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Description: During the thirty years after Columbusa€™ first voyage, the Spanish, British, and Portuguese were actively exploring the New World. In Lyon a well-entrenched enclave of Florentine bankers and merchants imported luxury goods from the Orient. The solution was to search for a sea passage that allowed its discoverer to control trade with the Orient.
These people go altogether naked except only that they cover their privy parts with certain skins of beasts like unto martens, which they fasten onto a narrow girdle made of grass, very artfully wrought, hanged about with tails of divers other beasts, which round about their bodies hang dangling down to their knees. After passing Cape Fear and Cape Lookout, Verrazzano sailed the long reaches outside the Outer Banks of North Carolina. The people are almost like unto the others, and clad with feather of fowls of diverse colors. The Abnaki shot arrows at the French when they tried to land, but they could still conduct some meager trade through baskets, let down on a line from cliffs at the shore by the Indians. They returned to Dieppe six months later after a fast Atlantic crossing, reaching Dieppe on 8 July after an extraordinary cruise that changed the maps of America and affected the direction of exploration for decades to come.
The original of this map, about 102 by 51 inches, a sea chart of the world on parchment, much faded and stained, is in the Museo Borgia, Propaganda Fide, Rome. The large reproduction (approximately same scale as the original), entitled Verrazano Map, 1529, is from a photographic copy of the original made for E.
The Atlantic coastline of this map, which extends northeastward as far as Labrador, is of the Sevillan type (so called because the first maps of this type were made at Seville), and the Pacific coastline is of the type of the Maggiolo Map (#340). The most dramatic feature of the Verrazzano map is this vast nonexistent protuberance of the Pacific Ocean that appeared as the Sea of Verrazzano on maps and globes over the next sixty years. This concept was taken up by various cartographers back in Europe and, subsequently, a great indentation along the western coast of America starting just north of California was a common characteristic of many early maps of the continent.
Wishful thinking no doubt impelled Verrazzano to place this enormous waterway in the middle of North America, contained on the east by the narrow isthmus of the Carolina Outer Banks.
The Verrazzano brothers, Giovanni the explorer and Gerolamo [Hyeronimus] the mapmaker, combined to create an image that persisted to the end of the century. On Giovannia€™s third voyage in 1528, while searching for a strait through Panama to the Southern Ocean, he again crossed the Atlantic (exploration and the cutting of logwood being the joint goals of the expedition), landing in Florida, then following the chain of the lesser Antilles.
The coastal nomenclature given by Verrazzano differs from the Ribero (Sevillan) type (#346) and, unlike his Sea of Verrazzano, was not widely followed by later cartographers.
The Strait of Magellan is indicated but not named, to the south of which stretches an extensive but nameless continent.
The map is large enough that, unlike other maps of the period, does not avoid the issue of the areas north and south of Eurasia and the New World. This is part of a large undated, unsigned manuscript map, oriented with South at the top, approximately 4 x 8 feet, which derives its name from a former owner, Edward Harley, Earl of Oxford. Detail: North America from the Harleian map, 1547 showing the mythical (unnamed) Sea of Verrazano, the St. Description:A  During the thirty years after Columbusa€™ first voyage, the Spanish, British, and Portuguese were actively exploring the New World.
The most dramatic feature of the Verrazzano map is this vast nonexistent protuberance of the Pacific Ocean that appeared as the Sea of Verrazzano on maps and globes over the next sixty years.A  This now famous western sea that bisects present-day North America has no name or inscription actually on the Verrazano map itself, nor is it mentioned in Giovannia€™s letter to King Francis I. The coastal nomenclature given by Verrazzano differs from the Ribero (Sevillan) type (#346) and, unlike his Sea of Verrazzano, was not widely followed by later cartographers.A  The cartographer has introduced the name Norumbega (here, in the form Noranbega, applied to a river), by which the New England region was known throughout the 16th century.
The map is large enough that, unlike other maps of the period, does not avoid the issue of the areas north and south of Eurasia and the New World.A  The mapmaker clearly believed that Asia was separate from the new discoveries. France, however, the fourth European maritime nation, remained uncharacteristically quiet regarding overseas exploration until 1523 when an Italian brought the French flag to North America. They knew the traditional overland routes of European trade with Asia through the Levant could not bear the competition of Portuguese imports coming by sea around the Cape of Good Hope. A group of powerful and wealthy Florentine Lyonnaise agreed to sponsor a voyage westward in search of a route to Cathay [China]. Verrazano had been provided with four ships, but two of them shipwrecked shortly after depart, while a third one was sent home carrying the prizes from privateering on the Spanish coast, so only the flagship La Dauphine actually made the crossing of the Atlantic. He sighted Cape Hatteras and continued northward, traveling the 150 miles around Pamlico and Albemarle Sounds.
They came towards us very cheerfully, making great shouts of admiration, showing us where we might come to land most safely with our boat.
Because the natives were very friendly, for once he decided to break his habit and anchor near the coast.


What displeased the French even more were the Abnakia€™s disdainful manners when the Europeans left, such as exhibiting their bare behinds and laughing inmoderately. This is the first Italian map on which the designation a€?Americaa€? appears on the northern part of South America. The name of the author of this map is found in the inscription at the top: Hycronimus de Verrazano faciebat.
Even in the 1670s, when John Lederer made his famous explorations of Virginia and North Carolina, most colonial settlers believed that the Western Sea was only about 10 or 15 days inland from the coast. It must have been the same motivation that caused European mapmakers to accept this delineation for many years. In 1527 his men mutinied and ordered him to return to France, but Verrazano, using their incompetence in navigation, nonetheless reached Brazil, cut logwood (a red dye wood then named brazil wood) and his backers made good profit from it.
On one of the islands (probably Guadeloupe) his habit of anchoring away from the shore became fatal.
It is worthy of notice that the latitudes given in a column on the map, just west of Africa, are inaccurate and do not correspond with the two latitudes mentioned in the letter sent by Giovanni da Verrazzano describing his voyage.
This inscription is particularly important as it records the opinion prevalent in 1579 that the landfall of the Cabots was far to the north in Labrador. Sailing along North Carolinaa€™s Outer Banks in 1524, Verrazano saw the sound on the eastern side of the isthmus and postulated that it must be the Pacific. Please submit all reasonable offers.At POP Yachts, we will always provide you with a TRUE representation of every vessel we market. Furthermore, if Spain reached the Far East by sailing directly westward to China, the Florentine merchants at Lyon would lose their trade altogether.
They engaged Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine pilot, to lead the enterprise, but needed the authorization of the King of France, Francois I, who had been occupied in regional warfare and in developing a brilliant court, found his treasury in need of immediate funds.
Of the crew of 50, the only one who is known apart from Verrazzano himself was his brother Girolamo da Verrazzano, who was a mapmaker.
The people are of a color russet, and not much unlike the Saracens; their hair black, thick, and not very long, which they tie together in a knot behind, and wear it like a tail. The large body of water inside the Outer Banks was visible from the ship but no inlet was found.
We entered up the said river into the land about half a league, where it made a most pleasant lake [the Upper Bay] about three leagues in compass; on the which they rowed from the one side to the other, to the number of 30 in their small boats, wherein were many people, which passed from one shore to the other to come and see us.
These Wampanoags showed him an even better sheltered harbor, present day Newport, and Verrazano stayed there for two weeks, waiting for better weather conditions.
Their food, as far as we could perceive, often entering their dwellings, we suppose to be obtained by hunting and fishing, and of certain fruits, a kind of wild root.
Stevenson, Maps Illustrating Early Discovery and Exploration in America, 1502-1530, New Brunswick, 1903-1906, map No. On latter 16th century maps such as Michael Loka€™s in 1582 (#419), it is called Mare de Verrazana 1524. Richard Hakluyt, Elizabethan propagandist and promoter of British overseas enterprise, included a map based on Verrazzanoa€™s in his influential Divers Voyage, Touching Discoverie of America published in 1582. Giovanni was going ashore in a boat to greet the natives, wading the last part while the boat, with his brother, remained at sea. The islands of Cuba, Haiti, and Jamaica are also incorrectly located north of the Tropic of Cancer. The islands of Cuba, Haiti, and Jamaica are also incorrectly located north of the Tropic of Cancer.A  The Gulf of Mexico is too far north. Lawrence River shows the discoveries of Jacques Cartier on his second voyage of 1535; it may be based on Cartier's own map, now lost, of that expedition. His 1529 world map was one of the two first maps to show Verrazanoa€™s discoveries (the other was Vesconte de Maggioloa€™s 1527 map of the western hemisphere, #340. Verrazano believed that the sea that lay behind it, in reality Pamlico Sound, was the Pacific.
Sailing further north, he missed the entrances to Chesapeake and Delaware bays, because until New Jersey he kept quite far from the coast. And behold, upon the sudden (as it is wont to fall out in sailing) a contrary flaw of wind coming from the sea, we were enforced to return to our ship, leaving this land, to our great discontentment for the great commodity and pleasantness thereof, which we suppose is not without some riches, all the hills showing mineral matters in them.
The degrees of latitude are along a line passing through the Canary Islands, which may have been intended for a prime meridian. The relative excellence of the delineation of the region of the Isthmus of Panama is worthy of note.


Few geographical errors so confused the minds of explorers and mapmakers for a century as this belief in the nearness of the Western Sea (see also #340, 351, 357, 367, 371, 373, 377, #418; maps by Maiollo, Sebastian MA?nster, Battista Agnes, the Ulpus Globe, the Harleran, Baillya€™s Globe, the Wooden Globe, the single cordiform mappamundi of FinA¦us, Jacques Le Moyne, Michael Lok, Dr.
Sir Walter Raleigha€™s colony at Roanoke was established on an island in Pamlico Sound presumably because it would be a strategic location on the main route to Cathay when the passage was discovered. Unfortunately, the natives were not a friendly tribe that wanted to trade, but cannibalistic Caribs. The eastern coast of North America trends too much to the northeast, as on most all early maps. Not by chance but because it has been maintained and cared for.Thunderbird Formula boats are premium made offshore performance boats with ahead of their time styling and performance.
Francois had no inhibitions over poaching on the Portuguese or Spanish preserve; in fact, he was incensed at the arrangement between those two nations and at the Pope who had divided the world between them.
Thus North America at this point seemed nothing more than a rather long, extremely narrow isthmus.
Verrazano next discovered New York harbor, and anchored in the Narrows, later named after him and now spanned by the Verrazano Narrows Bridge. The delineation of Verrazanoa€™s discoveries is one of the most important features of the map. They expertly killed Giovanni and ate him while still fresh, under the eyes of his brother. Lawrence too small; thus indicating that possibly the maps from which they were drawn may have been of different scales. This 25 year old boat is always the focal point wherever it is because of the great look, gelcoat, lines and styling. As this area appeared impenetrable, they proceeded northeasterly in their search for the passage through to the Orient. This mistake led mapmakers, starting with Maggiolo and Girolamo, to show North America as almost completely divided in two, the two parts just connected by a narrow piece of land on the east coast. The coastline of Africa and of India reveals a surprising knowledge of the Portuguese discoveries.
The older assumption that the central figure in the group below the river is an actual portrait of Cartier is now disputed. The inset, which omits many details, is from a map based on photographs of the original and published in H. Previous encounters with cruel Spanish conquerors had obviously affected the Indiansa€™ protocols of hospitality. The coastline from Cape Briton to the south of Cape Cod is probably based upon a copy of the lost pardon generalA  of Alonso de Chaves, 1536. So strong was the hope among European merchants and sovereigns that a convenient passage be found connecting an easy sea route from Western Europe to the Spice Islands and Cathay, we find the cartographer of the Harleian map obliging this desire by going beyond previous representations by Maggiolo (#340) and Gerolamo da Verrazano of a false Verrazanian Sea.
The Harleian map provides the belief that an actual strait had been discovered cutting through the north isthmus to the broad waters of an unnamed gulf recognizable as the aforementioned Verrazanian Sea (another false strait had appeared on earlier maps, farther to the south, on the Darien peninsula).
The strait on this map carries the legend, Gofanto mer osto, which may be freely translated as a€?Gulf before [or leading to] the South Seaa€?.A  Another manuscript map, La Virgenia Pars, by John White in 1585, shows a similar strait (#370).
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