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A A  i??*Empty Bowl was a small, non-profit press dedicated to publishing books and periodicals that reflect the visions and concerns of Pacific Rim communities, biological and cultural features of distinct regions, and the interdependence of all life along the Pacific Rim.
When we weren't working in mud, when we weren't covered in it, we were holed up in big green Army tents, smelly like the back of the truck, to dry out, keep warm, cook a little stew for dinner, or make cheese sandwiches without leaving thumb prints, lie back and read. Sometime during those months, Bob and I came up with the idea of publishing a poetry magazine for the Pacific Northwest.
One of the last flyers printed in that building was a statement written and handset by Grant Logg to protest a proposed Kaiser plant in Port Townsend. Our magazine was going to be printed on one of those letterpress machines, and Bob and I were going to take a month or so of our own time surviving on unemployment checks to handset each page. Although by the second issue, in 1978, Bob was no longer interested in continuing with the project, he put up no resistance when I adopted the Empty Bowl name, as if in a spirit of shared ownership.
Put out by Planet Drum, this rather formal document presented us, some for the first time, with the idea of a continent divided only by recognizable natural boundaries. Both issues quickly sold out at $2.00 each and Empty Bowl's loose knit group of editors and friends fell back into meetings, reading and discussion. Composed mainly of people fresh from what we saw as victory in the pullout from Vietnam, the activists in the movement may, for a short time at the beginning, have harbored the belief thatA  protests, pamphlets, books, lectures, and news articles could in fact bring about a halt to the production and proliferation of the Trident Nuclear Submarine System, or even the production and shipment of weapons grade material, which brought on massive protests against the so-called White Train.
While producing the first issue of Dalmo'ma, I attended, at one of Centrum's first summer writing programs, a workshop led by Kenneth Rexroth. Yet, because Empty Bowl was so profoundly committed to Our Place, were we deceived into thinking that the Northwest native, Gary Snyder, was a Northwest Poet? Digging For Roots: Dalmo'ma 5 alluded to the de Angulo quote in its title, but did not use it in the frontispiece.
Working The Woods is one of the few books, perhaps the only such book, to portray the lives and experiences of treeplanters. The last issue in the series was published in 1992 and called Shadows of Our Ancestors, Readings In the History of Klallam-White Relations, Dalmo'ma VIII. We were a cooperative with a collective editorship, if such terms of a relationship aren't mutually exclusive. Jody Aliesan's book Desire (1985) and my own, The Straits (1983), were continuations of Empty Bowl's opposition to militarist experimentation; they were anti-Trident and firmly opposed to a nuclear civilization. Yet other books, Here Among The Sacrificed (1984) by Finn Wilcox and Psyche Drives The Coast (1990) by Sharon Doubiago, Untold Stories (1990) by Bill Slaughter, and The Basin (1988) by Mike O'Connor expanded for us the boundaries of our region, taught us something of what it was like to be an outsider, even an outcast. Here Among The Sacrificed was published with a grant from the Washington State Arts Commission, although the grant covered only half the cost. The editors of The Dalmo'ma Anthology in 1982 were: Jerry Gorsline, Michael O'Connor, David Romtvedt, Tom Jay, Sharon Doubiago, Finn Wilcox, Tree Swensen, Tim McNulty, Michael Daley, Beverlee Joesten, and Steve R. Finn Wilcox, Pat Fitzgerald and Jerry Gorsline ran Empty Bowl for its fourteen years, disbanding the nonprofit and dispersing the unsold books in 1998.
A A  *Empty Bowl was a small, non-profit press dedicated to publishing books and periodicals that reflect the visions and concerns of Pacific Rim communities, biological and cultural features of distinct regions, and the interdependence of all life along the Pacific Rim. Bob Blair and I shared a tent big enough for our cots, boxes of supplies and books stuffed underneath, a small round airtight wood stove, and a couple of lamps. To the Anti-Trident section, the anthology linked Central American poetry and essays, and the work of writers about the environment, feminism and Northwest Poetry specifically. Nature is full of pictures, and they are to be found in what appears to the uninitiated the most unlikely places. ON A SUNNY JUNE MORNING in 1903, Lily White ventured beyond the comfort of her new houseboat, the Raysark, anchored in a snug harbor on the Columbia River near Lyle, Washington.1 With stray hairs blowing about her face, she sped away in a small gasoline-powered launch for the ten-mile crossing to The Dalles, on the Oregon side of the river, in search of a boat mechanic. Refitting the pipe joints this time with greater difficulty in the dark, and replacing the needle valve, I tried to start the engine. WHILE THE FAMILY STORIES of Lily White and Sarah Ladd have little in common, their lives intertwined in a friendship that lasted throughout their adult years. WHEN THE FIFTH ANNUAL Oregon Camera Club exhibit opened on October 30, 1899, at the club's rooms on the second floor of the Oregonian building, three hundred photographs a€” arranged alphabetically and lit by electric lights a€” hung on a background of green burlap, surrounded by wood ferns, draperies, and banners of the stars and stripes. Art, love of the beautiful, ambitions to excel has raised the standard of the Camera Club's work high among amateurs.
Included in Ladd's six displayed prints were A Japanese Phantasy, Silent the Phantom Wood by Waters Deep, a bucolic forest scene, and Youth and Old Age, an image portraying a butterfly amid the opened seedpods of an aging plant. TOWARD THE END of the nineteenth century, photographic salons, where a rigorous jurying process approved only the most artistic work, appeared in Europe and the United States.
IN THE SPRING OF 1903, White's custom-built houseboat, the Raysark, was towed up the Columbia River rapids by the steamer Regulator, and White and her friends were now free to explore the bays and inlets of the upper river.
White and Ladd intended to photograph their surroundings and develop and print the results in the Raysark's darkroom.
BEGINNING IN JANUARY 1905, as entrepreneurs focused on promoting Oregon and the Lewis and Clark Exposition in Portland, Ladd's and White's photographs of the Columbia River Gorge began appearing in the Pacific Monthly, a magazine owned and published by Ladd's husband Charles.
Ladd's images included a cloud-shrouded Mount Hood and photographs titled Celilo Falls, Morning Mists, St.
It was a romantic, visual tour to entice people to experience the basalt ledges and peaks of the Gorge and the serenity of the river. FEW ARTISTIC PHOTOGRAPHERS of this era were able to devote themselves fulltime to making photographs.
Sarah Ladd, A Fish Wheel is Shown at the right Extending from an Island near the Middle of the river. SARAH LADD WAS FIFTY-EIGHT years old when her husband died on March 20, 1920, at age sixty-three. I wish to thank Terry Toedtemeier for introducing me to the work of Lily White and Sarah Ladd and also Wayne Travillion, Lily White's grandnephew, for his generosity in providing information about White's family background. Content in the History Cooperative database is intended for personal, noncommercial use only. If fine green dining floats your boat then you wont want to miss this incredible pop-up restaurant in Vancouver that recently set sail upon a raft made from 1,672 2-Liter plastic bottles! This was 1975, from November or December to April or May of '76, the Bicentennial year, Greyhound buses all over town.
The rest of the crew slept in tents except for those who'd done it once before; they were in homemade campers mounted on their decrepit pickups. Bob had just acquired a Chandler-Price platen press, which he'd installed in a second floor office of the Taylor Building in Port Townsend. The day after Kaiser decided not to build, Jim's brother, a millionaire in Seattle, had us kicked out of the building, and some of those big Chandler-Price printing presses grew feet and walked out with us.
We had enough material from many fine writers throughout the Northwest to print, for the Fourth of July, 1976, the first issue of Dalmo'ma. We set type in that sunny room in the Taylor Building for a few weeks, and printed stacks of several sheets of the little book before I thought to ask the name of the press.
He said once that he'd tried writing poetry and found it easy and didn't want to do it anymore.
The first time I heard them was when I met Jerry Gorsline and Linn House, now known as Freeman. Throughout the book, Puget Sound Salishan calendar terms set the poems and translations in specific seasonal turns. The three or four white-haired men and women standing in front of Skagit County Court House today or King County Courthouse and other prominent locations across the country are a more emphatic pronouncement against the continuing military build-up. Jerry Gorsline published an interview with a young Buddhist monk who, along with a small group of craftsmen monks from Japan, was building a Temple on Ground Zero. He had a great deal to say about publishing during that week, as well as writing and the influences a beginning writer could best profit from.
In hindsight her criticism is justified, yet at the time, we found it ludicrousA  how could we not combine all these themes? Was he a Californian Poet because he lived there, and wrote so much about his community's having claimed that place? It also examines the neglect of watershed management and how the status of the Pacific Northwest as a resource colony for timber and fish has lead to the losses of various species and to accidents, results of corporate decisions or the impact of the Trident Nuclear Submarine System in our waters. Edited and with commentaries by Jerry Gorsline, it is monumental in the scope of Empty Bowl's vision.
One gives up the long-awaited approval of some venerable editor, perhaps because the manuscript itself has become so compelling both to the author and to many readers. Judith Roche's Ghosts (1985), Susan Goldwitz's Dreams Of The Hand (1985), Mary Lou Sanelli's Lineage (1985), Bill Ransom's The Single Man Looks At Winter (1983), and Tim McNulty's Tundra Songs (1982), connected us with Alaska, or portrayed the Northwest as wilderness at peace, a civilization of humans who fail easily, and have the victory of recognizing that. Finn Wilcox's book is a collection of haunting poems and captivating stories about his travels on freight trains, accompanied by the startling and beautiful photos of Steve R. While we were in the midst of publication, I returned to the East Coast to spend some time with my family. They were filling orders, although fewer and fewer, for years after the books were published.
Let the honest student then choose some district with which he is in sympathy, and let him go there quietly and spend a few months, or even weeks if he cannot spare months, and let him day and night study the effects of nature, and try to produce one picture of his own, which shall show an honest attempt to probe the mysteries of nature and art, one picture which shall show the author has something to say and knows how to say it, as perhaps no other living person could say it; that is something to have accomplished. All day the mechanics cut, turned, and fitted, making many trips to and from the workshop, until without rest or food they finished the repairs just as the sun was sinking from view.
Through their work, the Raysark became legendary, providing the two women and their friends congenial summer memories and a source of their most enduring photographs. Profiting from civic expansion projects, real estate, farming, and the burgeoning river transportation business, the Ladds became wealthy Portland bankers. The movement nurtured amateur photographers who created artistic images purely for personal pleasure as opposed to commercial photographers who mass-produced studio portraits for profit. Judd of Pendleton donated a trophy a€” a large three-handled silver loving cup with gold lining a€” to be awarded each year for best general exhibit by an individual amateur photographer.
The twenty-eight-page exhibition catalogue highlighted the club's studio in the tower of the Oregonian Building, furnished with an enlarging camera, a lantern slide-reducing camera, a stereopticon, and developing rooms. In early 1901, San Francisco opened its first photographic salon at the Mark Hopkins Institute of Art with nearly five hundred photographs, including numerous works by Sarah Ladd and Lily White's A Soul Looked In and Rest. Stieglitz could single-handedly influence a photographer's future by accepting or rejecting his or her work in exhibitions, by publishing it in Camera Notesa€” the journal of the Camera Club of New York, which he edited a€” or by returning it with his deflating comments about work being technically perfect but pictorially deficient.
White confessed to creating that setting by damming a stream and letting part of it run wild in Fulton Park, an area between Portland and the Ladd estate. Camera Craft judged Ladd's Eyes of the Earth to be the best of her five carbon prints and reproduced it with their review.
Included were Ladd's A Decorative Panel, three flower studies presented as carbon prints on celluloid.37 In May 1902, the Camera Club of New York hung Ladd's work, and in July Stieglitz added Sarah Ladd to his list of photographers invited to represent the United States in the Turin International Exhibition at the Exposition of Decorative Arts in Turin, Italy.
The events connected photographers from across the United States and Europe, especially when their work was reviewed and published in journals and exhibition catalogues. Each active member contributed one print a month to a portfolio that traveled to cities where the club had members. In its regional announcement, Camera Craft emphasized the inclusion of the Secession's western members a€” Anne Brigman from California and Sarah Ladd, Lily White, and Myra Wiggins from Oregon.48 Considering the distance from New York City and the relative isolation of western states from the New York City photographic hub, the accomplishments of these women are notable. The Columbia River became her home for creating pictures at any time of day, with rock formations, clouds, water, trees, and light creating the soft moodiness that was indicative of the photographic style of the time.
The periodical, with a circulation of six thousand by 1900 and distributed throughout the Pacific Northwest, published western fiction, humor, travelogues, literary installments, and articles about economic progress and development in the Pacific Northwest and California. Like so many photographers of flowers, Ladd created images that reflect the view that all art originates in nature and defies the complicated technical requirements to leave an impression of natural simplicity.
While these photos possessed the atmospheric content that asked viewers to contemplate the natural world a€” a popular theme of the era a€” they were reproduced to attract leisure-class tourists and potential new residents to the region. Sarah Ladd's social obligations often required her attention, and those appearances increased when her husband Charles became involved with the 1905 Lewis and Clark Exposition, which provided an opportunity to glorify Portland's business and society and served as the culmination of personal ambitions for many of the city's elite. About a dozen subscribers to The Nautilus have discontinued the magazine on becoming Christian Scientists. On June 9, 1908, while living in Oswego and already a member of the First Church of Christ, Scientist, in Portland, she joined The Mother Church, The First Church of Christ, Scientist, in Boston.67 A year later, she was living with Sarah and Charles Ladd at Cedarhurst and working as a Christian Science practitioner at 616 Beck Building. Accustomed to moving on her own path, she set in motion a new course, and in July 1921 she was elected a member of the Christian Science Society in McMinnville.
Ladd was noted for her beauty and during her married life in Portland won more than local recognition because of her interest in flowers and gardening, an interest she maintained throughout her life. White fit the archetype of the strong independent western female, while Ladd had been part of Portland's high society. I am also grateful to the staff of the Oregon Historical Society Research Library for their assistance. Lily White probably taught photography to Fred and Oscar Kiser who, in 1903, created the Kiser Photographic Company, specializing in scenic photography. Catalogue, Sixth Annual Print Exhibition (Portland: Oregon Camera Club, October 29a€“November 3, 1900).
Constitution, Oregon Camera Club [1895], Research Library, Oregon Historical Society, Portland [hereafter OHS Research Library]. In 1899, the Oregon Industrial Exposition featured a photography exhibition judged by Ida Rae Myrick, W.


Minutes of the Oregon Camera Club, December 15, 1894a€“June 10, 1902, 57 OHS Research Library [hereafter OCC Minutes]. I maintain that many photographs attributed to Lily White were actually made by Sarah Ladd.
Judith Huenneke, The Mary Baker Library, e-mail correspondence with the author, July 2, 2004. David Nartonis, Assistant for Administration, The First Church of Christ, Scientist, Boston, Massachusetts, letter to the author, June 13, 1988.
You may not reproduce, publish, distribute, transmit, participate in the transfer or sale of, modify, create derivative works from, display, or in any way exploit the History Cooperative database in whole or in part without the written permission of the copyright holder. The elegant dining room in Vancouver has a two-fold mission -- to increase awareness about the prevalence of plastic in our oceans, and to positively affect the sustainable seafood chain. History everywhere, the tourist or antique hunter became its medium; in storefront windows sat old rockers, all shined up, beds and tables, date next to the price.
A lot of time seems to have been taken up sitting in woolen longjohns, learning more efficient ways to dry our clothes.
Jim just kept framing, dismantling and reframing with new beams, the same vestibule staircase.
The title was a Pit River tribal place name I found in Jerry Gorsline's copy of Indians In Overalls by Jaime de Angulo.A  It mattered that the name for the publication should be about our own placeA  and at that time we meant, almost exclusively, too narrowly, the Olympic Peninsula. We were looking for roots we knew we never had, but that someone had, and places we loved still contained. Bob or I usually asked a question by way of introducing a topic we needed to discuss, and so with this. These two pieces of writing constitute the largest portion of prose in the first two issues.
There were Aztec and Sioux translations within the few pages of this issue, and in both the first and second issues the poetry and stories of such, now notable, writers as Tim McNulty, William Stafford, Kim Stafford, Bill Ransom, Sam Hamill, Barry Lopez, Jim Dodge, John Haines and Jim Heynen. Two issues of a pamphlet series, Firecrackers, went out, and a few small postcard size poems.
The obligation to provide witness to warmongers and governments is the lasting purpose of a political movement. But the statement I really remember applied to me at the time because Dalmo'ma was conceived of as the first issue of a quarterly. In other parts of the country, I imagine people from around here are called Seattle Poets by way of identifying an address or an influence suggested by movie settings, coffee companies, mountains & rivers, logging. Just as Stephen Duck, who protested the advent of the Industrial Revolution with proletariat poetry that predates Marxism, and John Clare from the same era, who with maddening ferocity describes down to the nose hairs every badger in sight, just as they and centuries of local poets offered an identification with a kind of grove, or a sacred place, so did Empty Bowl. In 1986 we published two issues both funded by a grant from the Washington State Arts Commission's dwindling arts fund. The collection addresses eloquently and precisely the themes fundamental to our publications: regional, environmental, native and historic values override the general, vague, inexact blunders of political and academic systems.
Although all such publications can be tarred as VanityA  or Subsidy books, we were not inviting authors to submit based on their bank accounts, or their benefactors', but because their work was significant to many of us in the editorial committee, because the work struck us as powerful interpretations of our human involvement with this region.
Without it the literature from any given area will be left up to the press that attracts the most grant support.
The misfortune of such a development is the diminishing role of an editor in subsidy presses. This is an especially significant theme of Jim Bodeen's Whole Houses Shaking (1993), a series of poems addressing the cancer treatment and death of his father, the bonds of his family, the stories and histories we're forever running up against, forever avoiding.
By 1984 the editors were Tim McNulty, Jerry Gorsline, Tom Jay, Finn Wilcox, Mike O'Connor, Pat Fitzgerald and Michael Daley. Despite our minimal advertisement, few reviews of our books, and increasing disillusionment over the tough work of distribution, orders for Empty Bowl books came steadily from book stores, distributors, collectors and readers of poetry and literature throughout the world. Remember that your photograph is a rough index of your mind; it is a sort of rough confession on paper. She must make her own landing and arrive on the high deck of the wharf as best she could and under fire from a regiment of critical eyes. Early amateur photographers such as White and Ladd, who had leisure time and economic freedom, undertook their work not for money, but for creative adventure.
Ayer a€” a Portland bookseller, stationer, and printer a€” and lived in her grandfather's home at 348 Fourth Street.
Amateurs often printed their work on paper coated with light-sensitive platinum rather than ordinary silver coatings, and making carbon prints became popular with Camera Club enthusiasts in Portland.
A photographer had to win the competition three times in order to keep the Judd Cup and have his or her name inscribed on it. Beach, general manager of the Interchange, each camera club must prepare 50 to 125 slides, each 3A? inches by 4 inches.
Her Bridge of Hope, taken from her houseboat near Castle Rock that summer, recorded a rainbow, which was considered an unusual achievement for a photographer.32 White also exhibited several photographs of Native Americans, including A Shadow of the Past, which depicted a mother and her baby.
After each member wrote comments about the prints, they were sent to the next city until eventually they returned to the owners. White and Ladd remained Photo-Secession members at least through 1905.49 Overall, the camera club structure and amateur movement created a symbiotic relationship, in this case a vertical one, scaled by Lily White and Sarah Ladd. Steamers from Portland conveyed guests to and from her boat, which was often anchored near Lyle, Washington, a busy shipping port for wheat and sheep eighty-two miles east of Portland. While White's darkroom-equipped houseboat was probably unique to Portland and the Columbia River Gorge, it was not an original idea. With this latest technology, the two friends could wait for the clouds to form, the water to calm, and reflections to appear. Telegraph poles peer below the looming cliff of White's Upper Cape Horn, Near Celilo Falls of the Columbia. Photographs in the Pacific Monthly appeared with the descriptive titles or local literary connections that were commonly used by photographers but were also likely to appeal to tourists.
When making flower photographs, there were aesthetic considerations of composition and lighting along with the formal qualities connected to the photographers' intentions, from the desire to portray botanical specimens to romantic associations, emotions, or beauty.
Ladd and White had become successful, benefiting from the prestige associated with their work and maintaining their economic independence by making artistic photographs for commercial projects.
The Ladds attended a banquet to honor the arrival of Vice President Charles Fairbanks, for example, and joined a thousand people at an opening reception of the American Inn, which Charles Ladd built on the fairgrounds.63 The festive activities offered quite a contrast to Sarah Ladd's life on the river. Elizabeth Struble Towne, born in Portland in 1865 (one year before White), was a follower of Quimby's and the publisher of the Nautilus, an influential periodical associated with New Thought.
On June 2, 1911, Ladd joined White as a member of the Mother Church of the First Church of Christ Scientist in Boston.69 In July, she and nine other women organized the Carlton Civic Improvement Association. Together, they joined the local Christian Science Church, where they remained members until their deaths. Each had a photographic and aesthetic vision that gave them the same status as the men who photographed the Columbia River at the same time, and both adopted a religion that allowed them to take prominent roles that were not permissible in traditional religions. The Kiser brothers grew up on the Columbia River opposite Beacon Rock, near Dodson, Oregon, where White would sometimes stop. The lectures were available after the club renewed its membership with the American Lantern Slide interchange in 1901. The slides most preferred by the Interchange board of managers were cloudy landscapes, figures studies, and genre subjects.
According to Penrose Annuals from this time period, Photoloid was introduced as a print material that would give a "true carbon [look] unattended with the great labor and care that the latter requires. Given that Bell's intention was to organize the Salon Club as a challenge to Alfred Stieglitz and his Photo-Secession, it is interesting to note the inclusion of Sarah Ladd and the initial listing of Myra Wiggins, both Photo-Secession members. Twenty-two-year-old Oscar Kiser disappeared on Saturday, November 4, 1905, from the Charles Ladd boathouse at Riverdale, where he worked as the caretaker. Ladd left $3,000 to the Christian Science Society of McMinnville for the maintenance of their grounds and set aside $1,500 for a drinking fountain in Carlton in memory of her husband. From 1930, Lily White lived on Scenic Drive between Martin Way and Carmel Point with Mabel Spicker. Brought to you by the School of Fish Foundation and catered by C Restaurant, the Plastic Dining Room is serving a nightly six-course sustainable seafood menu.
But we escaped most of that for those four or five months we worked on the clear- cuts planting trees. A system of lines ranged out from the safest point near the stove, clothes pins bearing the weight of socks and underwear. I had helped set type with Bob, Rod Freeman, and Kevin Quigley when they published a collection of poetry and art in 1973 known as The Wale. The Pit River people lived in Northern California which was beyond the southern boundary of the region where we found ourselves. That places could be structured as natural rather than political systems seemed a more appropriate form of anarchy than measures then being suggested in cities.
Empty Bowl began the first Dalmo'ma Anthology by collecting significant documents of the Northwest Anti-Trident movement and publishing them. When they had completed the Temple, built on property adjoining the Bangor Naval Base, Trident's Home Port, it was burnt to the ground by unknown arsonists. Rexroth said, without any sarcasm, that editors who start poetry magazines, do so to publish their own poetry.
It became our consensus as a group of editors meeting in one another's living rooms, that we could not criticize the government without looking at the governed. Remembering that a great deal of software originated here could suggest a Seattle Poet writes exclusively for cyber readerships. Just as Robert Frost and Virgil meditated on how the human condition thrives in the vegetative bucolic, and as Gary Snyder depicted the ghost logger visiting the demolished grove, Empty Bowl did too. It was an effort to expand our own sense of community, to demonstrate what the Sister City movement of that era was accomplishing, and to establish a relationship with environmental issues beyond our own bioregion. Grant support is dependent upon past performance, and for small press publishers this means bigger and more beautiful books by more celebrated authors. Compared, for instance, to those graduate students or hired guns who pre-read contest submissions, one's friends may seem less objective. A month earlier I confessed to her I wanted to write an article about Central American refugees, but couldn't sustain more than thirty minutes of uninterrupted time at my mother's house. In the years that followed most us were to remain involved in less active ways, while others would replace them: Barbara Morgan, Beth Barron, Ru Kirk, and still others who I hope will forgive my bad memory.
During those years they published many of the books I have already described: Working The Woods Working The Sea (1986), Shadows Of Our Ancestors (1992) and Psyche Drives The Coast (1990) by Sharon Doubiago.
When a woman will step into the world of action and do a few vigorous things for herself, she may do all the resta€”ahem! And here it was, during the time which followed, that I learned the real meaning of stillness. In Portland, privileged men and women chartered riverboats for moonlight excursions on the Willamette and Columbia rivers and enjoyed the new sport of golf a€” and they documented their leisure activities by taking photographs.
Her mother, Nancy Hoffman White, had crossed the plains from Illinois at age eleven with her parents and twelve brothers and sisters. Ladd's son, Charles Elliot, graduated from Amherst College in 1881 and brought his bride Sarah L. Lily White taught Oregon Camera Club members the latest photography and darkroom techniques, using ready-to-expose, emulsion-coated glass plate negatives and platinum paper for image-making. Favored for its permanence and ability to produce colored prints at a time when color photography was rare, carbon printing involved exposing a negative against pigmented tissue sensitized with potassium bichromate.
To select the winner, the club chose three judges a€” a professional photographer, an artist, and an amateur who was not a club member a€” to evaluate each personal grouping of photographs (at least six but not more than ten pictures mounted, with framing optional).
Individual slides had to be as technically perfect as possible, without areas too dense or too clear, matted and labeled, and without too much soot.
Stieglitz's pronouncements signaled a new era, but Ladd and White's adventures on the river had already begun. White had supervised the boat's construction, and the Raysark was built to accommodate her personal needs. They might move closer to or farther away from Castle Rock (now Beacon Rock) or stand on a sandy beach. In a change from her typical landscapes, White also captured the work of fish seining on the Columbia with her photographs of horses and men grappling with the nets spread by boats.57 The exhilaration of the two women's work and the pleasures of life on the river, away from the pace of city life, contributed to a series of photographs that many believe is unmatched by other photographers.
There were also many decisions to make concerning plate development, paper selection, and mounting techniques. Their first project involved working with the city council to purchase trash cans for the streets.70 Unlike White, Ladd continued to exhibit her photographs despite the changes in her life. Living near the ocean in a creative, invigorating community of writers and artists would have supported and nurtured their interests, but their life together was not to last long. Their work as artists influenced the Oregon Camera Club, which depended on photographers whose photographs reflected their lifestyle, the artistic genre of their era, and the landscapes they cherished. Photoloid consists of a colloid emulsion placed upon a cellulose base, from which combination the name evolved.


The same author then discussed the formation of a Western Division of the Salon Club, a group organized by photographer Curtis Bell. In 1904, Charles Ladd bought it from Jay Cooke, a railroad financier, and then sold it to Henry J.
Holman, a lawyer and amateur rose grower, suggested that every Portland home should plant roses the following spring so the plants would have three years' growth by the time the Lewis and Clark Centennial opened. A bronze medallion of Charles Ladd, Chinese vases, and Greek glass bowls were left to the Portland Art Museum.
Moored at the False Creek Yacht Club, the restaurant features a plastic bottle construction reminiscent of the Plastiki, however it's taking a decidedly more elegant path to sustaining the seas through fine china, crystal glassware, and wine pairings.
We cooked over the wood stove our odd concoctions of carbohydrates and protein; once I nearly gagged Tim McNulty with some barely cooked grain. Copies of this book, indeed rare now, seemed to be all over Port Townsend and Seattle for about five years.
A few years later, a tunnel which originated in the basement of the Weir Building caved in one morning in the middle of Water Street halfway to Seafirst Bank, Jim blinking up into the dust.
I had admired the intent of Kuksu, a magazine edited by Dale Pendell, Gary Snyder and Steve Sanfield.
I remember very little, other than the distinction between a glottal stop and a glottal click. He smoked Drum in those days when we had money, rolling each smoke meticulously so that the end product could have been mistaken for the machined sticks of committed Lucky's smokers. It included a rough map of the strife-torn Middle East, about which most of us entrenched regionalists knew utterly nothing.
A roll of brown paper from the Port Townsend mill, which employed most of the town and fouled the air with pulp fumes, appeared in our office one day. Archbishop Hunthausen attended the protest of Trident at Oak Bay at the mouth of Hood Canal, also known as Twana Fjord.
At the time, I had to admit this was true, although both Bob Blair and I were committed to the work of those authors we'd invited.
In which case, does the reflection of a poet's sensory observations need to have any definable influence?
It wasn't until the following year that Empty Bowl became a nonprofit organization, and I was officially hired as editor-publisher-trainee.
With these three books our group of editors was able to focus on the major themes the reviewer of The Dalmo'ma Anthology had faulted us for treating like buckshot. Yet a response by someone who can be impartial, and who is genuinely moved by one's poetry, can be as rewarding as an acceptance into a world of academic look-alikes. My own involvement with Empty Bowl Press changed in 1985 when I moved out of Port Townsend. They facilitated the distribution of Empty Bowl books produced by associates of the press, such as Whole Houses Shaking (1993) by Jim Bodeen, The Family Letters of Maxwell Perkins (1995) and Untold Stories (1990) A by William Slaughter. Camera clubs across the country were giving amateur photographers the opportunity to socialize, obtain darkroom assistance, share ideas and information, and go on organized outings on bicycles, trains, or river steamers. Despite the death of Nancy's father on the Snake River, the family arrived in Oregon in 1852. Several moonlight scenes bring forth the latent beauties of pale lights and dark backgrounds. On another day, they might hike inland for a view of Upper Cape Horn, near Celilo Falls, catch the rays of sun reaching through the clouds after a storm, or capture the early morning mists.
The Panamaa€“Pacific International Exposition opened in San Francisco in 1915, and Ladd exhibited fourteen photographs in the Art Room of the Oregon Building. White's Camera Club demonstrations encouraged countless photographers to progress in style and technique.
The emulsion is a fairly rapid one to be developed in approximately the usual way like developing paper. During the following days, the Oregonian and Oregon Daily Journal reported he had fled the city, been shanghaied, met foul play, and been murdered. Twenty-three practitioners are listed in the city 1909 directory, fifteen of whom worked in the Beck Building. Just before first light the mice in our food supply would wake us, we'd stoke the stove, cook some sorry coffee, get back into damp rain gear, and carry charcoal-stained cheese sandwiches onto the clear-cut, hip bags filled with mudball treelings, Doug Fir, probably harvested by now for the toilet paper mills. Four or fiveA  letterpress machines were located in the back of the Weir Building, kitty-corner from Seafirst Bank and just across the street from the Town Tavern. What we were doing took some of its influence from their publication, yet the name remainedA  regional, but outside our own physical region, and paying homage to the native words and stories found in the book of a Spanish anthropologist who could never be more than an observer, despite his evident reliance on primitive ways. And being forced to admit I knew nothing about the rather odd and apparently meaningless word I'd selected for the title of our magazine, except that I liked what I thought it sounded like in my Euro-tongue's appetite for blithe colonization. Bob was steady and careful in all that he did, and painfully aware of the lack of these qualities in others.
My memory, of what I'd told myself was a transition from the dual editorship toward a collective, diverged widely from his; yet despite my surprise that he'd seen it so, I could recall no conversation where the name ceased to be his property.
It seemed to me that for an issue of a magazine or an anthology to successfully evolve a theme, there must be this conception on the part of the editor that a centerpiece would state the key principles about which all other entries could revolve. Firecrackers 1, which I edited, consisted of three poems by Tim McNulty, Tom Jay and Doug Dobyns.
I wrote a description of that day when protesters got in boats to meet Trident on its maiden voyage to Bangor.
Yet we wanted our anthology to express hope, both through our writing and through visual art. An out of work treeplanter rehabilitating from an injured back, I was eligible for retraining funded by the Washington State Department of Labor and Industries for six months.
The Rainshadow (1983), our first book published in Taiwan and bound in the traditional Chinese fashion included poems about China with those set near the eastern slope of the Olympics.
The Empty Bowl editors made a decision, which may have been a factor in its eventual demise, to run no contests. Because we are so unsure of ourselves, perhaps, as writers in a competitive culture, it helps to approach one's own work with an astonishing authority. I had already lost the urge to design and publish books, and I was forced to admit I didn't have the stamina needed to distribute work which deserved to be read.
They arranged to place copies of many of these books into classrooms to be used as texts in college and high school courses. In Portland, White and Ladd dedicated themselves to the Oregon Camera Club and the nascent photographic movement in the city. They were easily transported and could be exposed and developed whenever it was convenient rather than on location, as wet-plate negatives required.
Prints could result in tints of yellow, green, red, or violet by varying the toning or amount of light and carbon tissue paper used.18 Experimentation with photographic printing techniques and materials was indicative of the true craftsmanship of amateur photographers who thought of themselves as artists.
That year, 28 slides by 12 members of the Oregon Camera Club were accepted by the board of managers. For scale, they sometimes added a human figure or their houseboat as a reminder of their location and how they lived.
The two friends' boundless physical and creative energy shaped an image of the Pacific Northwest seen by thousands of people. His body was found December 25, 1905, in the Willamette River downriver from the Ladd boathouse. The Weir building was unheated, so we spent a great deal of time planning at the tavern.A  The building was being remodeled by Jim Weir, who expressed himself mainly with gestures and grunts. Immediately after the United States incinerated Hiroshima and Nagasaki, he tore a hole in the middle of his living room floor and roof, and heated the home with fire vented through that smoke hole. The three foot roll became an insurmountable problem for days until my old mentor, Grant Logg, came up to the office with his chainsaw, divided it into three neat rolls, and left.
By 1982, our Anthology's commitment was to the issues themselves, and to attempting to present thoughtful arguments, compelling images and serious alternatives. Although our organization had to agree to hire me at the end of that period, we knew the chances were slim that Empty Bowl could afford an employee. Even a regional contest can limit and stymie the body of work and the current of influence collaboration fosters. Besides which, they did the heroic work of keeping the press afloat, and maintaining nonprofit status. Both women understood the power of photography to record their own ways of seeing a landscape.
Portraits were never better and afford new studies that would appeal to the eye of an artist.
While Ladd's photographs received more attention than those of Lily White, both locally through the Pacific Monthly and on the East Coast, it was White's sense of adventure and the opportunities she created on the Raysark that set the tone for their posterity.
Maud Ainsworth was awarded first prize of ten dollars in the Architecture and Interiors Division for Melrose Abbey. White and sister of Milton White), Lily White may have thought of Maud Ainsworth as her cousin. In an interesting twist, White is listed on the April 1910 United States census twice a€” once boarding with the Ladds in Portland and working as a Christian Science physician and again living in her family residence on Fourth Street working as an artist with a studio. Jim was always framing in walls or stairs, dismantling his work and reframing a room from a totally different plan.
This was not what we've come to call a NIMBY issue, however, since the frightening power of the Trident weapons system had global reach and presented a target which would wipe out such subtargets as Seattle, Portland, Vancouver, British Columbia, and all life between. Johnson, and reproduced a triptych of paintings in black and white by the late Northwest artist, Nelson Capouilliez.
It seems now to have been a shady deal, but even the treeplanters who disapproved of filing the claim for the back injury, thought their own support of the press was a significant community obligation.
Collaborations should be regional, that is, the collaborators should know one another, have more in common than an exchange of writing, like bodily fluids, for money. I rented a light table from a nearby typesetting company and tried to keep my lines straight. During those years, they also cultivated opportunities for personal promotion that intersected with Portland's rise in regional and national status. Sarah established a formal garden there with imported plants, a bowling green, a tennis court, a barn, stables, and a caretaker's home. The Expo, which was open for four weeks, featured music, art, trapeze artists, bands, cakewalks, a photography show, and military, mining, and agricultural, displays.
Changing his mind didn't seem unusual, until we came to see the process of assembling and dismantling was chronic, and the building would never be finished. Funding for the production is the biggest burden for a small press publisher, and when the writer enters into this swamp, it may be because a publisher with integrity has found a manuscript that deserves to be published and invited the writer to help.
Steve Johnson and I were on the phone every day discussing the placement of his photos, or the quality of printing.
They stored the books for years in their house and their kids grew up with poets and readers coming and going to pick up or autograph copies.
She filled her home with mahogany furniture, china and silver serving pieces, and imported statues and vases of bronze and porcelain.
But it seems a Northwest Poet, with or without a National or Multinational Corporation's readership, besides living here, must write something that interests people from the Northwest, that somehow characterizes them and this quite unusual combination of climate conditions in which we live. He also called the printer every morning to ensure the highest quality for his duotone reproductions.
They filled orders continuously, ran meetings and kept the accounts of an organization that took its name to mean both replenishment and the gift that moves. Cruikshank examined the minutes of the membership meetings in 1902a€“1922 and the early membership list. Certainly Pound's reading of Yeats' later poems had an influence, as he did on Eliot, and many other poets of the day.
They saw that the spontaneity of poetry needed to come to rest somewhere, and took on the steady methodical job of running Empty Bowl, permitting so many Northwest writers and artists a home. The function of the press was to keep a place for writers to publish works significant to the Northwest literary community. The more nebulous and loose that group became, the more apparent became Empty Bowl's purpose: to record a valuable era in the region's literary history and to represent the tradition of those who stand apart, who choose within the smaller market to act locally. From our home, and the materials at hand, we did what literature commands, we made a solid thing of words.



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