Best soldering iron wattage for circuit boards,disaster management plan for landslide,survival supplies amazon kindle,apocalypse revelation richard harris quotes - New On 2016

April 14, 2014 by Oyvind Nydal Dahl Leave a Comment How do you find the best soldering iron for a hobbyist?
If you are soldering surface mount components with fine pitch, you need a thin soldering iron tip.
If you are doing just very basic soldering, then my honest opinion is that any soldering iron will do. If you are going to do a bit more advanced stuff like solder ESD sensitive components like microcontrollers, you should invest a bit more. The variable temperature lets you choose a lower temperature for SMD components and a higher temperature for larger solder joints. I'm Oyvind and my website is full of tutorials to help you build your own hardware gadgets – even if you have never built anything before!
Excellent kit for learning soldering skills and great to milk the bottom out of an AA battery. In the interest of full disclosure, I've finally burned through a full AA battery on all the lights I assembled. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website.
The first cartridge used in the rebuilding lessons will be the one shown at the end of the theory document.
I like to use my small two speed battery drill or the small press drill (actually a special press drill made for a dremel tool). I like to use one of those cheap padded table mat taped to the bench to keep parts from rolling out of sight. Too thick, the low frequencies will suffer as the cradle will be too thight inside the shell AND the records will suffer from the poor compliance, resulting in rapid record wear. Too thin and the lack of proper compliance, the cradle will be fee to move all around, the high frequencies will suffer, Needle talk, high surface noise and lots of distortion will results.
In the following example, I use strips of latex glove as the damper on the front of the stylus cradle and the silicone at the back only to show how to glue both. To fix the latex on the stylus cradle, put a tiny drop of super glue on the shaft in the recessed area then put the end of the latex strip. So the rule of thumb for better restoration is to try to get the stylus the most compliant for a better bass response, be gentler to records and provide a higher output when used with the right crystals. What you need to complete the assembly is a small plastic piece of the type use in CD jewel case. You see on the right the needle cradle, center the plastic piece cut to lenght and far left, the crystal element from a Ronette cartridge (500 something). Assemble using cyanoacrylate glue, the plastic extension to the needle cradle using two little reinforcement. Do NOT add a piece that will secure all the parts together with a single long reinforcement. NOTE: I usually rivet the metal pieces to the stylus cradle and the plastic piece (where the crystal attaches), but to make things easy I just glued them for this lesson). First mount the final assembly to the lower half shell of the cartridge and use the right rubber band (or rubber like material that will not become dust with time or lose it's compliance too fast) to level the assembly.
Add a small drop of rubber glue (contact cement) to the far rear rubber and let the glue dry. Once both connectors are done, snip the excess wire then use 400 sandpaper to clean the contact from excess solder or oxidation. Simply hold the cartridge in your hand, keeping it parallel to a test records (test record = not valuable record) and let the cartridge play using it's own weight. Then use a pair of pliers (you can file the ribs off the pliers to make if smooth) and squeeze the rivets flat.
Oh, almost forgot, make sure you clear the rear hole before you solder the wires to the back connector.


For better aesthetic, the factory made flange should be showing from the bottom of the cartridge, the side you see when the cartridge is installed.
If the cartridge sounds distorted and everything looks fine, make sure the cradle doesn't touch the body. You will have to experiment by yourself to find better dampers, but if you follow the lessons carefully, you will have a much better sounding cartridge than following how-to using cheap rubber bands and epoxy glue to affix the crystal to the cartridge body. Never use silicone glue as dampers then squeeze the cartridges halves together to create a damper.
The Osmium offers a more laid back and much lower output compared to the steel needle, but it also gives a more uniform frequency response. I dont know if I am brave enough to try that yet, but I have recently repaired a crystal microphone.
If it has variable temperature setting and the possibility to change the tip, you will get a very versatile soldering iron.
And with changeable tips you can choose the correct tip for the type of soldering you are doing. I am 100% in favor of TRIGGER CONTROL.Your best piece of survival gear is your brain,you should carry it with you every day. Be careful with the one on the back as most often than not you wont' be able to pull it out until you part the cartridge in two.
Always drill rivets from the top of the cartridge, that way, if the drill bit slips, the damage (scratches) won't be apparent once the cartridge is mounted in the tone arm.
Both halves should clamp together without putting pressure on the new damper but not have the cradle be loose inside the cartridge. I am not making an ad for the guy, merrely pointing out that he has donor cartridges for a decent price.
Now we need a way to affix the crystal to the cradle and re-create some sort of torque multiplier.
If the plastic extension is too thing to tightly fit between the small reinforcement, simply use a tiny piece of card stock.
We want to isolate the cradle from the crystal using a compliant extension that doubles as a torque multiplier so use small pieces to secure both parts to the cradle. Again, too soft a material and the damping effect will adversely affect the frequency response. Make them one single piece long enough to replace both the little metal tabs and the center piece.
Next, put back the rear connector, slip in the (cleaned) hollow connector solder, then apply heat at the back of the connector (rear of the cartridge) then punch the solder inside the hollow connector while applying the heat.
This is not the way I do mine, but I did these in the picture just for you (man am I nice or what?) Results are quite acceptable.
In this example, you can clearly see the gap between the stylus cradle and the cartridge body in the opening.
Of course, I do not always use these materials and select the right dampers (compliance) for every job (butyl is great stuff).
The crystal needs "give" and damping (compliance) to isolate the crystal element from the cartridge body to minimize microphonics and noise. Also note the voice content where the cartridge should start rolling off in an original (3-4Khz) while the restored one goes well beyond that (listen to the clarinet). I used a bent shank stylus which is correct for the type of cartridge, but the part that goes into the cartridge is way too long.
A quick solution would be to use a tiny piece of stiff rubber and slip it over the needle, close to the cartridge body, without it actually touching the cartridge's body.
If you are soldering big joints in for example a connector, you should use a thicker tip and more wattage. Cut the back rivet flush inside the cartridge then remove the remaining from the outer shell.


Work on a perfectly plane area (I use an aluminum panel just for that, I guess a square piece of tempered glass could also be a good option). The latex will last many years although the silicone is best for longevity, it is not the best material as far as resilience is concerned though.
The Astatic L70 series uses 5 and this cartridge (Shure) uses 7 on front and 5 at the back. Using a large crystal and some clever piece of mecahnic engineering allows the use of a smaller and lighter stylus (lighter in a total sense of weight needed for proper output).
If you look at the pictures, I used some small pieces or metal tabs to mechanically link the cradle to the "torque multiplier" and the latter to the crystal element.
Since you'll be using plastic for both pieces (one on top and second on bottom) The compliance should still be OK.
This will protect the crystal should too much torque be applied to the cradle for any reason.
Simply use masking tape to keep the halves together (this should need very slight pressure to keep both halves together, otherwise it would mean you either have too much rubber on the rear, holding the crystal, or the dampers on the cradle are too thick to fit in the recessed "valleys" inside the cartridge. I use the nail punch to create the flange, then finish with a tiny brass hammer or squeeze the rivets in a small vise. It will also minimize possible damage to the crystal should the stylus be bumped on the platter or excessive force applied sideways to the stylus. You may find yourself with a distorting cartridge because the cradle touches the body either on the front or rear.
So what you hear is essentially what you'll hear from the phono, as opposed to having the sampling done thru a preamp stage. The mechanical vibration get amplified and creates "ringing" well before reaching the crystal. That is why I said previously NOT to use epoxy to secure the crystal to the cartridge body. I use a clean iron and apply first solder to the tab, quickly (half a second) then wait a minute, then cut one strand from the multi-strands wire, put solder on both ends of the tiny wire, put one end on the crystal's tab and apply heat, quickly. A Sapphire stylus will sound like an Osmium but with much more volume and slightly more noise. The trick is in the multiple layers of "damping" and the correct total thickness that will make the cartridge sounds great on bass notes without distorting. Hence the use of much larger crystals in cartridges like the one used here, the LQ series (P30 is also similar). I just happen to like these little pieces as they are the right size and are found in my donor cartridges. Softer and you will loose the highs, harder and the record's noise will be amplified by 10 ! First it will make the cartridge microphonic, any mechanical vibration to the cartridge body will be passed directly to the crystal, NOT good and if the needle is bumped on the side of the platter or similar excessive lateral displacement, chances to damage the crystal are minimized.
By applying heat to the outside tip of the connector (where you see the tiny wires coming out) keeps the heat away from the crystal.
You need enough "give" for good bass notes but good damping for loud passage, otherwise the needle will chatter in the groove on loud music passage and damage the records instantly (I've rebuilt many cartridges from someone else (another "professional rebuilder") and the damping material used was a thin foam that gave absolutely no damping. Far from the frequency response of a new ceramic type cartridge, but sometimes it is of no concern since the amplifier and speaker combination will not offer any better.
Osmium sounds a bit better because it has more "give", hence damping excess noise from the record.
Plus, you would need to preamplify the cartridge and cobble something to remove weight from the tone-arm.




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