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Location: Hartlepool, England Rudder Design Whilst looking at rudders for a new yacht I thought how poor the idea of bending the rudder at one point is !
If the rudder was broken into strips (verticaly) and worked from the rear with the leading edge pinned. Rudders pivot on an axis (they don't bend on a point ) and the reason they are foil shaped with a carefully considered planform is to give good lift to drag ratios. Whilst you might keep laminar attached flow on one side you also need to consider what the flow does on the other side and there you will quickly see a bleaker picture. On a sailboat you will find this will only add to turbulence and drag over a simpler foil or skeg rudder combination which is a single articulated foil. Making the rudder smaller may not be required, as maximum lift may not be the limiting factor for sizing the rudder. But I think the biggest difficulty with what you propose is the large range of flow angles that the rudder experiences, especially when maneuvering at low speed. A segmented rudder would provide a higher maximum lift for trimming out yawing moments when sailing straight ahead, but if that is required, then the boat has bigger problems than an oversized rudder. Location: Australia Read books on hydrodynamics its quite a different field to aerodynamics. Aircraft designers use a variety of techniques to reduce vorticity because the vortices are the principal cause of drag in a gas.
Boat foils operate in the flow and pressure field that surrounds a hull moving on a bounded surface which is quite different to an aircraft fully enclosed in its fluid.
Location: Hartlepool, England I can see where the Tom's are in this (you should never have Tom Tom's beaten by a john Pun!).
Originally Posted by Norman Brown Whilst looking at rudders for a new yacht I thought how poor the idea of bending the rudder at one point is ! Location: Australia RW The Americas cup boats have tried everything looking for the edge in that case they were probably chasing a faster tighter turn, they make compromises too.
Here's some pics of the sort of articulated rudders common on power vessels and motor-sailers. But if you are chasing low stall characteristics at lower speeds then you would still be better changing the planform IMHO. Location: Tasmania,Australia Mike - I dont think thats what that articulated edge is intended to do. Is it not the Anton Flettner invention that aided turning heavy rudders by use of the trailing surface ?
It actually works in reverse of the fairing process - turn the trim tab to port, the Rudder is pointed to Starboard by the trim tab, and the boat is turned by the major rudder surface.
Small trailing foils altering the pressure distribution over a lager foil are common, you will see a lot of them in steering systems both as self steering and trim and correction tabs, but I doubt that approach would work for this application since the application is reversed i.e. I read it as wanting the rudder to curve in a nice hydrodynamic shape to get max lift at low speeds and high turn angles. Those pictures you posted are not 'articulated rudders', to improve laminar flow, which is what the orignal poster was proposing. I dont think the pictures you posted are anything to do with improved laminar flow - they seem to be either trim tabs or servo tabs to assist with the difficulty of turning a big rudder. When making potentially dangerous or financial decisions, always employ and consult appropriate professionals.
RC boat rudder made simple a€“ learn how to figure out type, size, linkage, placement of the rudder and how to tune your radio controlled boat for best steering response.
An RC boat rudder that is scaled down from the original plan of a full-size vessel will almost without exception have an impaired steering response, and never handle as well as the original vessel. This is a home made RC boat rudder for an unfinished Lindberg Trawler plastic kit to RC conversion. The reason is quite simple: The physics behind rudder size doesn't change linearly with scale.
However, area is not the only property that effect steering performance and scale appearance. Suppose we have two almost identical vessels a€“ one with a single propeller and rudder, the other a dual set-up.
Another thing that is often overlooked, is where ballast is placed along the length of a hull. Some builders seem to believe that by having the rudder angle increased will compensate for a small rudder area.

For high performance sailing yachts and power boats, I'd recommend using ball links in all link joints. Here the same RC boat rudder showing the how the rudder angle has been reduced by shortening the servo arm - it is now 75% of the length of the rudder arm. A minor issue with this RC boat rudder arrangement is that the stroke of the rudder no longer is perfectly centered - it's geometrically impossible. Anyone got opinions whether twin rudders always should be at 90 deg to the horisontal plane, or inclination has pros & cons?
I am a thoroughbred rookie in boatdesign, (with a love for impossible missions and curves yet to be put on paper), so please feel free to come with hints and links. Boat Manual info sought » Thread Tools Show Printable Version Email this Page Display Modes Linear Mode Switch to Hybrid Mode Switch to Threaded Mode Search this Thread Advanced Search Similar Threads Thread Thread Starter Forum Replies Last Post Can I scan my model ? The invention is a manoeuvring device for boats, comprised of a pair of pivotal tube plates (17, 18) mounted outside a propeller 14 and, under normal operation, forming a tube (19) around the propeller. Gary Stephen Ditmore 03-11-2002 04:30 PM 1 Attachment(s) Very interesting, Gary. Gary Schollmeier Stephen Ditmore 03-13-2002 10:00 AM Perhaps, but let's stay on that point a moment.
If those concerns can be addressed with this drive, it might well be more efficient than the jet at the 12-15 knot speeds I wish to optimize for. If this reasoning sounds right to you, I 'd be interested in your drive, perhaps in combination with a Cummins 4BT-3.9M.
Now, I?ll lay this out here in the hopes that we can get a good discussion on the merits of my idea.
Now Stephen, about those panels for your kits, did I tell you that I?m building a 4?X8? 3 axis CNC gantry router in my garage?
I live in bush Alaska and would like to source these engines before my trip outside this summer for possible purchase. Thanks - Tiasto 07-10-2002 01:35 PM What would be the max speed that the kitchen rudder would be okay with before the drag became a problem. The water has to stall on the upper side of the rudder when you push it beyond a few degrees. For example the slots and guide vanes used on an aircraft to reduce vorticity would actaully increase drag on a hydrofoil. Its like most modern innovations, many were tried in one form or another already, even 100 years ago.
It comes down to this: a scaled down boat, all else being equal, need a bigger rudder area than the original vessel. Some of the other propertied include: shape, amount of balance, location, rake and shape of horizontal section. Obviously, your boat will still have issues when navigating at lower speed and when docking etc.
Some ships around the turn-of-the-century actually had the propeller behind the rudder a€“ no joke. Most of us place the model in the bathtub and lay weights on or in the hull until it is trimmed to design waterline.
A balanced rudder has approximately 20% or less of its total area in front of the axis-of-rotation. Ball links are commonly used by the RC airplane and helicopter community and also in RC car and buggy. This is the most convenient, since the arms on the rudder and servo are the same length.It is also the "correct" way to make a servo linkage as the rod will stay parallel with a common center-line through the two pivot points. However, the difference between the left and right stroke is less than one degree, so in all practical aspects it will work just fine. Anyone got opinions on sizes on rudders from models to fullsize (I know this is a problem on airplane scale-models)? These plates can be swung to one side relative to a medial position to enable sideways steering of the vessel, and be brought together astern of the propeller to form a blade when reversing. Susceptibility to damage and tangling in mooring lines, especially when operating as a harbor launch. Examples include warships such as destroyers, battleships, and civilian and merchant ships such as oil tankers, merchant ships, liberty ships, barges etc.
Those were mostly torpedo boats some of which were in the British, French, Russian and US navies.To mimic this on a radio controlled boat is sure to disappoint in terms of performance, so avoid the vessel all together or side-step the design with a more traditional layout where the rudder is behind the propeller.

However, with dual propellers there is an opportunity to implement an independent motor control scheme for the left and right hand propellers.
This is all fine and good but most of us don't realize that weights placed at the extremes will give the hull a higher inertia (in the yaw axis in airplane terms) than one where the ballast is placed centrally.
My vote goes to deep and narrow, here is why:Balanced or not, being narrower will place the center of pressure on the rudder closer to its axis than a wide rudder. They are back lash free and give superior control in critical applications.For modest performing scale boats and casual RC boats in general, a bent up piece of piano wire will do the job just fine. This is a rudder that was developed by Admiral Kitchen (British Navy) and patented in 1916.
At the same time, since the main purpose of a radio controlled boat is not being a conversation piece for your living room, the majority of builders would rather have good performance on the water and choose #2.For the rest of this page, I'm assuming performance trumps scale appearance as it otherwise applies to static scale models.
I can't vouch for either of these "rules", but it may provide you with a place to start your own trial & error.If you have a model, whose response you're happy with, use its rudder arrangement as a guide for your new efforts. Letting it grow forward may be less obvious and look better.In the old classic "Elements of Yacht Design" by Norman L. This will take strain off your steering servo.A deeper rudder will also have the center of pressure lower down.
A tube wing (20), extending in a longitudinal direction, is mounted immediately beneath the propeller (14) and is arched upwards towards the propeller wings. There is little sense in reinventing the wheel.The area of your RC boat rudder may be the most important factor effecting the steering performance of your radio controlled boat, but as I've hinted to earlier, there are other factors as well. If it is sufficiently deep down (and below the a€?center of lateral resistancea€?), the effect will be a significantly reduced tendency to heel when the helm is hard over, especially on shallow and narrow hulls.A downside to a cantilevered narrow and deep rudder is more strain on the rudder stock. I use 17-4 PH stainless steel wire.Below are a couple of illustrations showing a typical RC boat rudder linkage. It consisted of two half circles, somwhat conically shaped, that surround the prop in a ring. Under normal operation, a tube that is sickle-shaped in cross section is delimited between the tube wing and the lower portion of the tube plates.
In the Gerr article, he says that the British Navy was very impressed with it's performance. Limiting the bends according to load seems to be part of the solution and having a maximum for each joint.
If over done, a vessel where the ends are too light will look out-of-scale when encountering rougher water and appear more cork-like. When sailing and the boat is heeling, it is common that the rudder needs a substantial trim to one side just to sail straight (called "weather helm"). This, in my opinion, is a minor issue and not something I've ever really considered given the vast benefits.The cross section (As cut parallel to the design water line) has varied through history.
It is best to make sure the servo arm and rudder arm are parallel at neutral position.Also note the "V" bend - its a great feature allowing you to bend the linkage outside the assembly and tweak the length by adjusting the angles of the "V" once its all mounted in the model. The full-scale will hopefully get twin props and rudders, either with two smaller engines or a V8, with the geared-up boxes, that sounds sweet (anyone tried them?). The pivot axis of the tube plates (17, 18) is preferably located close to the propeller wing plane. His reasoning is that, having a balanced rudder means the front piece of the same is disturbing the fairing of the hull-rudder transition on the opposite side of the hull. The most advantageous shape is to make the rudder as thin as possible in general, but in particularly at the trailing edge.If the rudder is free standing (not integrated in a keel or skeg), the most efficient shape is that of an aerofoil. If the rudder is integrated into a keel such as were the case in sailing yachts from the first half of the twentieth century, the rudder is best faired into the keel with the rudder stock being a round rod at the leading edge.Sometimes you see raking rudders on sailing yachts and some historic ships.
A few advantages are improved prop efficiency, it eliminates prop walk at low speeds, and you have an instant reverse without a gear box. If that is where your interest lies, there are other really good resources for information on the web.

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