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All known elements can be arranged in the long form of the periodic table which is purposed by Mendeleev’s. In the periodic table, all the elements are arranged in increasing order of their atomic number. Periodic table can be studied by using some common properties of elements like atomic radius, ionization potential, electron affinity and electronegativity, metallic nature. All the other properties decreases in a column from top to bottom and increases from left to right in period.
First transition series or 3d series corresponding to filling of 3d-subshell with ten elements from scandium to zinc. Second series or 4d series located in the 5th period contains ten elements from Ytterbium to cadmium.
Third series or 5d series located in 6th period with ten elements from lanthanum to mercury. Last series of transition started from actinium (89) after that 14 elements will be part of actinoids than next element kurchatovium (104) will place in this series. Transition elements contain an incomplete d-subshell, so they show a variable oxidation state. Except for mercury, all transition metals are solid in nature with typical metallic crystal structure. Because of the presence of unpaired electrons in the inner d-orbital, they can form coordination complexes with appropriate ligand.
It contains 18 groups and 7 periods with two series of 14 elements at the bottom of the main table. The whole periodic table contains 18 vertical columns called groups and 7 horizontal rows called periods. Atomic radius and metallic nature increases in a group from top to bottom and decreases from left to right in a period.


On the basis of chemical and physical properties of elements, the periodic table can be divided in to four blocks. This block contains radioactive and artificial element, commonly known as actinoids and Lanthanoides.
Hence, the general electronic configuration for these elements is (n-2)f 1-14, (n-1)d0-1, ns2There are a total of 14 elements in the inner transition elements which are arranged in two series of fourteen elements. Beside they can show +2 and +4 oxidation state also.From left to right across the period the radius of each lanthanide (Ln 3+)ion decreases due to less screening effect of f-electrons.
The first three series contains ten elements in each one, while the last series is incomplete. After lanthanum (57) there is a gap of 14 elements of lanthanide than next element Hafnium (72) again a part of d-block element. For example; Osmium (Os) shows a maximum +8 oxidation number and Manganese (Mn) shows +7 oxidation number in potassium per magnate (KMnO4). When we move in a series from left to right, the atomic radius first decreases than becomes stable and increases at the end of series. As the number of unpaired electrons increases in an element, the strength of the metallic bond increases. As s-block elements are metallic in nature and p-block elements are non-metallic, d-block elements show a transition from metallic to non-metallic nature.
Each block has a characteristic property and shows a regular trend in the group as well as in the period. The first series is known as lanthanoides and another one as actinoids.LanthanoidesIn these elements the valence electron filled in 4f orbital, hence they are also known as 4f-block elements or first inner transition element. The second and third series elements show almost the same atomic radius and other properties due to Lanthanoides contraction. We know in an atom, the number of protons is equal to the total number of electrons.In other words, an atom is neutral due to the presence of the same number of electrons and protons.


In other words, they show a transition from the most electropositive s-block elements to the least electropositive or most electronegative p-block elements.Because of their metallic nature, transition elements are also named as transition metals.
ActinoidsThese elements are located after actinium, hence are collectively termed as actinoids.
All transition elements have a high melting point directly related to the metallic bond strength.
Another name for transition metals is d-block due to the presence of incomplete d-sub shell and valence shell filled in (n-1)d orbital and their general electronic configuration is (n-1)d1-10, ns2.The other reason for transition element name is variable oxidation state.
A transition element may be defined as "the element whose atom in the ground state or ion in one of the common oxidation state , has incomplete d-sub shell means having electrons 1 to 9". They show high ionization potential compared to s-block elements but lesser than p-block elements. The earlier members of the series have a long half life, but later elements are very unstable with short half lives. For example Na is a s-block element because the valence electronic configuration of Na is 3s1. In the periodic table, 1st and 2nd group is part of s-block whereas from 13th to 18th group, elements are known p-block elements. Elements from 3rd to 12th group are commonly known as d-block elements or transition elements whereas 2 series of 14 elements at the bottom of main table are called as f-block.



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