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Atlanta wooden boat association membership
We will be looking at the parts that make up a boat such as hull, bow (front end), bulkheads, planks, decking, keel, stern (rear end), rudder etc. This is the navigation for DIY building advice, do it yourself, home improvement, garden design, garden rooms, self build, timber building, home tips, diy topics, gardens, gardening, green information, and much more. No matter how experienced a boatsman you are, sometimes accidents on the water are unavoidable.
Apart from their expertise when it comes to repairs, Rob and Tony also provide expert boat custom refits and modification services. With over 60 years of combined experience, Tony and Rob are experts in the art of custom boat refits and modifications and can also build bait tanks, fibreglass hard tops and gun racks.
They also custom make fibreglass wave breakers for Haines Hunter 17R and 17L, high and low. Location: Thames Valley, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Do some boats have a cabin but no sole or floors? However I have now seen some respected designs for microcruising boats that have no sole or flooring. Second Sven Yrvind of Sweden's latest boat which he has just sailed from Ireland to Madiera. Location: Thames Valley, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland They don't walk on the inside of the bottom planking because there is no standing headroom, they can only sit. Location: Thames Valley, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Thanks for the useful comments. It would seem that the rocker combined with the bend in side panels stops the boat flexing around as much as a cuboid shaped hull and gives it more external strength. But the 2" thick foam core sandwich construction will enable the hull to take more point loads from the inside (as well as increasing strength for external point loads and overall stiffness).
It's amazing how the Enigma 360 can take the loads on the inside, having only a 9mm plywood bottom with no added support. Location: NW Washington State USA That would be a problem only on a very light boat. Location: WNY Floors on traditionally built watercraft also tied the frames and keel together.
Location: Iowa Most (not all but most) of the boats that don't have floors have other structure filleted in (bulkheads, bunks, lockers etc) that reduce the amount of open area (span) that carries the load.
Originally Posted by DCockey Some of Phil Bolger's designs use the inside of the bottom as the sole.
Location: Eustis, FL Lister, Bolger was one of the greats, with nearly 700 designs to his credit.
It's difficult to second guess the engineering approach a designer may have incorporated into a particular project. Lastly, the old builder that told you that walking on the planks was wrong, is correct, sometimes. Location: USA It seems that one is sitting in the bilge, so the least bit of H2O and your pants are wet and your sleeping bag.
But if your boat is tiny, eliminating all but the absolutely necessary is kind of like an ultralight airplane in that you leave everything off but what you really need, and some boats don't need floor timbers or a sole, but most benefit from them. Building a small work barge with plywood » Thread Tools Show Printable Version Email this Page Display Modes Linear Mode Switch to Hybrid Mode Switch to Threaded Mode Search this Thread Advanced Search Similar Threads Thread Thread Starter Forum Replies Last Post Cabin Sole as a structural member? When making potentially dangerous or financial decisions, always employ and consult appropriate professionals. HERALD FEBRUARY 27 2014 The campaign to save Eastbourne’s Allchorn pleasure boats is gaining momentum.
Hundreds of people have pledged their support to the initiative to get the Southern Queen and William Allchorn back on the water as a tourist attraction.
The two boats were once a familiar sight sailing along the coast off Eastbourne to Beachy Head and back but in the last couple of years and due to the economic crisis, have fallen into a state of disrepair and are now moored on the beach near the lifeboat station. The plan is to obtain some form of charitable status so grants can be applied for and the long task of getting the boats back on the water can begin. The boats’ owner Jason Foster together with mariners Lloyd Stebbings and Daniel Goldsmith are trying to save the boats and the campaign is gathering momentum with support from Eastbourne Borough Council, other local authorities and marine and historic organisations. Lloyd said, “Time is starting to run out for these wonderful old ladies of the sea and Eastbourne is all set to lose yet another piece of its fantastic history and something that has been part of it for the last 65 years. The William Allchorn was a purpose built pleasure boat, commissioned by the Allchorn Brothers of Newhaven, in 1950 and funded by the Ministry of Defence Compensation Fund as recompense for Enchantress, which was lost during the Dunkirk evacuation.
The Southern Queen was built in a barn at Westham Village not far from Pevensey Castle and taken almost two miles by road to her launching site in Norman’s Bay.
HERALD FEBRUARY 26 2014 The Southern Queen and William Allchorn were once a familiar sight sailing along the coast off Eastbourne to Beachy Head and back but in the last couple of years and due to the economic crisis, have fallen into a state of disrepair and are now moored on the beach near the lifeboat station. The next plan is to obtain some form of charitable status so grants can be applied for and the long task of getting the boats back on the water can begin.
Nearly all of the fixtures and fittings including life rafts, some of which are handmade and are dated 1921, all the masts and rigging are still in existence, in good condition undercover and in one place near the boats but maybe not for much longer.
Long term these boats would need to earn the own keep and pay their own way for their survival so, the initial thought is to run day shopping trips’ from Eastbourne to Brighton weather permitting and day cruises to the Isle of Wight and back through the summer months. A campaign to raise ?500,000 has been launched to save the remains of the last two pleasure boats of a 200-year-old industry in Eastbourne. The Southern Queen and William Allchorn have not run for a number of years because of vandalism and the recession.
The boats, which had taken tourists on trips to Beachy Head lighthouse since the 1950s, are rotting on the beach. Now boat enthusiast Lloyd Stebbings wants to raise ?15,000 to buy them with the rest needed for restoration. Mr Stebbings, who runs Pevensey Bay marina, said in the industry's heyday there were 113 pleasure boat licences issued in Eastbourne. He said the Southern Queen was completed in 1950 and used to take visitors around the lighthouse with her sister vessel, the Eastbourne Queen. The William Allchorn was a purpose-built pleasure boat, commissioned by the Allchorn Brothers of Newhaven in 1950, and funded by the Ministry of Defence.
Both boats have many of the original fixtures and fittings including life rafts and masts and rigging. Mr Stebbings intends to set up a charitable trust and is appealing for private donations as well as corporate sponsorship. He said he has had almost a dozen people come forward offering to volunteer to help restore the boats.
The African Queen is a 100 year old steam boat famed for its starring role in the 1951 hit movie of the same name. After falling into a state of disrepair following the death of its previous owner in 2001, the vessel was spotted gathering rust in a Florida marina late last year by Suzanne Holmquist and her engineer husband, Lance.
The couple have since repaired the ailing ship and opened it up to tourists and film enthusiasts, providing cruises around the Florida Keys aboard the famous vessel.
It spent most of its first 50 years operating in the waters of the Ruki River in the northern Democratic Republic of Congo where she was used to transport a mixture of hunters, mercenaries and cargo.
In the early 1950's the ship was spotted by the director of the African Queen, John Huston, and pulled temporarily from service so it could be used in the movie. By the late 1960's however, the African Queen had swapped the big screen and the rural hinterland of the Congo for the concrete jungle of San Francisco. This idea proved unsuccessful however and the vessel then changed hands a number of times before coming to the attention of Florida attorney and Humphrey Bogart enthusiast, Jim Hendricks Sr. This chapter deals with the most common method which has been used to produce a large proportion of the FRP vessels existing today. The principles described for the construction of small plugs and moulds equally apply to large. It needs to be made clear once again that the plug is NOT a boat but a means to building a mould ONLY.
To begin, the frames of the plug are erected in an inverted position on a solid foundation. Likewise, any irregularity which spoils fairness can be removed by grinding or by hand sanding. For a 10 m hull, five persons for a week is about the minimum time that is needed for the final preparation of the plug. When the time comes to make the mould, the process is a reverse of plug building without the need for final finishing as this obtained by the faithful reproduction of the plug surface. A one piece mould lifted directly from the plug may be possible in the case of a small vessel but some complications arise if the design has tumblehome, a reverse transom, a deep narrow keel or is simply very large. In the case of large vessels it may not be possible to overcome the vacuum between the mould and the moulding by the use of wedges alone.
Preparing the mould for service has already been discussed and this forms the basis for care and use.
It is not unusual for a 20 m vessel to have FRP cabins, toilets, galleys and stores fitted out, piped, wired and lowered into the hull while the hull is still in the mould. This is an over-simplification but the principle of using large FRP components fitted out by carpenters specializing in one task can enable the yard to achieve greater productivity. A keel is formed by laminating additional material along the centreline of the hull and is to extend forward to the stemhead and aft to the transom boundary, so forming a structural backbone.
In boats with deep keels, restricted access makes moulding difficult and split moulds are used. The boundary of the transom is to be increased to support and stiffen the sides, bottom and transom laminates. The stiffener former is placed in position on the gelled laminate and the reinforcement is built up layer by layer as a continuous process.


Hollow cores are plastic, cardboard or a single layer of FRP from a hat shape mould made by the yard itself which can be cut to allow a fit to hull curves.
The strength and stiffness of the section can be varied by adjusting the section depth and retaining a constant lay-up or by increasing the lay-up where the stiffener depth cannot be increased.
The deck laminate should be increased locally to take loads such as deck machinery or at hatch corners, etc., which may be subject to impact damage. As with other applications of sandwich mouldings, 60% of the laminate should be on the outside and 40% on the inside.
If the deck is to be of wood construction it is normal practice to fit a beam shelf around the inside of the hull to carry the beam ends.
FRP tanks are popular in larger craft as they do not rust, corrode or contaminate the contained liquid. Construction should be as simple as possible with adequate access to the tank's internals to guarantee good quality joints when the final panel is bonded in place. If possible, special gelcoats should be purchased with increased resistance to fuels for the diesel tank and an odour and taste - free gelcoat for the water tank.
Primary bonds are those between successive layers of reinforcement laid and cured at the same time. Bonded joints are those between two previously cured laminates by applying new mat and resin which when cured forms a solid connection. The laminate of the hull, deck, tanks and other assemblies will always be either primary or secondary bonds depending on the size of the moulded unit and the phasing. One of the sources of problems in an FRP vessel is delamination and the ingress of water due to material incompatibility, that is the bonding of FRP to materials other than FRP. Debonding of FRP angles securing structural members such as bulkheads and frames is a common fault. Glass, polythene, formica, aluminium and the like will not bond and can be used to mould flat panels of FRP. If your vessel needs some attention, speak to the experts at A1 Custom Fibreglass in Newcastle. With years of experience in the industry, they can modify your vessel requirements and your budget perfectly. Possible explanations: they gain extra rigidity from the convex shape of the planking, and they all have some rocker Yes, some rocker will make any flat surface stiffer.
Unfortunately, he's mostly known for his eclectic nature and square, common man's designs, which is sad really, considering the volume and scope of his work. If you have a relatively small, traditionally built lapstrake or carvel, you should try to keep you feet on the frames or stringers. I have several designs just like this and the additional loads this imposes was considered in the scantlings, during design development.
I have a design that Eric is familiar with, that has the crew walking directly on the bottom planks.
Bundling designers into a lump, because they don't meet his expectations, is a rather narrow minded, if absurd view and should be taken with a grain of old salt. Although many of these problems can be intimidating, with correct techniques and materials they are not difficult to solve. We live in a throwaway society and are in danger in losing our values, identity and our history. Built in 1912 at Lytham Shipbuilding Yard in England, the vessel was originally named the Livingstone and served as a cargo vessel for the British East Africa Rail Company. An American businessman transported the ship to the Golden Gate city where he hoped to harness its Hollywood fame to operate it as a tour boat. Single skin construction using the PLUG - MOULD -HULL sequence is the simplest and cheapest method to build a number of boats from the same mould.
In the case of a new vessel design construction of the plug calls for the traditional skills of a boat builder. Even though the plug is virtually a wooden hull, for reasons of access and mould release it is better built in this position. A mirror finish is often quoted and this is true in terms of sheen, smoothness to the touch and fairness of hull lines. This process of hand finishing is repeated until the foreman considers the plug smooth enough to receive a layer of hard tooling gelcoat.
This will include polishing with rubbing paste after the sequence of wet and dry paper has run its course.
As the deck contains few compound curves but many flat panels and tight radii, some differences should be mentioned.
This is a mould which is in two or more pieces which allows easier access to areas foreseen as difficult to mould and to release mouldings where form would not permit release from a one piece mould.
To create it, a pattern of the flange has to be made on the plug on each side of the joint line in a similar manner to the sheer flange previously described. Any purchaser of an FRP vessel will expect a first class vessel so the mould should be kept in a first class condition - AS NEW.
Exposure to the sun and wind is not recommended as the shiny gelcoat surface will soon become dulled.
A one-off or custom made deck would have to be built in the traditional manner or in plywood and sheathed in FRP.
In a workboat this may not be very large, possibly only comprising the accommodations areas. The advantage to a carpenter to work unrestricted by the confines of a hull is translated to a saving in production time and therefore a lower cost.
This backbone can be maintained at the midwidth throughout the length and be reduced in weight towards the ends, or can be constant in weight and reduced in width, or can be a combination of both. About the joint line a scarphed laminate should be made with succeeding layers 25 mm shorter than the preceeding layer.
A typical boundary layup is formed by overlapping the side and bottom with the transom reinforcements, but as with the backbone the increase can also be achieved by the addition of strips of material laid around the boundary. Frames are usually a solid or hollow core former covered with several layers of reinforcement forming a closed box or semi-circular section when combined with the hull laminate.
The lay-up can be increased by additional layers of the same material or by incorporating higher strength materials such as uni-directional or woven rovings on the face. Apart from separating compartments, they are essential in providing transverse rigidity necessary for maintaining form in the comparatively flexible FRP hull.
A pad on the underside of the deck is recommended to spread the load of a through fastening. Advantage can be taken of the gelcoat to mould in a non-skid surface, also to design-in mountings for deck equipment which may be cast in at the plug stage.
Exterior bonding would be more suitable to resist these loads but interior bonding is used for reasons of appearance.
This can be done by fitting an outwhale and the beam to the outwhale by through bolting in the conventional manner. For a separate tank normal procedure is to mould the bottom and sides as one piece then to bond on a separate top. If these two types of tanks are in a continuous run then a cofferdam should be installed by doubling the separation bulkhead and leaving a space between. The laminate should be increased by 25% and a wood back up-pad placed on the inside to spread the load. Polyster resins are not good adhesives and an approach which achieves a good mechanical bond should be employed. Wood should be roughened, dry, dust free, unpainted and given as big a contact area as possible.
Copper or its alloys are to be avoided unless of small pieces, completely encapsulated and above the waterline. Cardboard, hardboard, cement, and canvas all have rough porous surfaces and can be expected to give some degree of bonding.
Scored and scrim-backed cores are superior as they provide a grossly keyed surface which is the basis of a mechanical bond.
Robert Brown and Tony Smith are passionate about boats and have the knowledge and the experience to quickly assess and correct any damage to your vessel. The one exception is when torturing the ply and that is done during construction using very thin materials. These planks weren't intended to bear weight in this fashion and you could easily pop fasteners, if not actually crack a plank. The boat is a rock under foot, underway or at rest and this was my intention when I drew it up. Wood is the principle material for construction but foam or balsa can be used as well as other less common materials such as C-Flex.
When all framing is erected, the skeleton can be strip planked or completed in any material judged suitable to achieve the shape of the vessel. This especially formulated gelcoat is the beginning of the coating which will eventually give the polished surface from which the mould will be lifted. Polishing with a non-silicone wax to give 5–7 coats and a brilliant sheen precedes a coat of PVA release agent which is the final step before the mould itself is begun. There is little point in using WR in a mould as the thickness provided by solid CSM layup gives the required dimensional stability.
Use should be made of sheets of hardboard, or plywood covered with formica to provide large flat areas of decks and bulkheads with a final surface which requires little hand finishing.
This is accomplished as follows: before the gelcoat which will form the surface of the mould is sprayed on to the plug, inlets are fixed to the plug with modelling clay.
It is likely to provide one or two problems during separation as well as needing some heavy lifting gear to roll the mould over once it is clear of the plug.


This may cause some damage to the plug which must be repaired before the corresponding flange on the opposite side can be made. The hull itself can be made longer or shorter or have its topsides raised and lowered provided it is done so with the Naval Architect's agreement and that he has checked the stability of what is virtually a new design.
It is not unusual for yards producing workboats to offer a standard hull with a range of engine and deck options to suit different tasks. Depending on the vessel there may not be one at all as it could be fitted out entirely in wood.
Shorter overall production times are also achieved as the hull can be moulded at the same time as the deck and interior are undergoing fitting out operations which then require only assembly of the three large components to produce an almost finished vessel. The bonding of the section should be as neat as possible with good overlaps of basic and high tensile face material.
A collision bulkhead should be installed forward and machinery space bulkeads should be watertight. Weight of the bonding reinforcement varies with designs but should be 25% more than the lesser of the two mouldings being joined. Tanks should be arranged so that they are not positioned at the widest part of the boat, above shaft brackets and sterngear nor at the deck to hull connection. Any bonding area should be as large as possible and designed so that the resin bond is shear.
If the deck core is foam or balsa then compression tubes or a solid ply core should be inserted locally to prevent crushing.
Resin thinned with 10% styrene or 5% acetone will allow a keying coat to better penetrate a wood surface than a more thixotropic straight resin.
Brass or bronze fittings should receive a coat of epoxy resin before being overlaid with any structural polyester resin.
Whether it is a cosmetic problem or major structural issue, Rob and Tony from A1 Custom Fibreglass can provide affordable and effective repair services. Floors are mostly to keep your feet dry or to provide a flat surface to stand on or (usually) both. An 18' powerboat cruiser with a cuddy, may just have enough internal volume, particularity if it's round or V bottomed, to warrant a sole. On the other hand, this type of build would likely have some sort of sole, be this a simple grating or slates over the frames or a full blown sole. Though traditional skills are required, if carpenters have not built a plug before new demands will be made in terms of accuracy and quality of workmanship.
At the deck edge which is in this case near the floor while the keel is some distance above it, a plywood flange is attached so that later during the moulding process, gelled FRP can be trimmed back to leave a solid laminate with a clean cut edge. There is no shortcut at this stage, the more time that is spent hand sanding the plug with wet and dry abrasive paper, the better the plug will be. Once the mould has cured, reinforcing stiffening can be bonded to the outside so that external bracing is present to support the mould when released and to provide a framework for the attachment of wheels, etc., to allow it to be moved about the yard. The gelcoat and laminate are laid up around it leaving the connector part of the inlet protruding through the finished laminate.
It is possible to use the first mould flange as the pattern for the second half; this will provide a very accurate joint and will allow bolt holes to be through drilled in situ before release. Every five - ten cycles it should be thoroughly checked and any repairs carried out to wear on flange bolt holes, or damage caused by hammering during release.
This could be a gelcoat and supporting surface tissue or a latex rubber paint which can be easily peeled off. The mould can be changed in length if there is a region of fairly constant section such as in a hard chine power boat where aft of midships little cross sectional change occurs. This is an acceptable mode of operation but the yard now becomes a producer of individual vessels and complications arise trying to satisfy each customer's needs. Topsides are increased in thickness to form a strong sheer in powered vessels and further increased in local areas to take mast rigging or deck hauling equipment loads. The material of the former is chosen for light weight, workability, intertness, ability to withstand laminating pressure and economy. The last layer of hull reinforcement can be timed to cover the framing to give a more finished appearance. Ply is the favoured core for working boats where weight is less critical while allowing fastenings to be applied to the deck with little fear of crushing the core.
A moulded in knuckle at beam height running the length of the hull can accommodate a beam shelf, and simplify the process if wooden decks are standard. Fittings through fastened near the tanks should be designed to fail before the tank and not to fracture the tank. Before either type is closed off any internal work should be completed such as fitting baffles, drains or gauges. Bolts should be fitted with large washers under the head and nut but should not be used in a laminate of less than 450 g weight.
The holes should be just sufficient to accept the bolts which should be dipped in catalyzed resin to prevent leaks just before insertion. Any wood which has been treated with preservative should not be used, but if unavoidable then a joint using screws or bolts should be substituted. This aspect is particularly relevant in developing countries where a conservative approach to new demands leads to slow progress and requires constant encouragement by an experienced technician.
It is usual to cover the plug with a layer of FRP as soon as the crude shape of the vessel is achieved to reduce distortion due to any shrinkage of the wood. Further filling with resin putty and overspraying may be necessary before a satisfactory finish is achieved. Moulded - in textured surfaces are possible (non-skid) as are flanges and mounts for equipment. Wax can build up in some areas to form a thick layer which gives a dull gelcoat, this should be washed or polished off. Topside changes require the cutting down of the moulding to give a lower sheerline or the attachment of an extension to the mould sheer to build them up. At long distance from equipment suppliers this might prove difficult as well as missing the point of offering a standard cheaper vessel. To use interior mouldings and to produce plugs and moulds for them requires the yard to have a sound market for the vessel over which to spread this extra development cost. Solid cores are normally of foamed plastics of the desired profile and do not contribute to the strength.
Exterior grade plywood is usually used for bulkheads and should be fitted while the hull is still in the mould. Because of its relative inflexibility ply should be sawn to blocks of 150 × 200 mm and installed individually to achieve a void-free bond.
In butt and scarph joints the bond is in tension and the joint should be reinforced on one or both sides. Oily hardwoods such as teak and iroko should be degreased with acetone and the moisture content of all woods checked before use. All metals should be degreased before use, even finger marks or sweat from a hand can render the bond inffective. This layer can then be filled where necessary with resin putty to remove the shallow indentations which will show up once the FRP skin is consolidated.
The most important factor to remember is to obtain good release angles on upright faces such as bulkheads as it will not otherwise be possible to release the deck from the mould. Changes to the form of round bilge vessels are not recommended and in general the standard hull should be used unaltered unless consequences are very thoroughly calculated by the designer. However, the advantage of an interior moulding is that the whole unit can be fitted out on the shopfloor BEFORE it is placed into the hull. The plywood should have a roughened border to improve adhesion of the resin when the bulkhead is bonded into the hull. This will serve as access during bonding and later as an inspection hole with a strong cover and well sealed. Whatever type of joint is chosen, the bonding area should be rendered free from release agent, grease, dust and dirt and then roughened to expose glass fibres.
Self tapping screws may be used if the load is not heavy and machine screws can also be used in a pre-threaded hole. Delamination through resin contamination or movement caused by wood shrinkage will render the joint useless. In small boats the thickness of the plywood is normally adequate for stiffness but some pillaring may need to be added in larger boats.
They should have their long axis perpendicular to the reinforcement layers and should never be screwed into the end of a laminate.
Drilled and tapped metal plates can be moulded into the laminate to take heavy loads such as engine holding down bolts. It is generally advisable to avoid metal to wet resin joints as a faultless bond can only be achieved under conditions of laboratory cleanliness which are not present in a boatyard. Sooner or later corrosion will appear on the metal fitting and cause delamination and leaks. All rust should be removed from steel and keying can be improved by cutting perforations or scoring the surface. Bulkheads can be built as part of an interior moulding to gain a moulded gelcoat finish or resin painted (flowcoat) if the visible face shows the reinforcement such as when the core is made from plywood sheets. Watertightness should be ensured to prevent the formation of any corrosion which could break the resin to metal bond.



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