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Ship modeling is a craft as old as shipbuilding itself, stretching back to ancient times when water transport was first developed. Ancient ship and boat models have been discovered throughout the Mediterranean, especially from ancient Greece, Egypt, and Phoenicia. In the Ancient world, ships “were among the most technologically complex mechanisms of the ancient world.”[2] Ships made far-flung travel and trade more comfortable and economical, and they added a whole new facet to warfare. Phoenician ship models also provide archaeologists information regarding the technical aspects of seafaring, and the cultural importance of seafaring for the ancient Phoenicians. Ship models are helpful to archaeologists in that they allow archaeologists to make estimates regarding the size the vessel would be in real life.
Egyptian ship and boat models are perhaps some of the most enchanting and well-preserved types of ship models available to archaeologists.
Boats placed in tombs of Egyptian royalty can be separated into two types: boat models that represent actual vessels used on the Nile, and boat models that represent boats that are considered necessary for religious purposes. The boat models discovered at Meketre feature several different kinds of boats, including traveling boats, sporting boats, and several papyriform crafts.[16] Two of the papyriform skiffs have a trawling net slung between them. Despite some of the limitations of interpreting ancient Mediterranean ship models, archaeologists have been able to glean a great deal of information from these items. Some of the oldest surviving European ship models have been those of early craft such as galleys, galleons, and possibly carracks, dating from the 12th through the 15th centuries and found occasionally mounted in churches, where they were used in ceremonies to bless ships and those who sailed in them,[18] or as votive offerings for successful voyages or surviving peril at sea, a practice which remained common in Catholic countries until the 19th century. Until the early 18th century, virtually all European small craft and many larger vessels were built without formal plans being drawn. Ship models constructed for the Royal Navy were referred to as Admiralty models and were principally constructed during the 18th and 19th centuries to depict proposed warship design.[19] Although many of these models did not illustrate the actual timbering or framing, they did show the form of the hull and usually had great detail of the deck furnishings, masts, spars, and general configuration. During the Napoleonic wars French and English seamen who were taken prisoner were confined, sometimes for many years, and in their boredom sought relief by building ship models from scraps of wood and bone.[19] This evolved into something of an art form and the models were sold to the public,[20] which responded by supplying the prisoners with ivory so that the models would be more decorative.
A consequence of Britain's naval supremacy in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was wide public interest in ships and ship models. In the early part of the 20th Century, amateur ship model kits became available from companies such as Bassett-Lowke in Great Britain[23][24] and Boucher's in the United States.[25] Early 20th century models comprised a combination of wooden hulls and cast lead for anchors, deadeyes, and rigging blocks.
The development of tinplate and improvements in machine tools enabled significant advances in ship modelling from 1900 onwards. Ship modelling in the United States experienced a boom in the 1930s when Popular Science magazine published an extended series of articles and plans for famous ships by modeller and former Navy officer E.
In recent years, widespread internet access has played a major role in promoting ship modelling, offering enthusiasts the opportunity to show off their work and share techniques. Wood—commonly solid wood, two pieces of wood with a vertical seam or slabs of wood placed one on top of each other. Paper—preprinted paper construction kits are common in Europe, and are available in a variety of scales.
A variant of this technique, sometimes known as bread and butter construction( the wood is the "bread" and glue the "butter") is a hull built up from thin blocks of wood glued together with either a vertical seam which can be incorporated into deck design, or a horizontal seam.
In the decades since World War Two injection-molded polystyrene plastic model ships have become increasingly popular. A more recent addition has been a variety of kits in cold cure resin marketed by various small companies as part of a cottage industry.
Scales vary as well, with many kits from the early days being "box scale"; that is, scaled to fit into a uniform sized box designed to fit conveniently on hobby shop shelves. Another recent development has been the advent of aftermarket parts to enhance the basic kits. Model ships have been used for war gaming since antiquity, but the introduction of elaborate rules made the practice more popular in the early 20th Century. Prior to World War II, the German company Wiking became a leader in the field[29] but the war ended its dominance. Larger ship models have been used in museums to document historical ships, in companies for decoration and public relations. Model ships are important in the field of engineering, where analytical modeling of a new design needs to be verified.
Manned models are model ships that can carry and be handled by at least one person on an open expanse of water. The aim of training on manned models is to enable seamen to acquire or to develop manoeuvring skills through a better understanding of a ship’s behaviour as it sails in restricted water conditions at manoeuvring speed. The Port Revel Shiphandling Training Centre is a French maritime pilotage school specializing in training for pilots, masters, and officers on large ships like supertankers, container ships, LNG carriers and cruise ships . Model yachts are operating craft, which may be sail, steam, engine or electric motor powered, typically resembling pleasure power craft, although the hobby also includes the construction and operation of models of working ships such as tugboats and other craft shown in this article as static models. Model shipwright guilds are social groupings intended to allow more experienced ship modellers the opportunity to pass on their knowledge to new members; to allow members of all levels of expertise to exchange new ideas, as well as serving as social function. Some model shipwright guilds have been incorporated into government and Naval facilities, achieving a semi-official status as a clearinghouse for information on naval history and ship design. Model ship made with non-traditional materials: rolled-up tubes of paper, Express Mail labels, and duct tape. Click on picture in Isometric View column to see a larger version (often a *much* larger version). Base Terrain indicates what sound will be played when a player walks over a facade (assuming it can be walked on). This piece seems to fit nicely on the right side of #22, and to the right or left of itself.
All you need is Adobe Reader 5.0 or later to view and print pages from the PDF ePlan download.
The information presented here is a basic start to finish, building of a wooden sailing model. For builders wanting to cover their model with fiberglass A separate article will offer directions for covering a wooden star with fiberglass.
With the popularity of radio-controlled models, the number of people interested in owning a model yacht has also grown - in geometric range.
Over the past 40 years I have fielded many questions regarding the choices and considerations which go into selecting a radio-controlled sailboat. Four questions are asked over and over by prospective skippers: How do the radio-controls work? Thirty years ago started to write a, step by step, manual of sorts to assist modelbuilders that want to build a radio controlled ship models. In 2006 John Fisher drew up the lines of the Star45 model as CAD (computer aided design) files. Over the past 30 years I have fielded many questions regarding the choices and considerations which go into selecting a radio-controlled sailboat. The AMYA STAR 45 Class discussion group is a terrific place to exchange ideas and talk about building Star 45 models for racing in AMYA regattas. The new generation of wooden S45's began in 2006 when John Fisher drew up CAD files for laser cutting frames and building jigs. John's frames are scaled from the lines of International Star Boat, John's 2006 hull's weighed in at one pound, far less than the original Dumas boats. With the building set up the next step is to lineup all the frames (if they are solid pieces they are bulkheads).
Before ordering laser cut frames, decide on the wood for the hull sides if you want to meet the AMYA specifications (when planked the beam may not exceed 12 inches).
Billie Geisler's commented on August 1, 2006 in a post to the Star45 forum that he builds hulls from cedar rather than balsa.
You will probably want to trace the outline onto the wood and cut close to shape before gluing it on. The important ingredient is building a model where the Center of Effort and the Center of Lateral Resistance are lined up. You could also layer sheets of plywood and laminate sized pieces to achieve a airfoil shape. The ballast bulb for the this model may be constructed of any material {ballast materials denser than lead is prohibited}. Wikipedia describes winged keel is a sailboat keel, usually of high aspect ratio, that uses a nearly horizontal foil, the "wing", at the bottom to provide additional performance. If you race the model in AMYA regatta they may not be changed, interchanged, substituted or otherwise manipulated once any heat or series of heats in which scores will be compiled, has started.
Ballast bulbs may be made from any readily available material, such as poured lead, lead shot, etc. Important to note that he Star 45 Class specifically excludes radio equipment, sail controls and batteries (power cells) from being considered ballast. You may want to place a piece of wood simulating the keel fin into the mold so you can attach the bulb to the fin. While we are working on a bare hull we must decide on the keel fin and how it will be mounted (attached) to the hull. The tubes were glued into the hull using JB weld since it has very good strength for bonding metal ( JB weld is the silver colored epoxy).
AMYA Star 45 Class Rules, 2008 "Rudders may be constructed of wood, fiberglass, plastic, plastic laminates or metal. One way to build a rudder quickly and easily is cut out the shape in a thin material, tape the sides together, insert the rudder shaft, fill the inside of the rudder with epoxy. On a full size Star Boat the tall mast is supported by sliding back stays one one each side of the boat.
Some skippers use a servo to control the back stay tension or they link to sail winch to slightly tighten the back stay when sailing down wind. The mast head fitting maybe a "T" shaped fitting or as simple as a small tube of rod through a hole drilled in the msst head. The main boom of a model is linked to the mast by a swivel connector which allows the boom to swing from side to side. Typically the boom on a model needs to kept from lifting when the sails are not trimmed in hard.
To keep the main boom from flying up a "boom vang" kicker a simple device is set between the boom and the foot of the mast. Originally on the old model the jib was loose footed and did not use a jib boom (aka a jib club). Typically a swivel is placed along the forward end of the jib boom and clipped to a deck fitting (aka jib rack).


The driving force of the sails is changed when the air slot between the mast and jib changes. Instead of wooden or arrow shaft booms, airplane clips instead of the turnbuckles and so on. Chain plates themselves can be as simple as a long screw eye bolt, as fancy as a jib-rack or tangs screwed into the side of a hull. Which ever style of chain plate the hull and deck must be braced (reinforced) to withstand the loads. Basically you cut the bottom panel seam flat, and draw your airfoil MAC (mean aerodynamic chord) and cut it with a #9 X-acto or scissors. Battens are allowed on the mainsail but are restricted to 4 in number, equally spaced along the leech and may not exceed 8.50 inches in length. At about $12.00 a yard, spinnaker cloth is twice the cost of fabric store ripstop, but spinnaker cloth is coated with resin that makes it far more stable and eliminates all porosity (wind can blow right through ripstop).
Dropping a model into the stand can cause the stand to close up and pinch the model if the keel doesn't sit on the ground.
IMHO, it is good practice to have models sit on their keels and have the weight of the model supported by the keel. Phil Geren needed a cradle for a woodie Star 45 hull under construction to hold the hull while fairing the gunnels to the frames in preparation for installation of the deck and while designing and installing the controls.
We used an upturned baking tray as the cake board and covered it in shiny blue wrapping paper to look like water. Step 3: Using the baking paper as a guide, cut off the bits of cake that do not look like the front of a ship. Step 11: Licorice strips arranged in circles make portholes and the candles are guns or canons. Reid has been obsessed with completing this, but over the last few weeks there has been little time available for cardboard boat building.
This weekend we finally had some time and he brought out the instructions sent home which were very good.  We modified them a bit so he could produce this nautical masterpiece. The middle band was punctured with a sharp object and a skewer was used as the mast.  We experimented with several different objects like straws and cardboard to see what would work the best, but the wooden skewer seemed to be the answer. Some of the extra cardboard was folded over so that a dragon head was cut out.  A flap was left at the bottom so that it formed a triangle at the base of the dragon neck which could be attached and unattached* to the prow. Another long piece of cardboard was folded over and trimmed so that it could be used to attach the sail to the mast.  The sail was made out of 2 pieces of regular white printer paper and stapled inside this long piece of cardboard and set onto the mast. Reid used brown paint for the ship, striped the sail with red and painted red medallions to decorate the Viking Ship.
These models provide archaeologists with valuable information regarding seafaring technology and the sociological and economic importance of seafaring. Thus, ships carried a great deal of significance to the people of the ancient world, and this is expressed partly through the creation of boat and ship models. One particular model, acquired by the Staatliche Museum in Kassel, Germany, proves to be helpful to archaeologists and historians in understanding what a hemiolia warship was like.
One boat model from a house deposit in Mochlos, Crete, dating to around 3000BC, is thought to be too small to be a war ship. However, some models offer tantalizing pieces of information that are, unfortunately, difficult to interpret.
While this technique makes the assumption that artists scaled the models appropriately, it is useful to get some sense of how large these ships and boats may have been in real life. It is uncertain whether or not the net is meant to be depicted as being under the water or being pulled out of the water by the fishermen. This information has been instrumental in filling in gaps in knowledge about ancient seafaring technology and culture.
Shipwrights would construct models to show prospective customers how the full size ship would appear and to illustrate advanced building techniques.[19] These were also useful for marine artists, and it is clear that from Dutch Golden Age Painting onwards extensive use of models was made by artists. Some of these grand models were decorated with carvings of great beauty and were evidently constructed by teams of artisans. For the most part, the models had carved wooden hulls with rigging made from human hair, horsehair, silk, or whatever other fine material could be obtained.
Numerous fairly crude models were built as children's toys leading to the creation of functional, as opposed to decorative, ship models. Thin, workable sheets of iron could be coated with tin to prevent rusting, then mass-produced as parts of ship model kits. Steel, sheet tin and aluminum brass are used less frequently for hull construction, but are used extensively for adding details.
This reduces the amount of carving required, but still requires skill and the use of templates to achieve and accurate hull form. The plank on bulkhead technique inserts a series of shaped bulkheads along the keel to form a shaped stage which will be covered with planks to form the hull of the model .
Consisting of preformed plastic parts which can be bonded together with plastic cement, these models are much simpler to construct than the more labor-intensive traditional wooden models.
Scales have since become more standardized to enable modelers to construct consistent scale collections, but there are still many to choose from.
The plastic model kit market has shifted over the years to a focus on adult hobbyists willing to pay for more elaborate, higher quality kits. Decals, specialized paints and turned metal replacement gun barrels are available to make plastic models more accurate. These are typically built by commercial firms, or, in the past, model departments of large shipyards. These can range from small models that can be operated in aquariums to vessels capable of navigating large bodies of water. Principals of similitude are used to apply measured data from a scaled model to the full scale design. Manned models are considered by maritime pilots as the next best thing to a full-scale prototype for understanding a ship's behaviour.[32] Those who have trained on both claim that scale models are complementary to computer simulators. The facility uses manned models at a 1:25 scale on a man-made lake designed to simulate natural conditions in harbours, canals, and open seas. The USS Constitution Museum operates a model shipwright guild from the Charlestown Navy Yard, adjacent to the berth for the vessel itself.
Kennedy's PT-109 has been a popular a subject for plastic and radio controlled models since the 1960s. Originally issued in 1956, it was among the earliest injection molded plastic ship model kits. A model sailing craft operates with the same sophistication of design as any full-sized yacht. As with model aircraft, the choice of sailing models runs the gamut from child's toy to sophisticated craft. John Fisher, Phil Geren, and many members of the Star 45 Yahoo discussion group provided essential content. He arranged for Steven's Aero to lazer cut the frames (aka bulkheads) and the building of S45's was revolutionized and the class gained world wide attention of modelers wanting to build a wooden sailing model. The hull can be a single type of wood or the bottom, sides and deck can each be a different wood. John Fisher has been very cooperative in adjusting the drawings to accommodate builders needs. Make sure it is located correctly before starting gluing.Photo showing the planks after being trimmed close to the stringers.
The fin may be solid or hollow and constructed of reinforced plastic, plastic laminates, fiberglass, wood or metal. With a heavy keel bulb hanging a the bottom of the keel you don't want the keel twisting and distorting as the model heels and changes position. The Mainwaring keel and ballast bulb concentrates the weight, other long symmetrical bulbs may spread the ballast weight over 9 inches.
Insert a couple of long threaded rods parallel between the two sheets they create an airfoil and extend from the top for attachment.
The horizontal foil serves two purposes: it acts as an winglet on the foil, effectively doubling the aspect ratio, and they produce additional lift, but downwards. The use of Velcro or similar quick release fasteners is prohibited as methods of mounting ballast. You may also want to consider using a two piece mold large enough to hold a lead pellet-resin mix ballast material and them epoxy or bolt the halves together.
There is a lot of equipment inside the hull so easy access to the nuts and bolts is required. The left hand drawing show the rudder of a molded fiberglass hull and the righthand drawing is based on the 2008 AMYA star plans.
The crew makes adjustments while underway, when the boat tacks the active back stay is released and the other back stay is pulled into position. With a jib boom that uses a swivel-vang the tension on the back stay changes as the jib moves.
Vangs take a variety of forms from a turnbuckle, to a piece of fishing line to a line controlled by a servo to allow the boom to be pulled down or allowed to raise up.
The addition of a jib club allowed the jib shape to be controlled.Like the main sail the foot of the jib will fly up is some type of vang is not in place. This has the advantage of staying taught against the back stay as the sails are trimmed thus keeping the mast straight.
Since the jib stay attached to the jib boom in this arrangement moves off center and is subject to varying wind forces the tension on the jib stay and back stay will vary.
Maximum driving force occurs when the curve of the jib luff is shaped to meet the curve of the main sail. There is the load applied by the sails while under sail and there is the load as skippers pick up the model by the mast and carry it around.
I drill into the aluminum mast, push the wire out from inside the mast, swag a sleeve onto a doubled wire and pull the wire back and swag to the turnbuckle. It has been my experience that skippers grab the model hatch rim and lift the model to carry the model to to pick it up from the water. Design your hatch sizes and locations to permit your hand(s) to access and remove these items. Duddy's jig allows the builder to re-position the hull as it is being built and can be used to hold frames of different models.


A kebab skewer with cut out bits of fabric featuring the Jolly Roger, make for a good pirate ship mast. I knew straight away that the licorice railing would be difficult, because licorice is not fully flexible. She believes that you shouldn't have to buy stuff to have fun when there is a kitchen junk drawer full of possibilities.
In spite of how helpful ancient boat and ship models are to archaeologists, they are not always easily or correctly interpreted due to artists’ mistakes, ambiguity in the model design, and wear and tear over the centuries.
Ancient boat and ship models are made of a variety of materials and are intended for different purposes.
Basch postulates that the boat “cannot have been propelled by more than four oarsmen … so it can hardly be other than a fishing boat.”[8] As opposed to other Early Bronze Age ship and boat models, this model was not found in a burial context. Item number H-3134 at the Hecht Museum, a dark brown clay model of a 5th century BCE oared boat, is one such craft. In the event that the artist meant for the net to be in the water, it is interesting to note that the net is upside down.
The inexpensive plastic kits were initially targeted to the post war generation[27] who could glue them together and produce passable replicas in a single afternoon. The introduction of flat photoetched metal sets, usually stainless steel or brass, also provide much more realistic lifelines, cranes, and other details than are possible with the injection molded plastic kits.[28] These photoetch sets have transformed the hobby, enabling the finescale modeler to reproduce very delicate details with much less effort. These models were basic representations of ship types, with enough detail to make them recognizable. Further expanding the concept is model warship combat, in which scale models fire projectiles at each other in combat. Physical conditions such as wind, currents, waves, water depths, channels and berths must be reproduced realistically. He cuts the rough edges and flats off with a 10 inch table saw, then use a 3 inch table saw from Micro- mark to cut the final planks. Because the yacht is heeled over when sailing upwind the leeward foil is closer to vertical, and provides additional side force hence making the boat sail upwind more efficiently.
The AMYA s45 class specifies such ballast shall be fixed in place by gluing, fiberglassing, or bolting (bolts and screws. However batteries (power cells) which are not ballast can be mounted with Velcro allowing them to be placed within the hull to change the weight distribution.
Fill the second pan with plaster and lay the original plaster mold on top of the second plaster filled pan.
I wire the bolt heads together and can easily remove the nuts, push the bolts out of the way and remove the keel. The balanced rudder lakes some of the load off the steering servo The leading edge portion is pressured by the water flow as the model sails. The model star boat replaces the two back stays with a single back stay from a mast head fitting to a back stay fitting on the transom.
The jib vang can be as simple as a swivel attached to the forward end of the jib boom and the jib-rack. The radial filling attaches to the end of the boom with a gooseneck An rigid adjustable vang from the radial fitting to the jib boom control the lift of the boom at at set angle.
Consider using short pieces if thin walled electrical tubing (shrink tube) which can be found in building supply places like Home D. I used those candy straps… in Australia one strap has 4 different coloured lines and you can tear off each colour seperately. The most common purposes for boat and ship models include burial votives, house hold articles, art, and toys. This model is thought to be a child’s toy or a piece of art, instead of a burial offering.[9] The model itself features a projection of the keel beyond the stem-post at both ends.
Needless to say, the upside down net would not work for catching fish.[17] This ambiguity points up the question of artistic veracity of the craftsmen who make ship models.
Plastic models are available in both full hull and waterline versions for a wide variety of vessels. Bassett-Lowke marketed these to the public in England, along with more detailed versions that appealed to collectors. The Centre was originally created in 1967 near Grenoble by Laboratoire Dauphinois d'Hydraulique.
The PDF ePlan set includes exploded views, assembly photos and step-by-step detailed instructions.
I sailed my first model tethered by a string off the floats at the Wollaston Yacht Club, Quincy, MA, as a pre-teen sometime in 1947. We'll start with the hull and at the same time build other parts that will be as assembled as a finished model. He imported thin ply for the furniture industry and the sheets were 50 inches by 50 inches. The keel fin may be bolted onto the hull or go up inside the hull to be held i place by a keel trunk. The windward winglet is closer to horizontal and hence produces a force directly downward, which gives a small benefit to the vessel's stability. A common one is simply a short pin in the foot of the mast that sets into a mast step with series of holes. Some skippers want the rig to be set up stiff and the mast jack allows the mast to be jacked-up to re-tighten the stays. As the swivel is moved forward and aft along the jib boom the leach of the sail has more or less ability to rise. Consider not only woven materials but also consider plastics such as mylar and mylar composites. Also, but putting in the luff curve and using a bolt-rope main, you do have a sail with some draught to it, not just a flat sheet of cloth. Over-sew some corner panels, tack on some batten pockets and thread in a piece of weed-eater line up the hem of the luff and you are ready to put on your class markings and numbers. Mount the cradle frames on a 2'X4' piece of particle board, using the spacing of the balsa template included in the frames kit, and using a try square to get them vertical, and making sure that they are all on the same longitudinal center and all parallel. While archaeologists have found ship and boat models from societies all around the Mediterranean, the three of the most prolific ship model building cultures were the Greeks, Phoenicians, and Egyptians. The name indicates that two oarsmen would have been seated on half of the benches and one on the others.[7] Until this ship model was discovered, archaeologists, classicists, and historians had only been able to hypothesize on what the seating arrangement might have been like on a hemiolia based on its name. As is attested by the ambiguity of the holes in the sides of the Phoenician model, and the skiff from Meketre, archaeologists need to be aware of the possibility of artistic error while interpreting ancient ship models. The sternpost and stem are erected, deadwood and strengthening pieces inserted, and a series of shaped frames are built and erected along the keel to form the internal framework of the model. The pattern pages in the ePlan are black and white precision line to help conserve printing ink. Well suited for building by by the novice builder and skippers looking for a classic looking model to race.
It broke away and was seen sailing off towards Rainsford Island a 21 acre island situated between Long Island and Peddocks Island. I've addressed these questions in "How to select Your Radio-Controlled Sailing Model" published on my MainZone Publishing blog. Having had keel fins delaminate within a year or two because of improper gluing I recommend using a very waterproof glue. There are suppliers that sell veneer that is paper thin that could be used for beautiful ply. Winged keels are generally found on high performance sailboats, if they are not prohibited by class rules.
Having heavily waxed the balsa-bulb immerses it in the plaster half way to the bulb center line. If the keel will be removable make certain the stub doesn't get keyed in and can't be removed from bellow the hull. Another reason for using a mast jack is to enable a skipper to set up the mast once and then move it without having re-align the rig.
Grommets in the corners are installed either with a seamstress tool or they could be ordered from Don Ginther at GBMY if he is still shipping, he was in the process of suspending operations.
If you buy a suit of sails order them to be made to the AMYA specifications for the S45 Class. Because the model is depicting a fishing boat, there would be no need for rams.[8] This model in particular has helped archaeologists understand that not all keel projections in depictions of boats during this time are necessarily rams. While a mistake involving an inverted trawling net may seem trivial, the lesson is important. I got introduced to the International Star Class while crewing on one in 1954 out of Quincy Yacht Club. While the outside dries off quickly the interior may stay wet if the skipper doesn't take steps to get the inside dried out.
Aircraft suppliers also offer thin basswood plywood (basswood being the hard core from the balsa tree). They are only of benefit for yachts sailing upwind where stability and the ability to produce side force are important. When deciding on the hatches for your model keep in mind access not only to radio and servos but also access to battery mounting locations. It is easy to prop the fin and trunk down into the hull from above and discover it can't be removed from the bottom when the deck is in place. The sails usually carry a 5 point "Star Emblem" at least 2 inches in size (measured from point to point across the flat of the star.
It is important for archaeologists to be aware of the possibility that ancient artists may not have been familiar with the finer details of ships and boats. Violete simply rolled up the plywood, wrapped it in brown shipping paper and sent it to me. Then he pulls out the balsa-plug covers the mold with (plastic) Saran wrap over places the waxed balsa-plug back in the mold. The hobby glue used for years on other models may weaken or part ruining the boat so choosing a glue or adhesive is an important decision.



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