasculature. The proposed study will generate much needed data regarding the efficacy of Cr in those at risk for type 2 diabetes and offers the promise of guiding practice, as well as directing future study.
By contributing to knowledge related to potential diabetes prevention strategies, this study addresses one of the more pressing public health issues in the United States today.
Risk to human subjects in this study is a minor increment over minimal due to the administration of nitroglycerin as a control in BARS testing.
Secondary outcomes: (4) It will show improved well-being, as measured by elevated melatonin and DHEA.
Unlike many relaxation therapies, energy healing requires no participation by the patient, a feature that makes it particularly attractive in the hospital setting, where patients are often anxious, depressed, in pain, or sedated. Despite the increasing use of energy healing, few studies have looked at its benefits and even fewer at its underlying mechanisms of action.
In this pilot study, we examined the effects of an energy healing modality known as Reiki on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, both of which participate in the stress response and stress-induced pain and disease progression.
Subjects rested for 10 min before baseline heart rate and blood pressure were measured and blood was drawn to determine cortisol, ACTH, and DHEA levels, using commercial immunoassay kits.
Subjects then received a 30- to 45-min Reiki or Pretend Reiki session followed immediately by post-session heart rate and blood pressure measurements and at 2h by blood draws. When asked whether they thought they were in the Reiki or Pretend Reiki group, about 70% of the participants reported that they believed that they had received a true Reiki session.
This suggests that the beneficial effects of Reiki on physiology, as compared to the Pretend Reiki, cannot be explained solely by the placebo effect. Issac Amponsah, Faculty of Pharmacy Kwame Nkrumah University of SC, Knust, Kumasi, 233, Ghana. Effects of ultra-low dilutions of sabal serrulata on human prostate cancer growth: mechanistic studies.
Hakima Amri, Georgetown University, Basic Science Bldg, 3900 Reservoir Rd NW, Washington, DC 20007.
Finally, serum protein differential expression was carried out using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry analysis. Effect of mind-body medicine skills on elements of emotional intelligence in medical students. Yet studies have reported that traits such as altruism and empathy tend to decline throughout medical school training.
In an effort to foster medical student self-awareness and mindfulness, which may improve their EI, Georgetown University School of Medicine (GUSOM) offers an experiential course to undergraduate medical students in mind-body medicine skills. The purpose is to expose students to a variety of mind-body approaches including meditation, imagery, as well as group sharing and listening generously for self-awareness and reflection. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Mind Body Medicine Skills (MBS) course on perceived stress, mindfulness, and elements of EI including intrapersonal capacities (attention to feelings, mood repair, clarity of feelings) and interpersonal capacities (perspective-taking, empathetic concern, and personal distress in response to distress in others). The intervention group (n=30) was comprised of first year medical students who self-selected to participate in this elective. The control group (n=36) included students from the first year class who completed the surveys but did not take the MBS course.
Four questionnaires were completed at the start and end of the spring semester by all study participants: the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), and a survey of EI developed by Stratton et al (2005) comprised of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. ANCOVA was used to compare the MBS and the control groups at the end of the semester, controlling for beginning scores. Patient perspectives of integrative and primary care management of back and neck paina€”qualitative findings from a randomized clinical trial. These conditions are additionally some of the most common reasons why patients use complementary therapies, often without dialogue with conventional care providers. The focus groups were conducted separately for those in the integrative vs the conventional treatment groups. The interview data were transcribed ad verbatim and analyzed utilizing inductive content analysis technique. Eliane Angst, UCLA Center for Excellence in Pancreatic Diseases, 675 Charles E Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA 90095. A significant reduction in cell numbers was seen with quercetin concentrations of ~30 AµM and a maximum effect at ~75 AµM. In MIA PaCa-2 cells a ~65% reduction in cell number was seen with 75 AµM of quercetin after 48 hours. Starved BxPC-3 cells treated with 75 AµM quercetin showed a ~95% reduction in cell number after 48 hours. Conclusion: These results suggest that quercetin has a potent growth-inhibitory effect in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Additional experiments to investigate the underlying mechanism of growth inhibition and animal studies are underway. Flovanoids may reveal to be potent anticancer drugs found in our daily food, leading to specific diet recommendations. These can be taken together to qualify as an academic minor in many of the conventional MA or PhD programs, often forming the basis of a thesis or dissertation required for the terminal degree. In the fall of 2009, the university will launch a doctorate of nursing practice with a focus in integrative health and healing.
Georgetown University developed a concentration of CAM within its Masters in Physiology program in 2003. We address the multicultural perspective, comparing data collected in Canada and Europe to those in the United States. The reason for this is that results on the health-promoting effects of spirituality and religiosity cannot easily be transferred from the United States to countries with different cultural and religious backgrounds. Thus, one has to recognize different concepts of spirituality, different attitudes towards its utilization, and objections against the implementation of it in a particular medical system. In Germany, 3 colleagues have founded the Transdisciplinary Working Group on Spirituality and Health, and in Canada the Canadian Research Network on Spirituality and Health has been active for a couple of years. Data and approaches from these different networks will be combined into this symposium.Dr BA?ssing is an associate professor at the University of Witten, Herdeckea€™s Faculty of Medicine, where he directs the research group Spirituality and Health. The effect of a€?acupuncture for losing weighta€? on the level of blood sugar: a survey on the mechanism.
Hoda Azizi, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, 11 Bei San Huan Dong Lu, Beijing, Beijing, 100029, China. Material and Methods: In this clinical trial study, 66 patients were included in case and control groups. Blood sugar was examined just before inserting needles and immediately after withdrawal of needles.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that the mechanism of acupuncture in losing weight is significantly related to making an increase in BS. John Balletto, Center for Muscular Therapy, Inc, 545 Pawtucket Avenue, Mailbox 304, Pawtucket, RI 02860-6046. As with business startups that begin informally and successfully mature into larger enterprises, growth brings new organizational challenges, together with greater visibility and opportunity. The maturation of massage as a healthcare profession increases the need for a process to formalize the synthesis of massage therapy knowledge from clinical experience and research—to collect what we know and to make such baseline knowledge widely available to practitioners, consumers, and other healthcare stakeholders. The present paper lays out the motivations and framework for creating massage therapy guidelines that are informed both by research and by clinical experience.
It also acts as a report to the massage therapy profession and to other stakeholders about the work of the Best Practices Committee of the Massage Therapy Foundation since 2006. And it has the additional goal of providing a healthcare literature basis for future academic discussions of massage. The discussion here is based on a definition from the Institute of Medicine and on research into the nature of expertise. Topics addressed include guideline creation, credentialing of complementary and alternative medicine practitioners, definition of competence, and the increasing role of technology (that is, informatics) in managing training and task-necessary competencies.
The roles of transparency and a wide and open peer review are emphasized as essential to the usability and credibility of guidelines. Health Canada issues consumer advisories regarding the safety of marketed health products, yet the criteria for issuing advisories have not been evaluated for consistency or objectivity.
The Causality Algorithm used by Health Canada was used to rate degree of association between the adverse events (AEs) and the products. The Severity of Adverse Events Scale, developed by the National Cancer Institute, was used to determine the severity of the AEs. Most NHP AWRs were issued based on potential AEs from contamination and adulteration, whereas most of the AWRs for therapeutic drugs were issued due to actual AEs. Of the 6 NHP AWRs issued for actual AEs, 3 (50%) were unassessable for severity, whereas of the 28 AWRs issued for actual therapeutic drug AEs, 1 (3%) was unassessable for severity. The origin of reports for NHPs tended to be from foreign sources or Health Canada, whereas reports for therapeutic drugs were mostly issued by Health Canada in conjunction with drug manufacturers.
The potential of a mistletoe (Viscum album L) extract to alleviate adverse effects of cancer chemotherapy: an in vitro study. Stephan Baumgartner, University of Bern, Institute of Complementary Medicine KIKOM, Inselspital, Bern, BE, 3010, Switzerland. We investigated the effect of a mistletoe extract on PBMC with and without concomitant treatment with cyclophosphamide and compared viability and replication of normal PBMC with that of a T-cell leukemia cell line.
The results motivate further preclinical and clinical investigations of mistletoe extracts as an adjuvant medication in cancer therapy to alleviate side effects of conventional therapy. Stephan Baumgartner, Institute of Complementary Medicine KIKOM, University of Bern, Inselspital, Imhoof-Pavillon, Bern, BE, 3010, Switzerland. We investigated the potential of a commonly used plant pathogen–system, Arabidopsis thaliana infected with the virulent bacteria Pseudomonas syringae (pv tomato strain DC3000), regarding its response towards a homeopathic treatment.
Compared to Bion (a common SAR inducer used as positive control), the magnitude of the treatment effect of Biplantol was about 50%.
None of the other tested preparations yielded significant effects in the overall evaluation. The purpose of this study was to determine remedy effects on a common quantitative measure of complexity, the correlation dimension (D2), of human sleep electroencephalography (EEG). High Hostile subjects increased complexity at C3 and Pz, but decreased complexity at O2 during stage 3 sleep on CC. In the high Anxiety-Sensitive subjects, CC caused significant increases in complexity at Pz and O1 during stage 3 sleep and at C3, C4, and Pz during stage 4 sleep.
CC increased complexity significantly at Cz, C4, and O2 during REM sleep in only the high Anxiety-Sensitive subjects. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether or not the objective measure of polysomnographically-recorded all-night sleep recordings can distinguish verum homeopathic remedies from placebo in human subjects. NV produced more marked effects on increased shifts in sleep stages, with a growth in effects from night 22 to 23. This study examined the effects of olfactory administration of a polycrest homeopathic remedy Sulphur on heart rate variability (HRV). The Sulphur was given at dilution factors used for preparing 6c, 12c, and 30c potencies (1 potency per session, with potency order randomized), but for each potency, the test solutions were succussed to different degrees (stirred without shaking, 10, 20, or 100 succussions).
Homeopathic remedies increase spectral electroencephalographic power during sleep in healthy young adults. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of verum vs placebo homeopathic remedies on spectral qEEG measures of polysomnographically-recorded all-night sleep recordings. Evaluating a nonlinear dynamical model for human flourishing: Relationship of PANAS positive-to-negative-affect ratio and global health and well-being.
The purpose of the present study was to compare global physical health (GPH) and well-being ratings of young adults whose P:N mood ratios fell above vs below the Losada line.
Despite higher (MCSD) scores in PF, a small sex and age difference between groups, ANCOVAs controlling for MCSD, sex, and age still showed statistical significance of the above PF vs PL group differences.
Gurjeet Birdee, Osher Research Center Harvard Medical School, 401 Park Drive, Suite 22-A West, Boston, MA 02215.
We identified the prevalence of CAM modalities used and the characteristics of users among the pediatric population.
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