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The sport of Landsailing is to move across land in a three-wheeled vehicle powered by the wind. The Landsailer you'll build with this kit is a scaled down version of a full scaled Landsailer or Yacht. You will notice that the speed of your vehicle will depend on the angle of your sail to the breeze.
Fitted the 26"wheels to aus230 for testing, Will be fitted to new yacht when it is completed.
The test on the wheels proved satisfactory, no signs of damage or stress to the rims, The yacht had a noticable gain in speed. They are hand brakes, I dont think they are all that efficent with the larger wheels, they work fine with wheel barrow wheels. A question I have pondered is:- If a land yacht had independant rear wheel brakes, could they improve turning in tacks and gybes or just make the rear end spin out??
Maybe this question will be resolved at the upcoming blokart nationals at Yeppoon, first weekend in March as many blokarts now have the front brake. At the sandgropers club, they use the rear brakes for turning all the time, on their surface it it lookss very effective and was the reasion that I fitted them to my yacht. With fully-faired racing recumbent trikes (HPVs) we have similar issues when the roll over at speed, particularly into corners. As an observation, you have put yours outside the triangle quite a lot with your seating position. Remember that the yacht is powered by a sail that applies a side load to the wheels ,which then roll forward in response.Ie it is not wheel driven. Big narrow wheels give lowered rolling resistance, BUT if stood upright would peel off the rim due to the side load, or the rims would fail, BUT having heavier tyres and rims would give a flywheel effect, ruining the acceleration benifits of really light wheels.
Landyachts ,in general have no suspension other than the flex of the tubes or axles( too heavy).The OTT style chassis(Over the top) compensates for this by having long flexible limbs that can ride out some serious bumps and dips. Many of the design features become un;neccessary on really smooth hard surfaces.Mind you these yacht on hard and smooth go scary fast!
One of the things to consider with this top end style yacht is that they need to be custom built for for each pilot, to get all the balances right. And thats why , when we worked on a simple design for the beginner that would still go like a rocket, we followed the example of the blokart and went small. Just a thought ( my observations only) on wheel angles (camber) when any wheel has any angle of camber it actually loads up the bearings in a twisting motion with the inner and outer bearings actually fighting each other. Have a look at the alignment with all 3 wheels on the gound then raise one of the rear wheels 500mm and then re check and i think you will find the wheel on the ground its alignment has moved outward a bit and the yacht will be infact be crabbing a little.
The only yacht i have done much sailing in that had castered wheels was a yacht called the "Rickshaw" many years ago at Mallala(It was a mini-mini with 20 inch bmx wheels and a 1.2m wheel base), i actually had to angle the wheels off true alignment to get the feel right.
The weight on the front wheel or lack of it may also be another major problem depending the surface you are on.
This project started on 02 Feb 2006 when I was 16 years old as a JC1 student in Raffles Junior College. Today for physics we were told of some building thing, which we have to build some land yacht.
Today I rebuilt a 2nd prototype for the physics land yacht with an improved chassis design, using a grand total of 4 satay sticks including the axle. Having got the land yacht design more or less finalized, I built the final model on 12 Feb 2006, and started working on the aesthetics and project report. Note that I replaced the front wheel with a skid, shifted the sail back, and added a flaming paper decal. I think it is possible to use some crafty method to make the yacht incredibly cheap and travel a medium distance, yet winning a the competition because of the loopholes in the calculation (distance traveled over cost or something like that). The first half of Physics practical was spent having a tutorial, before we proceeded to a room called Space 1 (I think) for the physics yacht testing.
In this project, we were faced with the challenge to design and build a land yacht, with size (to fit inside a paper ream box for 2500 sheets), material and construction (must be constructed inside the physics lab in 2 hours) limitations.
Materials provided are as follows: bamboo sticks, ice-cream sticks, light string, straws, super glue, scotch tape, sail material (plastic, paper, aluminium foil). In order to make a most efficient design, the chassis would have to be designed as efficiently as possible. Material choice of the chassis was limited to bamboo sticks, ice-cream sticks and straws.
Before designing the sail shape, research was done to find out how competition land yachts had their sail designed.
While sailing downwind, water yachts frequently deploy an extra sail specifically for use in downwind, called a Spinnaker. Material Choice of the sail was limited to aluminium foil, mahjong paper and plastic sheet.
Although in a general case scenario, a land yacht is supposed to be designed to move in constant uniform wind, not a strong but decaying wind from a fan. After experimenting with some designs, it was decided that a skid was to be used for the front of the vehicle instead of a wheel, because due to the nature of the design, (where the main body of the yacht is situated towards the back and the front consists solely of a long shaft,) the force exerted on the front end of the vehicle is low. Since the entire mainframe is made using bamboo sticks, one of the most important factors in ensuring frame rigidity and strength lies in the joining of the different structural members of the structure.
Wheels are very important as a perfect circle with a true centre is required for the smoothest possible travel.
Before the actual model was made, several test models were also built to find out if there were any major flaws in the design. Done by Gao Guangyan, Daniel Lo, Cheryl Quah and Nicole Quah of class 07S06R of Raffles Junior College, Singapore. The club is entered via a glazed atrium that frames views out over the harbour to the palace. The scheme also introduces shops and other amenities at quay level to animate the harbour.The lower floors accommodate a rowing club and sailing school, whose sliding doors encourage activities to spread out on to the quayside.
Nissan and Foster + Partners today revealed a fully connected vision of the future of mobility at the 86th International Motor Show in Geneva.
A gala was held in Palm Beach today on the occasion of the 75th anniversary of the Norton Museum of Art, which coincided with the groundbreaking ceremony for The New Norton. The groundbreaking of ICD Brookfield Place, a 1.5 million square foot office and retail development located in the Dubai International Financial Centre district (DIFC), was announced this week. We are delighted to have been short-listed for the refurbishment of the Palace of Westminster.

Foster + Partners New York’s design for a modular habitat on Mars has been shortlisted amongst 30 finalists for the 3D Printed Habitat Challenge organised by America Makes and NASA.
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With a cross-head screwdriver and a bit of help from mum or dad, you'll be able to make a Landsailer that's 65cm tall!
If slowing down before executing a turn is what is desired a front brake would logically seem to be the way to go as it will not cause imbalance.
Oe thing to consider isthat the CM of a human is the pelvis, as your legs weigh around half of your total mass, roughly. The final project report is reproduced below almost verbatim, and documents the project quite comprehensively.
Actually if it was to make an amphibian vehicle it would be a lot cooler, but no we are just doing it on land, which is not very exciting. I used a heavier simpler less efficient paper sail (temp) but it still performs mighty well. Although I had already worked on 3 models, the competition required us to build the actual yacht model at the physics lab in a specified time under specific conditions. Since we had planned it quite ok and I had built 3 models already, it was a rather easy task building it.
So if you happen to have not built it yet hopefully you won't try and copy the design because then it's not fun and not the point anyway right? After having heard of how the testing was like, I had quite low expectations for our craft, because it was designed exactly not for the competition (just a fan blowing at it), but rather as a real land yacht with constant wind. Most efficient use of the materials is important to reduce cost, and yet being beneficial to the performance characteristics of the entire vehicle.
After research, it was noticed that most designs were similar, with 3 main contact points – two rear wheels and a front wheel. Bamboo sticks were chosen for their exceptional material properties (light and strong), and material dimensions (they are long, hence does not require joining unlike ice-cream sticks). The mast was placed near the rear of the base, this provides greater stability compared to a yacht with the sail situated close to the front, because a much greater force would be needed to provide sufficient torque to tip the yacht over about its front end (which would act as the pivot point in that case). It resembles a parachute somewhat in both construction and appearance, and when deployed, it fills with wind and balloons out in front of the boat.
Hence unless a very efficient front wheel is used, it might not spin, thereby acting as a skid while increasing weight.
This was possible because our sail was to be made using paper, hence leftovers were used to make the paper tubes. Since the entire yacht design is very minimalist, there is very little of the structure to decorate, except the bamboo members of the frame, the sail and the wheels.
The structure is only as strong as the weakest link, which more often than not, is the weakest joint. An 85mm stick was glued perpendicular to one end of the stick at the middle, with two 105mm sticks originating 21mm from the end of the long stick, acting as the main lateral supporting structure. Due to the low weight of the vehicle, yet large sail area, the craft was able to catch a lot of wind (force) and because F=ma and m is very small, the resultant acceleration for our vehicle was great, and also lead to a high velocity because v = u + at. Celebrating the principality’s spectacular coastline and its nautical heritage, its series of deck-like terraces that step up along the harbour to offer unrivalled views out to races at sea, or inland over the course of the renowned Formula 1 Grand Prix circuit.
On the first floor are a clubroom, bar and restaurantAbove is a double-height function space, and above that an apartment for the club secretary and a series of ‘cabins’ for visiting guests. Designed largely for children, the school provides classrooms, workshops and lofts for small boats.
Bloomberg hosted the topping out ceremony of Bloomberg’s new European headquarters in the City of London today, located between the Bank of England and St Paul’s Cathedral.
Looking at yours I first thought they were a dig in the ground type but seemed to be the wrong way round.
What we have learned through 10 years of racing, is that the CM must be at the centroid of the triangle between the wheel hubs, for optimum stability and forward drive. I know the sail is involved in changing the rolling moment, and contributes to moving the CM as you heel over, but to me you need to move your body shell forward quite a way. Penetrating power is not exactly very good for ours but I tried to minimize it by using an effective sail shape (hopefully). The main performance will be characterized by 3 main techniques (competition): Distance [distance traveled when propelled by a fan], Distance per cost [cost effectiveness, since we will need to 'buy' the materials], and Aesthetics. The chassis had to be made as rigid as possible – flexing is detrimental as energy would be spent flexing the members instead of accelerating the vehicle. A well designed sail can accelerate a vehicle to almost three times the speed of the wind due to an airfoil shape which creates a low pressure at the front of the sail. One main difference when compared to a normal sail is that a spinnaker is a type of airfoil and does generate lift. Hence paper was chosen as it was the lightest per surface area, cheapest, and easy to decorate (aesthetics). Wheels were made using a thin but stiff laminated wood sheet, which exhibited excellent rigidity yet being light and strong. The name of the yacht was decided to be A Certain Shade of Red, with primary colours being black and red. The adhesive material of choice is Cyanoacrylate superglue, which is a strong acrylic resin. A 255mm bamboo stick was glued 31mm from the end of the long stick at a 63 degree angle, supported from the sides via two 70mm sticks. Three triangles (refer to scale drawings below) were cut out, and the paper folded and then taped together, to form a curvature. The building is located on an area of reclaimed land, which extends the city’s existing marina eastwards and can accommodate a range of craft, from sailing boats to 100-metre super yachts.
I didn't have enough red ink so in the end I ended up with this paint scheme which I think looks reasonable ok. The test floor was also much rougher than I expected, but in the end, I think it did quite ok and went more than twice of my expected, which is good.
Hence the use of triangulation was used extensively in the minimal frame, resulting in a very strong, rigid yet lightweight frame. Most land speed record sails were rigid, thin and high, and were most efficient in constant strong wind. With the same net force acting on a lighter craft, there is greater acceleration, and speed is enhanced.

In order to better satisfy the greater distance performance test, drag of the sail was designed to be minimal.
Having lightweight wheels is especially important because the weight of the wheel has to be accelerated both forward and around its centre. Furthermore, it was difficult to construct brackets to support the front bearings without adding significant weight, which will increase weight and construction time]. In order to create maximum bond strength, contact surfaces were cut to have a maximum flat area (such as joining at angles, whereby the ends of each bamboo stick are cut to the exact angles to ensure a flat bonding surface), and hence maximum area for the glue to bond.
The main axle was a 198mm stick which was affixed to the ends of the lateral supporting limbs using a bit of tape and superglue, via paper bearings.
As few cuts were done as possible to reduce weight gain, as taping the edges together requires more tape. The simple symmetrical design also contributed to the fact that the vehicle travels straight. The observation decks are shaded by retractable fabric screens supported by a mast and booms.
Bounded on one side by the club’s restaurant terrace and leading on the other side to a new exhibition hall, it complements the sequence of green spaces in this densely populated city and forms a new link in the pedestrian route between the quayside and Casino Square.
For one they tell you not to make your own wheel holes (they provide some white bottle caps) because they think a whole group of the smartest 16 and 17 + year olds in the country can't safely handle Basic machining tools like drills, and cannot drill holes properly. The second advantage is that once the craft decelerates from drag of the sail, the design will case a rotation about the main axle and hence reduce force on the skid, hence reducing friction.
Wasn't disappointed in that (8+m, versus 11+ which some others acheived), but was slightly disappointed that I didn't actually consider how the testing would be like and designed the craft for the competition itself (but it's not exactly the point). Nike got a commendation prize, and A Certain Shade of Red got Best Design and Report prize of $200! However, these required precise sail shaping and acceleration was slow (though with high top speed).
The second advantage is that once the craft decelerates from drag of the sail, the design will cause a rotation about the main axle and hence reduce force on the skid and reducing friction. One advantage of the sail being made of paper allows it to be easily coloured using markers instead of paint, which is heavier. Although time consuming, it proved to be an important factor in ensuring greater structural strength. The complete craft, including the axle, required 936mm of bamboo stick, or roughly 3.7 stick lengths (each 10 inches), which is very economical (sticks come in packs of 5). Sandpaper was then used to grind the wheel down until it was as perfectly round as possible.
The harbour elevations are fully glazed and shaded by louvres, and can be opened up to provide uninterrupted views. Once you get a rolling moment established, you look like you are 'falling out the back of the machine'.
Anyway, it's wiser to drill a hole first than to make a wheel, because that's what people mostly do, even with CNC'ed wheels! Anyway, we spent a whole lot of money (800) though we had a quite a bit of extras leftover. But anyway, I'm happy with the design (though less than ideal) and the aesthetics (which we spent quite a bit of time doing).
In order to maximize efficiency, the chassis was designed to fit just under the size limit. A red black and white flame scheme was then applied using markers to the white sail with good results, yet not significantly increasing weight.
This results in a very lightweight craft (efficient) and economical, satisfying two of our goals. The top of the sail was taped and glued to the top of the mast, while the other two edges were connected to the ends of the lateral limbs, near the wheel bearings. And do you really trust the lab people to drill accurate holes (they have to, after all drill hundreds of holes dead centre of circles)?
But now I do have some great plans on how to make a very good craft that would efficiently perform in that competition setting. In order for the craft to be stable, its base area was designed to be as large as possible.
Hence most spinnakers have extreme amounts of camber, making them nearly hemispherical in form.
The hole was then subsequently enlarged using a pointy grinding bit to fit on the axle tightly. Hence the main axle length was made to be 20cm long, with the 3rd point as far away as possible from the rear axle.
The large camber maximizes the low pressure on the downwind side of the sail, generating the lift.
A vertical half-fold was made and further cuts and folds were made (refer to physical model), giving the sail curvature, resembling an air-foil. After some consideration, a minimalist design was created to be as strong as possible, yet using as little material as possible. In this way, drag is greatly reduced, as opposed to a sail with a full surface perpendicular to the wind. Taking force F to be drag, the resulting deceleration from drag (once the craft travels far from the fan) is also rather large.
Bearings were made by rolling up a 60 x 16mm wide strip of paper, which was first rubbed with a large amount of graphite from a pencil to act as a lubricant. To solve this problem the entire yacht could be made heavier, but then initial acceleration will be affected. However in normal land yachting, wind is supposed to be kept constant, and not like a table fan, whereby the wind decreases away from the fan. The skid was made using a small bamboo stick triangle, with a strip of bamboo acting as the main skid.

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