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Ship modeling is a craft as old as shipbuilding itself, stretching back to ancient times when water transport was first developed. Ancient ship and boat models have been discovered throughout the Mediterranean, especially from ancient Greece, Egypt, and Phoenicia.
In the Ancient world, ships “were among the most technologically complex mechanisms of the ancient world.”[2] Ships made far-flung travel and trade more comfortable and economical, and they added a whole new facet to warfare. Phoenician ship models also provide archaeologists information regarding the technical aspects of seafaring, and the cultural importance of seafaring for the ancient Phoenicians. Ship models are helpful to archaeologists in that they allow archaeologists to make estimates regarding the size the vessel would be in real life. Egyptian ship and boat models are perhaps some of the most enchanting and well-preserved types of ship models available to archaeologists. Boats placed in tombs of Egyptian royalty can be separated into two types: boat models that represent actual vessels used on the Nile, and boat models that represent boats that are considered necessary for religious purposes.
The boat models discovered at Meketre feature several different kinds of boats, including traveling boats, sporting boats, and several papyriform crafts.[16] Two of the papyriform skiffs have a trawling net slung between them. Despite some of the limitations of interpreting ancient Mediterranean ship models, archaeologists have been able to glean a great deal of information from these items. Some of the oldest surviving European ship models have been those of early craft such as galleys, galleons, and possibly carracks, dating from the 12th through the 15th centuries and found occasionally mounted in churches, where they were used in ceremonies to bless ships and those who sailed in them,[18] or as votive offerings for successful voyages or surviving peril at sea, a practice which remained common in Catholic countries until the 19th century. Until the early 18th century, virtually all European small craft and many larger vessels were built without formal plans being drawn.
Ship models constructed for the Royal Navy were referred to as Admiralty models and were principally constructed during the 18th and 19th centuries to depict proposed warship design.[19] Although many of these models did not illustrate the actual timbering or framing, they did show the form of the hull and usually had great detail of the deck furnishings, masts, spars, and general configuration.
During the Napoleonic wars French and English seamen who were taken prisoner were confined, sometimes for many years, and in their boredom sought relief by building ship models from scraps of wood and bone.[19] This evolved into something of an art form and the models were sold to the public,[20] which responded by supplying the prisoners with ivory so that the models would be more decorative. A consequence of Britain's naval supremacy in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was wide public interest in ships and ship models. In the early part of the 20th Century, amateur ship model kits became available from companies such as Bassett-Lowke in Great Britain[23][24] and Boucher's in the United States.[25] Early 20th century models comprised a combination of wooden hulls and cast lead for anchors, deadeyes, and rigging blocks. The development of tinplate and improvements in machine tools enabled significant advances in ship modelling from 1900 onwards.
Ship modelling in the United States experienced a boom in the 1930s when Popular Science magazine published an extended series of articles and plans for famous ships by modeller and former Navy officer E.
In recent years, widespread internet access has played a major role in promoting ship modelling, offering enthusiasts the opportunity to show off their work and share techniques. Wood—commonly solid wood, two pieces of wood with a vertical seam or slabs of wood placed one on top of each other. Paper—preprinted paper construction kits are common in Europe, and are available in a variety of scales. A variant of this technique, sometimes known as bread and butter construction( the wood is the "bread" and glue the "butter") is a hull built up from thin blocks of wood glued together with either a vertical seam which can be incorporated into deck design, or a horizontal seam.
In the decades since World War Two injection-molded polystyrene plastic model ships have become increasingly popular. A more recent addition has been a variety of kits in cold cure resin marketed by various small companies as part of a cottage industry.
Scales vary as well, with many kits from the early days being "box scale"; that is, scaled to fit into a uniform sized box designed to fit conveniently on hobby shop shelves. Another recent development has been the advent of aftermarket parts to enhance the basic kits. Model ships have been used for war gaming since antiquity, but the introduction of elaborate rules made the practice more popular in the early 20th Century. Prior to World War II, the German company Wiking became a leader in the field[29] but the war ended its dominance. Larger ship models have been used in museums to document historical ships, in companies for decoration and public relations. Model ships are important in the field of engineering, where analytical modeling of a new design needs to be verified. Manned models are model ships that can carry and be handled by at least one person on an open expanse of water. The aim of training on manned models is to enable seamen to acquire or to develop manoeuvring skills through a better understanding of a ship’s behaviour as it sails in restricted water conditions at manoeuvring speed. The Port Revel Shiphandling Training Centre is a French maritime pilotage school specializing in training for pilots, masters, and officers on large ships like supertankers, container ships, LNG carriers and cruise ships .
Model yachts are operating craft, which may be sail, steam, engine or electric motor powered, typically resembling pleasure power craft, although the hobby also includes the construction and operation of models of working ships such as tugboats and other craft shown in this article as static models. Model shipwright guilds are social groupings intended to allow more experienced ship modellers the opportunity to pass on their knowledge to new members; to allow members of all levels of expertise to exchange new ideas, as well as serving as social function. Some model shipwright guilds have been incorporated into government and Naval facilities, achieving a semi-official status as a clearinghouse for information on naval history and ship design.


Model ship made with non-traditional materials: rolled-up tubes of paper, Express Mail labels, and duct tape.
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Ship – wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, In modern parlance a ship has been any large buoyant watercraft.
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These models provide archaeologists with valuable information regarding seafaring technology and the sociological and economic importance of seafaring. Thus, ships carried a great deal of significance to the people of the ancient world, and this is expressed partly through the creation of boat and ship models. One particular model, acquired by the Staatliche Museum in Kassel, Germany, proves to be helpful to archaeologists and historians in understanding what a hemiolia warship was like. One boat model from a house deposit in Mochlos, Crete, dating to around 3000BC, is thought to be too small to be a war ship.
However, some models offer tantalizing pieces of information that are, unfortunately, difficult to interpret.
While this technique makes the assumption that artists scaled the models appropriately, it is useful to get some sense of how large these ships and boats may have been in real life. It is uncertain whether or not the net is meant to be depicted as being under the water or being pulled out of the water by the fishermen.
This information has been instrumental in filling in gaps in knowledge about ancient seafaring technology and culture. Shipwrights would construct models to show prospective customers how the full size ship would appear and to illustrate advanced building techniques.[19] These were also useful for marine artists, and it is clear that from Dutch Golden Age Painting onwards extensive use of models was made by artists.
Some of these grand models were decorated with carvings of great beauty and were evidently constructed by teams of artisans.
For the most part, the models had carved wooden hulls with rigging made from human hair, horsehair, silk, or whatever other fine material could be obtained. Numerous fairly crude models were built as children's toys leading to the creation of functional, as opposed to decorative, ship models. Thin, workable sheets of iron could be coated with tin to prevent rusting, then mass-produced as parts of ship model kits. Steel, sheet tin and aluminum brass are used less frequently for hull construction, but are used extensively for adding details.
This reduces the amount of carving required, but still requires skill and the use of templates to achieve and accurate hull form.
The plank on bulkhead technique inserts a series of shaped bulkheads along the keel to form a shaped stage which will be covered with planks to form the hull of the model . Consisting of preformed plastic parts which can be bonded together with plastic cement, these models are much simpler to construct than the more labor-intensive traditional wooden models.
Scales have since become more standardized to enable modelers to construct consistent scale collections, but there are still many to choose from.
The plastic model kit market has shifted over the years to a focus on adult hobbyists willing to pay for more elaborate, higher quality kits.
Decals, specialized paints and turned metal replacement gun barrels are available to make plastic models more accurate. These are typically built by commercial firms, or, in the past, model departments of large shipyards. These can range from small models that can be operated in aquariums to vessels capable of navigating large bodies of water. Principals of similitude are used to apply measured data from a scaled model to the full scale design.
Manned models are considered by maritime pilots as the next best thing to a full-scale prototype for understanding a ship's behaviour.[32] Those who have trained on both claim that scale models are complementary to computer simulators. The facility uses manned models at a 1:25 scale on a man-made lake designed to simulate natural conditions in harbours, canals, and open seas. The USS Constitution Museum operates a model shipwright guild from the Charlestown Navy Yard, adjacent to the berth for the vessel itself.
Kennedy's PT-109 has been a popular a subject for plastic and radio controlled models since the 1960s.


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In spite of how helpful ancient boat and ship models are to archaeologists, they are not always easily or correctly interpreted due to artists’ mistakes, ambiguity in the model design, and wear and tear over the centuries. Ancient boat and ship models are made of a variety of materials and are intended for different purposes. Basch postulates that the boat “cannot have been propelled by more than four oarsmen … so it can hardly be other than a fishing boat.”[8] As opposed to other Early Bronze Age ship and boat models, this model was not found in a burial context. Item number H-3134 at the Hecht Museum, a dark brown clay model of a 5th century BCE oared boat, is one such craft. In the event that the artist meant for the net to be in the water, it is interesting to note that the net is upside down. The inexpensive plastic kits were initially targeted to the post war generation[27] who could glue them together and produce passable replicas in a single afternoon.
The introduction of flat photoetched metal sets, usually stainless steel or brass, also provide much more realistic lifelines, cranes, and other details than are possible with the injection molded plastic kits.[28] These photoetch sets have transformed the hobby, enabling the finescale modeler to reproduce very delicate details with much less effort.
These models were basic representations of ship types, with enough detail to make them recognizable. Further expanding the concept is model warship combat, in which scale models fire projectiles at each other in combat. Physical conditions such as wind, currents, waves, water depths, channels and berths must be reproduced realistically. The most common purposes for boat and ship models include burial votives, house hold articles, art, and toys.
This model is thought to be a child’s toy or a piece of art, instead of a burial offering.[9] The model itself features a projection of the keel beyond the stem-post at both ends.
Needless to say, the upside down net would not work for catching fish.[17] This ambiguity points up the question of artistic veracity of the craftsmen who make ship models. Plastic models are available in both full hull and waterline versions for a wide variety of vessels. Bassett-Lowke marketed these to the public in England, along with more detailed versions that appealed to collectors. The Centre was originally created in 1967 near Grenoble by Laboratoire Dauphinois d'Hydraulique. The design was based on the ship Le Brilliant built Hoosier State 1690 at Le Harve franc wood ship model plans. While archaeologists have found ship and boat models from societies all around the Mediterranean, the three of the most prolific ship model building cultures were the Greeks, Phoenicians, and Egyptians. The name indicates that two oarsmen would have been seated on half of the benches and one on the others.[7] Until this ship model was discovered, archaeologists, classicists, and historians had only been able to hypothesize on what the seating arrangement might have been like on a hemiolia based on its name.
As is attested by the ambiguity of the holes in the sides of the Phoenician model, and the skiff from Meketre, archaeologists need to be aware of the possibility of artistic error while interpreting ancient ship models. The sternpost and stem are erected, deadwood and strengthening pieces inserted, and a series of shaped frames are built and erected along the keel to form the internal framework of the model. Because the model is depicting a fishing boat, there would be no need for rams.[8] This model in particular has helped archaeologists understand that not all keel projections in depictions of boats during this time are necessarily rams.
While a mistake involving an inverted trawling net may seem trivial, the lesson is important. Leading supplier with a creation class range of historic wooden model transport kits plans books instructional DVDs tools transport fittings and timbers. It is important for archaeologists to be aware of the possibility that ancient artists may not have been familiar with the finer details of ships and boats. We’re specializer suppliers of Historic Wooden Model Sailing Ship Kits Plans Books Tools.



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