Pontoon boat rental gulf shores 36542

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This is a private listing and your identity will not be disclosed to anyone except the seller. Description: During the thirty years after Columbusa€™ first voyage, the Spanish, British, and Portuguese were actively exploring the New World. In Lyon a well-entrenched enclave of Florentine bankers and merchants imported luxury goods from the Orient. The solution was to search for a sea passage that allowed its discoverer to control trade with the Orient. These people go altogether naked except only that they cover their privy parts with certain skins of beasts like unto martens, which they fasten onto a narrow girdle made of grass, very artfully wrought, hanged about with tails of divers other beasts, which round about their bodies hang dangling down to their knees. After passing Cape Fear and Cape Lookout, Verrazzano sailed the long reaches outside the Outer Banks of North Carolina. The people are almost like unto the others, and clad with feather of fowls of diverse colors.
The Abnaki shot arrows at the French when they tried to land, but they could still conduct some meager trade through baskets, let down on a line from cliffs at the shore by the Indians. They returned to Dieppe six months later after a fast Atlantic crossing, reaching Dieppe on 8 July after an extraordinary cruise that changed the maps of America and affected the direction of exploration for decades to come. The original of this map, about 102 by 51 inches, a sea chart of the world on parchment, much faded and stained, is in the Museo Borgia, Propaganda Fide, Rome.
The large reproduction (approximately same scale as the original), entitled Verrazano Map, 1529, is from a photographic copy of the original made for E. The Atlantic coastline of this map, which extends northeastward as far as Labrador, is of the Sevillan type (so called because the first maps of this type were made at Seville), and the Pacific coastline is of the type of the Maggiolo Map (#340). The most dramatic feature of the Verrazzano map is this vast nonexistent protuberance of the Pacific Ocean that appeared as the Sea of Verrazzano on maps and globes over the next sixty years. This concept was taken up by various cartographers back in Europe and, subsequently, a great indentation along the western coast of America starting just north of California was a common characteristic of many early maps of the continent. Wishful thinking no doubt impelled Verrazzano to place this enormous waterway in the middle of North America, contained on the east by the narrow isthmus of the Carolina Outer Banks. The Verrazzano brothers, Giovanni the explorer and Gerolamo [Hyeronimus] the mapmaker, combined to create an image that persisted to the end of the century. On Giovannia€™s third voyage in 1528, while searching for a strait through Panama to the Southern Ocean, he again crossed the Atlantic (exploration and the cutting of logwood being the joint goals of the expedition), landing in Florida, then following the chain of the lesser Antilles. The coastal nomenclature given by Verrazzano differs from the Ribero (Sevillan) type (#346) and, unlike his Sea of Verrazzano, was not widely followed by later cartographers. The Strait of Magellan is indicated but not named, to the south of which stretches an extensive but nameless continent. The map is large enough that, unlike other maps of the period, does not avoid the issue of the areas north and south of Eurasia and the New World. This is part of a large undated, unsigned manuscript map, oriented with South at the top, approximately 4 x 8 feet, which derives its name from a former owner, Edward Harley, Earl of Oxford. Detail: North America from the Harleian map, 1547 showing the mythical (unnamed) Sea of Verrazano, the St. Description:A  During the thirty years after Columbusa€™ first voyage, the Spanish, British, and Portuguese were actively exploring the New World. The most dramatic feature of the Verrazzano map is this vast nonexistent protuberance of the Pacific Ocean that appeared as the Sea of Verrazzano on maps and globes over the next sixty years.A  This now famous western sea that bisects present-day North America has no name or inscription actually on the Verrazano map itself, nor is it mentioned in Giovannia€™s letter to King Francis I.
The coastal nomenclature given by Verrazzano differs from the Ribero (Sevillan) type (#346) and, unlike his Sea of Verrazzano, was not widely followed by later cartographers.A  The cartographer has introduced the name Norumbega (here, in the form Noranbega, applied to a river), by which the New England region was known throughout the 16th century.
The map is large enough that, unlike other maps of the period, does not avoid the issue of the areas north and south of Eurasia and the New World.A  The mapmaker clearly believed that Asia was separate from the new discoveries. Description: Magellana€™s ship returned to Spain after a grueling sea voyage that claimed his life. This globe, which is 18 cm in diameter, is presented on a separate hand-turned wooden base. Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521) was born to a minor Portuguese noble family in 1480 and by the age of 12 had become a pageboy to his Queen, at the Court of King John II. On the Moluccan expedition of 1511, Magellana€™s friend, Francisco Serrao had been shipwrecked and had taken refuge on the island of Ternate where, despite later voyages there by the Portuguese, he had chosen to remain. The five ships, San Antonio, Trinidad, Concepcion, Victoria and Santiago were all small, (none above 130 tons), old and somewhat the worse for wear. Also on board was a Venetian, Antonio Pigafetta, a Papal Ambassador at the court of King Charles. On September 20, 1519 the flotilla of five ships finally sailed off into the Atlantic heading first for the Canaries and then onto South America. The threat of mutiny by his Spanish captains was also a constant source of concern and he was forced to arrest de Coca for conspiring to release Cartagena from his confinement on the Victoria. By March 31st 1520 they had reached 49 degrees 15a€™ South, but the ships were taking such a heavy battering in the worsening climate that Magellan put into a sheltered bay named St Julian to wait out the rest of the Southern winter and to make good all the vital repairs that the different ships needed. However Magellan could not afford to lose such a large number of his company and so he pardoned the lot; they were put to work, chained by the feet, working the pumps, clearing the putrid bilges and undertaking other menial hard labor.
The winter in Patagonia was extremely hard and life very uncomfortable for the crew who had to refit the ships for the voyage ahead. After a two-month stay and unknowingly within 300 miles of it, on 18th October they set off in search of the passage. The San Antonio, was carrying the bulk of the fleeta€™s provisions, had a Portuguese pilot Gomes who was both jealous and disaffected with Magellana€™s command and together with the fleeta€™s treasurer Guerra they took control of the ship from the Captain Mesquita. It is interesting to note that whilst Magellan had always made every attempt to save or rescue his crew when abandoned, the San Antonio made no effort to retrieve the marooned Cartagena at St Julian.
Pigafetta describes, a€?We ate biscuit that was no longer biscuit but powder of biscuits swarming with worms that had eaten the good. On February 28th they had reached 13A? North and sailing west arrived at the island of Guam (having passed by unnoticed the Marshall Islands). Although the crew were refreshed by new supplies of water, fruit and fish a longer rest was needed before any possible encounter with the Portuguese and so sailing southwest the four ships arrived a week later at the island of Samur in the Philippines.
However there was provision in the Treaty of Tordesillias for discovered unclaimed territory in either half to belong to the discoverer if he could establish trading ports and conclude alliances with the local rulers.
Striking up another friendship with the local native Chief, Magellana€™s fleet was taken on to the larger island of Cebu, where once again Magellan not only became the local rulera€™s (Humabon) blood brother and established trading agreements but also converted him and two thousand of his people to Christianity.
Learning that Humabon had several rivals to the rulership of Cebu, Magellan forced other local chiefs to accept Humabona€™s authority.
Albo who had been keeping his navigational log since first crossing the Atlantic was able to confirm that the Moluccas were placed in the Portuguese hemisphere. The two ships laden with their cargoes prepared to leave for Spain on December 18th, but almost immediately the Trinidad sprung such a bad leak that she was forced to remain to carry out extensive repairs.
It is interesting to note that while on the Cape Verde Islands they had discovered that although all the logs on the boat showed that it was a Wednesday, the calendars on land all showed it to be a Thursday. Cano was received as a hero and, at an enquiry set up into the voyage, condemned Magellana€™s unfairness, thereby lending weight to the arguments of the deserters of the San Antonio.
Meanwhile the crew of the Trinidad under Espinosa had embarked on an equally hazardous and grueling voyage trying to re-cross the Pacific from west to east.
The work Magellan had done in the Philippines eventually paid off, as the islands became Spaina€™s largest Pacific colony lasting almost until the 20th Century.
Description:A  Magellana€™s ship returned to Spain after a grueling sea voyage that claimed his life. By clicking Confirm bid you commit to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder.
Import charges previously quoted are subject to change if you increase you maximum bid amount. France, however, the fourth European maritime nation, remained uncharacteristically quiet regarding overseas exploration until 1523 when an Italian brought the French flag to North America.
They knew the traditional overland routes of European trade with Asia through the Levant could not bear the competition of Portuguese imports coming by sea around the Cape of Good Hope. A group of powerful and wealthy Florentine Lyonnaise agreed to sponsor a voyage westward in search of a route to Cathay [China]. Verrazano had been provided with four ships, but two of them shipwrecked shortly after depart, while a third one was sent home carrying the prizes from privateering on the Spanish coast, so only the flagship La Dauphine actually made the crossing of the Atlantic. He sighted Cape Hatteras and continued northward, traveling the 150 miles around Pamlico and Albemarle Sounds. They came towards us very cheerfully, making great shouts of admiration, showing us where we might come to land most safely with our boat.
Because the natives were very friendly, for once he decided to break his habit and anchor near the coast. What displeased the French even more were the Abnakia€™s disdainful manners when the Europeans left, such as exhibiting their bare behinds and laughing inmoderately.
This is the first Italian map on which the designation a€?Americaa€? appears on the northern part of South America. The name of the author of this map is found in the inscription at the top: Hycronimus de Verrazano faciebat.
Even in the 1670s, when John Lederer made his famous explorations of Virginia and North Carolina, most colonial settlers believed that the Western Sea was only about 10 or 15 days inland from the coast. It must have been the same motivation that caused European mapmakers to accept this delineation for many years. In 1527 his men mutinied and ordered him to return to France, but Verrazano, using their incompetence in navigation, nonetheless reached Brazil, cut logwood (a red dye wood then named brazil wood) and his backers made good profit from it.
On one of the islands (probably Guadeloupe) his habit of anchoring away from the shore became fatal. It is worthy of notice that the latitudes given in a column on the map, just west of Africa, are inaccurate and do not correspond with the two latitudes mentioned in the letter sent by Giovanni da Verrazzano describing his voyage.
This inscription is particularly important as it records the opinion prevalent in 1579 that the landfall of the Cabots was far to the north in Labrador. Sailing along North Carolinaa€™s Outer Banks in 1524, Verrazano saw the sound on the eastern side of the isthmus and postulated that it must be the Pacific. An early spring snowfall had dumped 2 feet of wet snow on Irish Hill making the going tough, but as founder of the cemetery Mary had been there many times before. As seen below, Hans Holbein used this globe as reference for the small terrestrial globe in his famous masterpiece painting entitled The Ambassadors.
Like many of the younger Portuguese nobility he received his education at Court and could look forward to a military command, a diplomatic post or an administrative position in Portugal or her colonies. He had sent letters back to Portugal extolling the riches of the islands and urging Magellan to visit him. They all needed extensive repairs and renovation to make them seaworthy for such a voyage much to the amusement of Alvarez the Portuguese agent in Spain. Whether he was on board out of a sense for adventure, or on behalf of the Pope should any dispute arise over whose half the Spice Islands were in, or as a spy for his native Venice is unclear. However, the course taken south went along the Coast of Africa until Sierra Leone and then went across the Atlantic was both extremely long and hazardous being susceptible to extreme changes in the wind and weather. Because they were technically moored in a Portuguese colony, albeit one that had not established a proper trading post, they sought to leave as soon as they had recuperated and by December 26th they were sailing out of Guanabara Bay and heading south. In order to survive the winter and still have enough provisions to continue the search, Magellan cut the daily rations in half much to the annoyance of his crew. Capatins Quesada and Cartagena on the Concepcion, Captain Mendoza of the Victoria and the master of the Concepcion del Cano with other Officers plotted to overthrow Magellan and return to Spain. Of the ringleaders, Mendoza had already been killed by Espinosa on the retaking of the Victoria, but was still taken ashore, decapitated and quartered. Their rations had been cut by half and there was little wild food locally apart from mussels.
Three days later they had reached the Cape of the Virgins (named by Magellan) and Magellan instructed the Concepcion and the San Antonio to investigate a small inlet at the far side of the bay sided by high peaks. Persuading the rest of the crew that Magellan was leading them all to certain doom and starvation they retraced their route to the South Atlantic and straight home to Spain, where, despite Mesquitaa€™s testimony, their tales of Magellana€™s injustice were believed. It was now of paramount importance to Magellan that he succeeded in his mission, as he knew the consequences he must face if he returned to Spain unsuccessful after the San Antonio told her story. From the logs and journals available Magellana€™s course had taken him across the Pacific missing out every one of the large South Sea Island groups.
They settled on the smaller island of Homonhon where they were visited by friendly natives who brought them fresh food, spices, and wine. Sailing on they arrived at the small island of Limosawa where to the delight of all parties concerned, Magellana€™s Malay slave Enrique was able not only to understand the natives but also to be understood himself.
It was clear that Magellan had plans for Humabon and Cebu to become the central base for subsequent Spanish exploitation of the Philippines.
However one, Lapulapu, refused and Magellan personally took charge of a force of both Spanish and natives to subjugate him. Carvalho assumed command, and owing to the loss of manpower to crew three ships, the Concepcion the least seaworthy of the three was scuttled and burnt. This did not deter the Spanish, however, because the local feeling was strongly anti-Portuguese and with the help of a disaffected Portuguese trader called Larosa, a treaty of alliance was concluded with the Rajah of Tidore. Thus the Victoria under the command of Cano finally left on her own on December 21st and by sailing southwest to Timor and through the Timor Sea into the Indian Ocean she took a fluctuating course due west two degrees either side of 40 degree parallel. At first they puzzled over the mistake they thought they had made before eventually realizing that by traveling a 360-degree circumference of the globe they had lost a day. It was not until much later when other crewmembers accounts, including Pigafettaa€™s, became known that Magellana€™s reputation was restored. Departing Tidore on April 6, 1522 after having made the necessary repairs they sailed north east, but lacking knowledge of the northern Pacifica€™s wind system they struggled up to the 44 degree parallel just off the Japanese coast still hoping to get some westerly winds. Although he had died in the Philippines, it is to Magellan that the credit for the voyage belongs. Magellana€™s route, particularly through the straits named after him was attempted many times in expeditions that followed his but with little success. If you reside in an EU member state besides UK, import VAT on this purchase is not recoverable. Furthermore, if Spain reached the Far East by sailing directly westward to China, the Florentine merchants at Lyon would lose their trade altogether.
They engaged Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine pilot, to lead the enterprise, but needed the authorization of the King of France, Francois I, who had been occupied in regional warfare and in developing a brilliant court, found his treasury in need of immediate funds.


Of the crew of 50, the only one who is known apart from Verrazzano himself was his brother Girolamo da Verrazzano, who was a mapmaker. The people are of a color russet, and not much unlike the Saracens; their hair black, thick, and not very long, which they tie together in a knot behind, and wear it like a tail.
The large body of water inside the Outer Banks was visible from the ship but no inlet was found. We entered up the said river into the land about half a league, where it made a most pleasant lake [the Upper Bay] about three leagues in compass; on the which they rowed from the one side to the other, to the number of 30 in their small boats, wherein were many people, which passed from one shore to the other to come and see us. These Wampanoags showed him an even better sheltered harbor, present day Newport, and Verrazano stayed there for two weeks, waiting for better weather conditions.
Their food, as far as we could perceive, often entering their dwellings, we suppose to be obtained by hunting and fishing, and of certain fruits, a kind of wild root. Stevenson, Maps Illustrating Early Discovery and Exploration in America, 1502-1530, New Brunswick, 1903-1906, map No. On latter 16th century maps such as Michael Loka€™s in 1582 (#419), it is called Mare de Verrazana 1524. Richard Hakluyt, Elizabethan propagandist and promoter of British overseas enterprise, included a map based on Verrazzanoa€™s in his influential Divers Voyage, Touching Discoverie of America published in 1582. Giovanni was going ashore in a boat to greet the natives, wading the last part while the boat, with his brother, remained at sea.
The islands of Cuba, Haiti, and Jamaica are also incorrectly located north of the Tropic of Cancer.
The islands of Cuba, Haiti, and Jamaica are also incorrectly located north of the Tropic of Cancer.A  The Gulf of Mexico is too far north. Lawrence River shows the discoveries of Jacques Cartier on his second voyage of 1535; it may be based on Cartier's own map, now lost, of that expedition. One of the items made to commemorate this feat was a small terrestrial globe; it is possibly an early example of a commemorative souvenir. Because the exact longitude of the Moluccas was uncertain, Magellan thought that their far easterly position might bring them into the Spanish hemisphere as defined by the Treaty of Tordesillias of 1494. Alvarez did his utmost to sow seeds of doubt amongst Magellana€™s new backers, whilst gauging what potential threat they might pose to the Portuguese possessions overseas.
Whatever his reasons Pigafetta kept a detailed journal of the voyage, describing the weather, wildlife and indigenous people as well as the conditions the crew were forced to endure. Already there was talk of mutiny amongst the Spanish Officers who had plenty of experience in crossing the Atlantic. After two weeks the ships had reached Cape St Mary where Magellan is reputed to have said of the large hill behind the Cape a€?I see a mountaina€? [Montem Video] thereby naming the place where Uruguaya€™s capital city now stands. His determination to find a southwestern passage was fuelled by the knowledge that should he fail he faced the choice between a return to Spain in disgrace and with little prospect of further backing, or risking sailing east, south of the Cape of Good Hope, away from the Portuguese shipping lines and onto the Spice Islands. To this end they boarded the San Antonio and took command, so that when Magellan awoke the following morning he found that only his own ship the Trinidad along with the smaller Santiago were still loyal to him. After an anxious wait of five days the two ships returned with the news that the inlet was not a river but a strait leading into a bay followed by another Strait leading into an even larger bay. On November 28, 1520 after spending 36 days in the a€?Magellana€™ Straits the three remaining ships entered what Magellan called the Mar Pacifico. Rats were sold for half a ducat each and even so we could not always get them.a€? Magellan realized that if they were approaching the Moluccas they had to find a place to harbor soon, so that the crew could recover before sailing too close to the dangers of Portuguese waters where he knew he might be challenged. Although Enrique was thought to have originally come from Sumatra it was quite possible that he was already a captured slave by then and it has been suggested that only someone from the Central Philippines could have understood the dialect.
The crews were refreshed by the abundance of good food and water and were also able to indulge in their favorite pastime of rampant sexual liaisons with the women of Cebu. Whether his success as a great Christian warrior and leader had clouded his judgment or whether he just underestimated the opposition, the fact was the campaign was a disaster and brought about Magellana€™s death.
There followed six months of meandering around the Philippines and Brunei, most of it spent searching out fresh supplies.
In fact the Portuguese had apparently been awaiting Magellana€™s ships from the onset of the voyage with two squadrons of warships.
The journey turned out to be a nightmare, probably worse than the crossing of the Pacific as the crew were forced to do arduous work on the pumps to combat the appalling leaks, all on rations of just rice and water as the meat and other fresh produce had spoilt through lack of salt or any other preservative. But with inadequate provisions, a broken main mast and a crew succumbing to scurvy they were forced to retreat south, finally surrendering to a Portuguese force that had been sent to the Moluccas.
He had found the western route to the east and had achieved what Columbus had tried and failed to do.
Yet despite the overt goals of the expedition being a failure, Magellana€™s personal goal of finding a western route to the east and the knowledge of the globe resulting from that was one of mankinda€™s greatest successes. His 1529 world map was one of the two first maps to show Verrazanoa€™s discoveries (the other was Vesconte de Maggioloa€™s 1527 map of the western hemisphere, #340. Verrazano believed that the sea that lay behind it, in reality Pamlico Sound, was the Pacific. Sailing further north, he missed the entrances to Chesapeake and Delaware bays, because until New Jersey he kept quite far from the coast.
And behold, upon the sudden (as it is wont to fall out in sailing) a contrary flaw of wind coming from the sea, we were enforced to return to our ship, leaving this land, to our great discontentment for the great commodity and pleasantness thereof, which we suppose is not without some riches, all the hills showing mineral matters in them. The degrees of latitude are along a line passing through the Canary Islands, which may have been intended for a prime meridian. The relative excellence of the delineation of the region of the Isthmus of Panama is worthy of note.
Few geographical errors so confused the minds of explorers and mapmakers for a century as this belief in the nearness of the Western Sea (see also #340, 351, 357, 367, 371, 373, 377, #418; maps by Maiollo, Sebastian MA?nster, Battista Agnes, the Ulpus Globe, the Harleran, Baillya€™s Globe, the Wooden Globe, the single cordiform mappamundi of FinA¦us, Jacques Le Moyne, Michael Lok, Dr. Sir Walter Raleigha€™s colony at Roanoke was established on an island in Pamlico Sound presumably because it would be a strategic location on the main route to Cathay when the passage was discovered. Unfortunately, the natives were not a friendly tribe that wanted to trade, but cannibalistic Caribs.
The eastern coast of North America trends too much to the northeast, as on most all early maps. She knew it was a fine line between spinning out and reaching the summit.  Tiffani Jones (name changed) was being buried today. After seven years of distinguished service in India, Malacca (Malaysian peninsula) and the Moluccas (Spice Islands) he returned to Portugal but received little recognition from his King, Manuel I, and no increase in his pension. His plan was to sail west and like Columbus before him to try and find the western route to the east and the Spice Islands.
Satisfied that they were as poorly armed as they were fitted, Alvarez thought Portuguese interests might be best served by an opportunist attack on them if they should stray anywhere near Portuguese colonial interests.
Throughout the voyage his admiration for Magellan, for his command and character is displayed on every page.
Magellan knew this route was well known for its unpredictable weather and that most ships tried to avoid it, but he was anxious to negate any Portuguese attempts to intercept and destroy his expedition and despite the misgivings of some of his Spanish officers refused to jeopardize his mission by altering his course.
They explored the estuary of the River Plate, ruling out any possible channel and then continued South with the weather growing increasingly colder, the terrain bleaker and the seas rougher before stopping briefly at Bahia de los Patos (literally Ducksa€™ Bay) named after the abundant penguins found there. This latter option meant the possibility of being intercepted by the Portuguese that would have caused his sponsor the King of Spain great embarrassment and would have further damaged his reputation at both courts. The three mutineersa€™ ships gave them a firepower advantage of two to one and if they had moved with the same decisiveness as Magellan they would have without doubt succeeded.
Cano was spared and put in chains in the bilges with the other mutineers and Cartagena who had been a perpetual thorn in Magellana€™s side for the whole expedition was also spared but later was left marooned along with a priest on the desolate coast when the ships finally departed.
Pigafetta made copious notes of the region that Magellan had called Patagonia because the natives had such large feet encased in big leather boots (Patagonia means large foot in Spanish). Magellan with greatly diminished stores now made the almost fatal mistake of not seeking out new provisions for the journey across the Pacific.
Unfortunately his knowledge of this part of the world was based on third hand travelersa€™ and merchantsa€™ tales and having come from an easterly direction he was not at all sure of the geography, believing that he was quite near the Japanese coast. Both crew and ships were barely functional by the time they reached Guam, but the crew was too ill or weak to consider mutiny and tended to optimism in Magellana€™s belief that they had reached the northern edge of the Molucca archipelago. If this was so it means that Enrique, a humble Philippine slave was the first man to have circumnavigated the globe. Pigafettaa€™s journal interestingly notes that the men of Cebu pierced their penises with gold or tin bolts that often had small spurs attached to either end. Unable to use the firepower of his ships because of an outlying reef, Magellana€™s men were overwhelmed by superior numbers, and although his own personal resolution and bravery ensured that the majority of his men were able to escape, he himself was cut down and killed on April 27, 1521. On September 21st after fleeing Brunei Carvallho who had never received the full confidence of his crew, and who stood accused of unnecessarily abandoning crew members in tricky situations was deposed as commander being replaced by Espinosa, with Cano the former mutineer, being made Captain of the Victoria.
One Squadron had been sent to the Cape of Good Hope should he strike east for the Moluccas, the other to the estuary of the River Plate should he attempt to find the western passage. With the crew on the verge of mutiny and in extremely harsh conditions the Cape of Good Hope was eventually rounded on May 19, 1522, but the Victoria was badly damaged and 21 of her Crew were to die from starvation, disease or exhaustion between the Cape and the Cape Verde Islands. Of the 54 Europeans who set off from Tidore only 21 survived, the rest were imprisoned, and only four of them, including Espinosa ever made it back to Spain.
Magellana€™s voyage had given the world its known dimensions, although it would take another three centuries to fill in all the gaps. A mendacious campaign was mounted that the whole route had been a sham, so difficult was it proving to replicate, that the true worth of his seamanship was recognized.
Francois had no inhibitions over poaching on the Portuguese or Spanish preserve; in fact, he was incensed at the arrangement between those two nations and at the Pope who had divided the world between them.
Thus North America at this point seemed nothing more than a rather long, extremely narrow isthmus. Verrazano next discovered New York harbor, and anchored in the Narrows, later named after him and now spanned by the Verrazano Narrows Bridge. The delineation of Verrazanoa€™s discoveries is one of the most important features of the map. They expertly killed Giovanni and ate him while still fresh, under the eyes of his brother. Lawrence too small; thus indicating that possibly the maps from which they were drawn may have been of different scales. None of the original globes have survived to the present day, and only one set of unmounted gores has survived. Worse still he had put all his savings into backing a scheme by a Portuguese trader to ship pepper from India to Portugal. This expedition he hoped would ensure his financial security as well as bringing him the fame and recognition he felt was long overdue. His interference in Magellana€™s preparations led to Spanish misgivings over the number of Portuguese members of the proposed crews and in the end only 37 of the 270 odd crew were Portuguese with three of the five captains of the individual ships being Spanish. Two other important members of the company were Albo, a Greek pilot who kept a detailed navigational log from the first sighting of the Brazilian Coast until the sighting of Cape Vincent on the return (November 29th 1519 to September 4, 1522) and San Martin an astrologer and astronomer who made calculations on the exact point of longitude the ships had reached; he was also the most accomplished pilot at celestial navigation amongst Magellana€™s crew.
The Spanish Captains, Castilians of high birth considered themselves more knowledgeable and it wasna€™t long before there was open insubordin-ation resulting in the replacement of Cartogena as the Captain of the San Antonio with another Spaniard, Antonio de Coca. The penguins along with sea lions provided the necessary fresh food supplies and after sheltering from tremendous storms they continued southwards. In a resolute speech to his men, he promised them the paradise of the Moluccas if they would honor their commitment, trust his leadership and behave accordingly.
However, the mutineers were unable to coordinate their efforts or win the total loyalty of their crews and as a result suffered the consequences. In fact two of the native men were captured to be taken back as presents for the King, but neither survived the journey. Carefully sounding their way through the straits they reached Cape Valentine where Magellan sent the San Antonio to investigate the southeast channel whilst taking the other three ships southwest in what was proved to be the right direction. He still believed that the distance to the Moluccas was not much more than the length of the Mediterranean and therefore it was prudent to push on as speedily as possible. Magellan was able to re-supply the ships, but constant thieving by the natives including one of the longboats from the Trinidad forced him to use a raiding party that killed seven natives and wounded several others.
From measurements made by both Albo and San Martin it became apparent that the expedition had passed beyond the Spanish hemisphere and had already entered the Portuguese domain.
Females from the age of six upwards progressively had their vaginas opened and enlarged to accommodate these penis appendages.
The invulnerability of the Spanish had been destroyed and with it Humabona€™s faith in them. Finally on November 8, 1521 the two ships sailed into the harbor of Tidore to a warm welcome.
When both failed to locate Magellan, the Indian fleet had been alerted and a small force had been sent to the Moluccas.
Desperate to get fresh food and also slaves to man the pumps Cano was forced to take the huge risk of putting into the Portuguese Cape Verde Islands. Larosa, the Portuguese trader who had opted to return with the Trinidad rather than the Victoria was beheaded as a traitor. First the Portuguese with established bases in Southern Africa, India and Malaya were in a far better position to exploit the Moluccas that were after all proven to be in their hemisphere. Lesser men would have failed and indeed did so, but Magellan was a genuine leader, he had a determined self-belief allied with a stubborn nature that belied his romantic notion of heroism and honor. As this area appeared impenetrable, they proceeded northeasterly in their search for the passage through to the Orient. This mistake led mapmakers, starting with Maggiolo and Girolamo, to show North America as almost completely divided in two, the two parts just connected by a narrow piece of land on the east coast. The coastline of Africa and of India reveals a surprising knowledge of the Portuguese discoveries.
The older assumption that the central figure in the group below the river is an actual portrait of Cartier is now disputed. The merchant had subsequently died and his father had fled the country to escape his sona€™s creditors.
To this end he began to study all the maps, pilots logs, charts and journals he could obtain. The remainder of the various crews comprised of Greeks, Italians, French, Flemings, Africans, Spanish, an Englishman and Malays including Enrique, a slave from Malacca who Magellan had brought back to Portugal on his previous expedition East.
Most of the crew were probably won over by Magellana€™s stand but certainly not the Castilian Officers and Captains whose resentment of his single mindedness and inflexibility was still growing.
The Santiago was the first ship to be repaired and Magellan, eager to find the Western passage as soon as possible, sent her on an exploratory probe along the coast.
He kept the South American coastline in sight whilst heading north to about 30A? South before heading northwest and crossing the equator on Feb 13, 1521 at about 160-165A? W longitude, missing both the Tahitian and Marquesas Island groups, where they could have amply replenished their supplies and the crew could have recovered. Pigafetta recounts that when the natives were hit by crossbow bolts they were so astonished that they promptly pulled them out and as a result died from hemorrhaging. This was slightly awkward for Magellan as he had assured King Charles that the Moluccas lay just within the Spanish half.


Pigafetta confirms a fact that is hardly surprising by noting that the women of Cebu seemed to prefer Magellana€™s men as lovers rather than the locals.
At a subsequent banquet, Serrano and Barbosa, who had assumed joint command (along with a party of men that included San Martin), were ambushed and killed by Humabon.
They had hoped and expected to be met by Magellana€™s shipwrecked friend Serrao but he had died from poison some eight months before as a result of becoming too involved in local native politics (compare with Magellan).
This expedition had ended in disaster and death as they had antagonized the local Rajah with their treatment of the local women.
By pretending to be part of a Spanish fleet that had been blown off course in a storm whilst returning from the Americas they were able to harbor and negotiate for new supplies. The local rajah, with the arrival of the Portuguese force repudiated all the agreements and treaties he had made with the Spanish. Secondly, the Spanish American possessions that at first had seemed largely worthless were now, after Cortes Conquest of Mexico, proving to be abundant in gold and silver. Intensely proud of his nobility and his own worth, he could be tough when needed, humane and caring when circumstances warranted it and always courageous.
The inset, which omits many details, is from a map based on photographs of the original and published in H.
Previous encounters with cruel Spanish conquerors had obviously affected the Indiansa€™ protocols of hospitality. The coastline from Cape Briton to the south of Cape Cod is probably based upon a copy of the lost pardon generalA  of Alonso de Chaves, 1536. Mary was glad Tiffani was local -- from the hardscrabble village at the base of the hill -- because after five years, she was a little tired of Greensprings being seen as a groovy, hippie alternative to traditional burial. Magellan who had only a meager pension to live on was broke and so he volunteered for a Portuguese campaign against Morocco; where he again distinguished himself with his bravery. He knew that Columbus had failed to find a passage around the Central American coastline, that Cabot had likewise failed in the North, that the Florentine Amerigo Vespucci had possibly reached as far South as the River Plate estuary and Patagonia without encountering a passage and that Balboa had crossed the Panamanian Isthmus and seen a great ocean that was different to the Atlantic. Taking advantage of the mutineersa€™ attempts at negotiation he sent Espinosa, the Trinidada€™s loyal master of arms along with a disguised boarding party and retook the Victoria that same evening. Unfortunately 70 miles south near the Santa Cruz estuary a sudden gale drove her aground and she broke up, leaving the crew stranded. Both food and water were running out and what was left was rotten or putrid, so that the crew was suffering from malnutrition and scurvy.
This trouble with the natives caused Magellan to rename the islands, Islas le los Lodrones [Islands of Thieves]. Having journeyed all this way across the Pacific, losing 19 men through scurvy and suffering all manners of deprivation to find themselves already within territory reserved for Portuguese exploitation was a sever blow. Enrique, who had been promised his freedom should Magellan die and then found that Serrano would not honor this was probably instrumental in helping set up the trap. A few days before the two Spanish ships had arrived in Tidore, the survivors had fled back to Malacca without any knowledge of the Spanish ships imminent arrival. Carelessly one of the crewmembers used some cloves (that could only have come from the Portuguese Moluccas) as part of the transactions and when their ruse was discovered Cano was forced to put to sea immediately, thereby abandoning 13 of his crew (including Pigafetta). In 1529 Charles signed away any claims for the Moluccas that Spain had in return for 350,000 ducats at the Treaty of Saragossa. He always tried to deal fairly with the natives and his expedition while under his command carried out none of the atrocities that previous and future Colonials seemed to revel in. So strong was the hope among European merchants and sovereigns that a convenient passage be found connecting an easy sea route from Western Europe to the Spice Islands and Cathay, we find the cartographer of the Harleian map obliging this desire by going beyond previous representations by Maggiolo (#340) and Gerolamo da Verrazano of a false Verrazanian Sea. From all accounts Tiffani was a hard-drinking, hard-partying woman and many of her mourners were cut from that same cloth.
However he not only suffered a severe leg wound which caused him to limp for the rest of his life, he also, whilst in the position of Quartermaster suffered the unjust accusations of dishonesty, theft and treason. He became convinced that a southwestern route was there south of the River Plate, and the scientist, mapmaker and scholar Rui Faleiro, who thought that the likely passage was just below the 40 degree South latitude, shared this belief. They were also able to buy young native women from their fathers for the price of a hatchet or knife.
Two members trekked for eleven days back to San Julian to alert Magellan and an overland rescue party was organized.
Fortunately Pigafetta who relished banquets and parties was suffering from a head wound and did not attend.
Fortunately Espinosa managed to keep his own crew from their usual sexual indulgences and apart from signing treaties and purchasing a large cargo of cloves, he enjoyed an amicable relationship with the locals and their rulers.
Caro sailed on to Spain with a crew of only 18, arriving September 6, 1522 at the harbor of San Lucar, a circumnavigation of the Earth that had taken just two weeks under three years to complete.
When the Spanish later continued their exploration of the Pacific it was from their base in Panama. From his voyage the new humanists in Europe, the philosophers, scholars, scientists and artists were able to gain a truer understanding of their world and with this information continue to challenge the dogma and medieval beliefs that were still prevalent.
The Harleian map provides the belief that an actual strait had been discovered cutting through the north isthmus to the broad waters of an unnamed gulf recognizable as the aforementioned Verrazanian Sea (another false strait had appeared on earlier maps, farther to the south, on the Darien peninsula). They stood shivering in thin leather jackets pulled tight around their bodies while the wind blew, making it seem colder than 28 degrees. Magellan found the charges against him contemptuous and he rashly abandoned his post to return to Lisbon and clear his name. He also assured Magellan that the ocean Balboa had seen could not be more than a couple of thousand miles across and that the Spice Islands must therefore be in the Spanish half of the world as laid down by the Treaty of Tordesillias. Magellan allowed his crew some freedom and many of them set up a€?love nestsa€™ with their women on shore, but he still kept a firm discipline when it mattered - executing the shipa€™s master of the Victoria for sodomizing a young apprentice seaman.
It is not known for certain whether Magellan was instrumental in cutting loose the anchors of the San Antonio but the ship did indeed break loose of its anchorage and drifted broadside of the Trinidad enabling Magellan to board and recapture her.
It was not until August 24th with Santiagoa€™s crew redistributed amongst the four remaining ships and Serrano the a€?Santiagoa€™sa€™ captain, now installed as the Captain of the Concepcion that Magellan finally left the bay.
He had provided the answer to man's seemingly eternal quest to find the true shape and size of the Earth. The strait on this map carries the legend, Gofanto mer osto, which may be freely translated as a€?Gulf before [or leading to] the South Seaa€?.A  Another manuscript map, La Virgenia Pars, by John White in 1585, shows a similar strait (#370).
With his humiliation at the hands of the Portuguese King fresh in his mind, it was to Spain that Magellan now offered his knowledge and his services.
The Concepcion had no choice now but to surrender, so that within 48 hours the mutiny had taken place and been extinguished. They moved along the coast near to where the Santiago had been wrecked to a better winter anchorage in the estuary of the Santa Cruz where there were plenty of supplies of fish, seals and seabirds to replenish their stores.
Magellan returned to face trial and was cleared of all charges but his relationship with his King had deteriorated to such an extent that Manuel I refused all of Magellana€™s requests for financial recognition of his loyal service and told him that he could take his offers of service elsewhere.
This plan may have been encouraged by the news of Juan Diaz de Solisa€™ Spanish expedition of 1515 which had reached 35 degrees South before an exploratory landing party led by Solis himself had encountered death and disaster. This was the principle reason why Magellan came to sail around the world under the Spanish flag. They were attacked by hostile natives, slaughtered, butchered roasted and then eaten in view of the rest of the crew watching from the safety of their ships.
Although many of the crew had participated in the mutiny, forty were found guilty of treason and sentenced to death. The first time I saw the rocks I was with my daughter and I brought the car to a screeching halt and said, “Would you look at that!” There were about five or six little rock towers on the rocky verge of the road where the mall had dumped tons of rounded and semi-angular rocks about the size of my head.    As we drove on to the gym I posited my theory on who created them. The expedition was aborted but the news from the survivors back in Spain seemed to indicate that with the coastline bearing west at that point, a likely passage through to Balboaa€™s Ocean lay just South of that latitude. I was sure it was either someone who worked at the Borders bookstore coming in early or perhaps an Asian student who lived in an adjacent apartment complex. Magellana€™s plan interested the young Spanish monarch Charles I (later the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V) and a formal agreement was made between the two in March 1518, whereby Magellan was appointed Captain General of the proposed expedition, given five ships, and the prospective governorship of any new lands he might discover plus one fifth of the profits from the voyage.
My daughter thought the Asian comment was not politically correct and then we got into a long discussion about language and dropped the mystery of the rock towers. Since then, every time I drove to the gym I took the long way round the mall just so I could pass the rock towers. Sometimes there were none and I was surprised at how disappointed I was when that was the case. Often there were just one or two standing and I made it a habit to carry my camera so I could take pictures of them.
I tried to go early enough so that I wouldn’t have to contend with much traffic on the mall road because I wanted to take close-ups that faked you out and made you believe that these towers were set on the edge of a field or somewhere in nature. That meant squatting in the middle of the road and shooting them at a low angle and getting close enough so that the road, the culvert, and the highway beyond the little stand of trees wouldn’t be visible in the photograph. They were so perfect.
If they didn’t, they didn’t. And the ephemeral quality of the perched rocks was somehow thrilling. On the way to the gym I might see four towers, and on the way back, I’d see none. Ultimately it was the weird dichotomy of the rock towers and the implicit serenity set on the edge of a mall parking lot that really spoke to me. You’d expect to find something like this on a beach or maybe a river bed but a mall parking lot?
I also buy a new pen before a journey that I slip through the elasticized band that encircles the journal.
This is my traveling kit – one in which I make notes in longhand and draw sketches to illustrate what I’m seeing. Approaching the building a muffled thwack-thwack-thwack mechanical sound created by power looms can be heard. When the door is opened, the noise spills out along with the smell of fibers mixed with machine oil. Lawrence River leaves the confines of its banks and flows into the ocean, one of the biggest draws for me was the night train from Montreal to Gaspe. Trains have always held a fascination for me, drawing on some part deep inside that really wants to live in the 19th century (although I’m not so much of a sentimentalist that I don’t know that 19th century train travel also involved lots of soot and hard seats). (Click here to read more . The young man beside me with a modified mohawk and earlobe plugs thanked me for pushing some hot air his way. At that moment, the SufferJets were skating two players down because jammer Sarabellum and blocker S---- ‘N Gigglz sat in the penalty box (an area adjacent to the track with metal folding chairs surrounded by shower curtains). Mid-Lakes Navigation built these self-skippered canal boats to be both rugged and comfortable.
He was an agricultural economist and a speechwriter for President Roosevelt during the Depression but by the time I knew him, he spent his days painting pictures and researching local history. He was a quiet man with strongly held opinions and although he died when I was very young, my aunts say I'm an awful lot like him. During the summer, when the camp was full, there would be a message service in the auditorium on Thursday nights and we'd often sneak into the back of the hall to listen.
But I didn't really think much about the psychics and mediums and healers and the messages they were giving to the believers on those humid summer evenings. On one side of the fjord, abandoned low-slung gray apartment buildings almost blended in with the low hills. On the other side, someone had painted many of the occupied buildings in blazing colors: pink, yellow, and minty green—a jarring sight in the washed-out landscape. He was a quiet man with strongly held opinions and although he died when I was very young, my aunts say I'm an awful lot like him. During the summer, when the camp was full, there would be a message service in the auditorium on Thursday nights and we'd often sneak into the back of the hall to listen. But I didn't really think much about the psychics and mediums and healers and the messages they were giving to the believers on those humid summer evenings. I would be riding in either a hovercraft or have a jet pack strapped to my back as I made my way to the grocery store—wait, there would be no grocery stores because all of our food would be in the form of little pellets that expanded to glorious dinners when put in some kind of rehydrating device.
I think that everything I imagined about the future I got from watching “The Jetsons.” (click here to read more .
He doesn’t live on an island in the Caribbean or even within spitting distance of an ocean. Rather, his farming takes place in 100-gallon saltwater tanks in the basement of his neat and tidy house the color of a warm Sargasso Sea in upstate New York. In college, he learned to scuba dive and began collecting corals from the temperate zones around the world. Less than half an acre and only, at its highest point, about 30 feet above the crashing waves, the islet is a godforsaken bit of rock stuck in the Atlantic Ocean off the eastern edge of Bermuda and one of four secret nesting sites for one of the rarest seabirds on earth, the Bermuda petrel—known locally as the cahow because of its eerie cry. Madeiros, Bermuda’s terrestrial conservation officer, is a small, soft-spoken 47-year-old with a mustache, tortoiseshell glasses, and a penchant for Australian army hats. Carefully working his way across the islet’s stony surface, he makes the rounds to specially designed artificial nest burrows built to protect petrel chicks from the danger of tides and rough seas. The burrows are marked by wooden baffles that guard the entrances and have a very precisely measured oval cut into them—big enough that an adult petrel can get in to feed its chick but a hair too small for a white-tailed tropicbird to squeeze through and take over. (click here to read more .
I know if I ever smell yak butter again I’ll be back in Lhasa, Tibet, in the days before the first train was scheduled to arrive from China.Last summer, my daughter, Railey, and I went on a journey, and although I wasn’t sure what we were looking for, somehow I thought we might find that indefinable thing in Tibet.
My prior knowledge of Tibet—a beautiful, mysterious, and remote country—came from the movies and from my local grocery store. Ronald Colman from Lost Horizon and Brad Pitt from Seven Years in Tibet were my spiritual guides, and the monks—small, brown men in long maroon and yellow robes who I periodically ran into in the produce section—shaped my notion of Tibetan culture. I would steal glances at them as they smelled the cantaloupes and picked out oranges, and if they caught me looking, they’d flash wide smiles and their eyes would almost disappear, and I would get all embarrassed. Ithaca, New York, is home to the Namgyal Monastery, the Dalai Lama’s personal monastery in North America, so you get used to seeing the Tibetan monks around town. In winter, their maroon and yellow robes hang below puffy down jackets as they trudge through the snow and slush of upstate New York in hiking boots. It might have been the weather--it was hot and rainy and foggy all at once creating a misty landscape that looked an awful lot like those painted scrolls of the humpbacked mountains you see hanging in Chinese restaurants. Or it might have been that I felt like I was looking at shadows, for much of what I saw was doomed and would soon disappear beneath the muddy river water.
In early summer, the Yangtze--the longest river in China and the third longest in the world--is a swift flowing muddy brown mess of a river.
We were on a boat about 200 kilometers upstream of the Three Gorges Dam and the landscape we passed through was going to be flooded with sixty more feet of water in a couple of months. The Chinese are maniacs about their building projects and, true to form, were rushing to finish the dam and start generating electricity well ahead of schedule. As a result, the water level in the gorges was going to rise sooner rather than later. (click here to read more .



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