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Americans arrived in the northern cities, but also by public and private discriminatory actions. In 2011, there were 8,102 new AIDS diagnoses (AIDS being most advanced form of HIV disease) among women, representing 25% of AIDS diagnoses in that year. Women of color, particularly Black women, are disproportionately affected by HIV, accounting for the majority of new HIV infections, women living with HIV, and HIV-related deaths among women in the U.S. HIV incidence rates (which show the severity of impact after controlling for differences in population size) are much higher for Black women and Latinas than for white women. Studies have shown that the HIV is transmitted more efficiently from men to women during sexual intercourse. Women with HIV are at increased risk for developing or contracting a range of conditions, including human papillomavirus (HPV), which can lead to cervical cancer, and severe pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
Research efforts are exploring a number of new HIV prevention technologies which could be particularly beneficial for women, such as cervical barriers and microbicides.
In addition, family planning sites provide an important entry point for reaching women at risk for and living with HIV. HIV’s impact varies across the country and, in some states, the epidemic is more likely to have a woman’s face. The CDC recommends routine HIV screening for all adults, ages 13-64, in health care settings, including women, and repeat screening at least annually for those at high risk. Looking across the spectrum of access to care, from HIV diagnosis to viral suppression, reveals missed opportunities for reaching women. When asked how concerned they were personally about becoming infected with HIV, a recent survey found that 22% of women in the U.S. Filling the need for trusted information on national health issues, the Kaiser Family Foundation is a nonprofit organization based in Menlo Park, California.
50 years after the Selma march to Montgomery, African-Americans still face substantial impediments to their full citizenship in the United States. The massive expansion of the prison population in the US, which today stands at over 2 million, began after the passage of the Voting Rights act.
And the biggest single group of people in prison by ethnicity are African-Americans, who are 12.6% of the population and about 40% of the inmates. It should not be assumed that African-Americans are jailed so much more frequently than whites because they are guiltier. The unreasonably high arrest rates for African-Americans in Ferguson turned into a massive extra municipal tax on them.
Despite all these attempts to keep African-Americans second-class citizens, they have mostly failed.
It is at the local and state level that the African-American vote has meant less in recent years. The problem is that this means honestly embracing the balkanization of our country into no-go zones for the Other. There is no magic potion or silver bullet to solving the problems of racism and slavery by other names.
Orwell comes to mind when we consider how so many politicians will regard the Pledge of Allegiance as the equivalent of a loyalty oath, but after reciting the words they will, sometimes within just minutes, prove the words and spirit of the pledge are meaningless to them.
This should come as little surprise when we consider politicians’ oaths of office to uphold the Constitution are also meaningless in many instances.
Thank you to all of my supporters for your generosity and your encouragement of an independent press!
More than a quarter of employed black workers aged 25 or older have earned a college degree, a share that exceeds that for Hispanics5 but continues to trail that for Whites. Black workers are more likely to be employed in the public sector than are either their white or Hispanic counterparts. In addition, once unemployed, Blacks are less likely to find jobs and tend to stay unemployed for longer periods of time.
1Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.  Those identified as white or black includes those Hispanics who selected white or black when queried about their race. Unemployment for the nation peaked at 10 percent in October 2009, while the unemployment rate for Blacks continued to rise before peaking at 16.7 percent in August 2011 (Chart 1). In recent months, there have been signs that African Americans have begun to benefit from the nation's economic recovery. Chart 2 shows the seasonally-adjusted monthly unemployment rate for black men, women, and youth (aged 16-19). Across all races and ethnic groups, the unemployment rate for youth (aged 16-19) is much higher than that for adults.
Some of this decline in labor force participation among black teens indeed reflects an increase in the proportion of black teens enrolled in school. One factor that may partially explain why black labor force outcomes lag behind those of their white counterparts is their lower educational attainment. Despite racial difference in unemployment rates by education level, the link between greater educational attainment and improved employment outcomes remains strong for all racial and ethnic groups, including African Americans. Another factor that may explain some of the lag in labor force outcomes for Blacks is that they are more likely to live in economically depressed areas with fewer opportunities for employment. Unemployment varies across the United States and the unemployment rate of Blacks, like that of other Americans, differs depending on the state in which they live. The map at the end of this report highlights the states where the largest numbers of unemployed black workers reside.
As Chart 4 illustrates, 2011 employment rates for African-American men and women, aged 20 and older, remain below pre-recession levels. During the deepest part of the downturn, black employment took the largest hit in manufacturing, financial activities, education and health services, transportation and warehousing, and construction.
A challenge will be to assist more African Americans to obtain careers in the professional, scientific and technical services industry, which is expected to grow by 2.1 million additional jobs from 2010 to 2020.
1Employment Projections presented here are based on Current Employment Statistics data. The number of fatal injuries among black workers was down 9 percent in 2010 after a decline of 21 percent in 2009, according to data from the BLS.14 15 Since 2007, fatal work injuries among black workers have declined by more than a third (37 percent).
Getting America Back to Work: The Department of Labor is working to get America back to work by providing job seekers with income support, employment services and the skills necessary to land the good-paying jobs of the future and by linking employers looking to hire with Americans looking to work. Between October 2010 and September 2011, nearly 3.7 million participants served by the Department's Wagner-Peyser program, which provides employment services, were African-American. Of the 2.5 million Workforce Investment Act (WIA) Adult and Dislocated Worker program participants who received staff-assisted services from July 2010 through June 2011, more than 21 percent were African-American. As of September 30, 2011, 34,558 African Americans have been served by the Department's Community Based Job Training grants (nearly 16 percent of all 222,789 participants), and 23,636 African Americans (25 percent of all 95,373 participants) have been served through the Department's American Reinvestment and Recovery Act High Growth and Emerging Industry grants. Between October 2010 and September 2011, the Department's Trade Adjustment Assistance program served 196,020 U.S. The National Farmworker Jobs Program provides funding to community-based organizations and public agencies to assist migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their families attain greater economic stability. As of September 30, 2011, the Reintegration of Ex-Offenders programs have assisted over 31,482 participants. The Department's Enhanced Transitional Jobs Demonstration (ETJD) is designed to fund and rigorously test employment programs targeting non-custodial parents and individuals recently released from prison. The Department's Center for Faith-based and Neighborhood Partnerships has made a concerted effort to further extend programs and opportunities to the African-American community through extensive outreach to African-American communities and congregations. Programs such as YouthBuild and Job Corps are intended to provide job training and educational opportunities for low-income at-risk youth.
Reintegration of Ex-Offenders Youth projects served 6,990 participants, of whom 71 percent were African-American, from July 2010 through June 2011.
Winners of recently announced grants to train workers for good jobs in high-growth industries include historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and other entities that have historically served African Americans. In October 2011, the Urban League of Atlanta won a $4.5 million grant to train 125 workers for information technology (IT) jobs in partnership with Clark Atlanta University (an HBCU) and a local IT employer who has committed to hire every participant who completes the training and obtains a credential. In September 2011, a consortium of 10 South Carolina educational institutions, including Denmark Technical College (an HBCU), won a grant of nearly $20 million to establish 37 new on-line courses leading to industry-recognized credentials and degrees for emerging technology-based jobs in key industries, including manufacturing, engineering, industrial maintenance, and transportation and logistics. In Fiscal Year 2011, the Wage and Hour Division (WHD) collected $224,844,870 in back wages for this nation's workers, which is the largest amount collected in a single fiscal year in the Division's history.
In Fiscal Year 2011, WHD collected over $52 million in back wages for more than 98,000 employees in priority low-wage industries alone, which employ significant proportions of vulnerable workers, including African Americans.


To achieve a more ongoing presence in communities with vulnerable workers, WHD has also hired new Community Outreach and Resource Planning Specialists (CORPS)to work in WHD District Offices.
DOL's Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP) is responsible for enforcing affirmative action and non-discrimination obligations of federal contractors and subcontractors.19 Nearly one-in-four American workers is employed by a company that does business with the Federal government, giving OFCCP a broad purview to enforce equal employment opportunity laws across the American labor force.
In Fiscal Year 2011, OFCCP successfully resolved 134 cases of employment discrimination affecting women, minorities, people with disabilities and protected veterans.
The President's 2013 Budget: The FY 2013 budget is built around the idea that our country does best when everyone gets a fair shot, does their fair share, and plays by the same rules. Support for Summer and Year-Round Jobs for Youth: The Recovery Act provided approximately 370,000 summer job opportunities through the public workforce investment system to young people in the summers of 2009 and 2010.
Targeting Low-Income, Long-Term Unemployed Adults: This effort would connect the long-term unemployed, low-income adults to subsidized employment and work-based training opportunities. Revitalize Distressed Urban Neighborhoods: The President's 2013 Budget provides $150 million for the Choice Neighborhoods initiative to continue transformative investments in high-poverty neighborhoods where distressed HUD-assisted public and privately owned housing is located, a $30 million increase from the 2012 enacted level. Put People Back to Work Rehabilitating Homes, Businesses and Communities: The President is proposing a $15 billion series of policies to help connect Americans looking for work in distressed communities with the work needed to re-purpose residential and commercial properties, creating jobs and stabilizing neighborhoods. Prevent Layoffs of Teachers, Cops and Firefighters: The President proposed to invest $30 billion to prevent layoffs of teachers, while supporting the hiring and keeping of cops and firefighters on the job. Extend Unemployment Insurance for the Long Term Unemployed: Unemployment insurance for those unemployed over 27 weeks was initially extended through February 2012 but was recently extended through the rest of the year, which will help 1 million African Americans. Connect State and Community Colleges with Businesses: The President proposed an $8 billion Community College to Career Fund that will help forge new partnerships between community colleges and businesses to train two million workers for good-paying jobs in high-growth and high-demand industries and build the skills of American workers. 1The Office of Management and Budget defines Black or African American as an official racial category pertaining to persons having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa.
3While the black-white wage differences can be partly explained by differences in the observable characteristics of different workers, a substantial differential remains even if comparing individuals with identical characteristics except for race.
5Hispanics who select black or white when identifying race are included in the black or white category as well as the Hispanic category.
10In January of every year, BLS makes an adjustment to the population control used for that year's estimates in the Current Population Survey (CPS).
11October data are used here because that is the month when students are usually enrolled in school regardless of the type of school or school calendar. 12Office of the Chief Economist calculations based on data from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS) 2008-2010 Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS). 14Fatal injury data for 2010 are preliminary, while data for prior years are revised and final.
18This is based upon those nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses for which there is a race or ethnicity reported. 19In addition to OFCCP, other agencies outside of the Department enforce non-discrimination requirements. This Javascript allows the page in IE to resize to the minimum width of 853 pixels and no less. Our population statistics cover age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, migration, ancestry, language use, veterans, as well as population estimates and projections. This section provides information on a range of educational topics, from educational attainment and school enrollment to school districts, costs and financing. We measure the state of the nation's workforce, including employment and unemployment levels, weeks and hours worked, occupations, and commuting.
Our statistics highlight trends in household and family composition, describe characteristics of the residents of housing units, and show how they are related. Health statistics on insurance coverage, disability, fertility and other health issues are increasingly important in measuring the nationa€™s overall well-being. We measure the housing and construction industry, track homeownership rates, and produce statistics on the physical and financial characteristics of our homes.
Geography is central to the work of the Bureau, providing the framework for survey design, sample selection, data collection, tabulation, and dissemination. Find resources on how to use geographic data and products with statistical data, educational blog postings, and presentations. The Geographic Support System Initiative will integrate improved address coverage, spatial feature updates, and enhanced quality assessment and measurement. Find geographic data and products such as Shapefiles, KMLs, TIGERweb, boundary files, geographic relationship files, and reference and thematic maps.
Metropolitan and micropolitan areas are geographic entities used by Federal statistical agencies in collecting, tabulating, and publishing Federal statistics. Find information about specific partnership programs and learn more about our partnerships with other organizations. Definitions of geographic terms, why geographic areas are defined, and how the Census Bureau defines geographic areas. We conduct research on geographic topics such as how to define geographic areas and how geography changes over time. Official audio files from the Census Bureau, including "Profile America," a daily series of bite-sized statistics, placing current data in a historical context. Learn more about our data from this collection of e-tutorials, presentations, webinars and other training materials. If you have received a survey, this site will help you verify that the survey came from us, understand and complete the form, and know how we protect your data.
The American Community Survey (ACS) is a mandatory, ongoing statistical survey that samples a small percentage of the population every year. The AHS is sponsored by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and conducted by the U.S. In addition, women with other sexually transmitted infections are at increased risk for contracting HIV.
The CDC also recommends all pregnant women be screened for HIV, and that those at high-risk for HIV have repeat HIV screening in their third trimester. Blacks were almost twice as likely to be searched as whites, even though searches of blacks were less likely than whites to result in contraband being found (21% vs. Aggregate numbers show that the African-American community as a whole has exhibited poorer labor market outcomes than other races even prior to the recession and during the recovery, demonstrating that they often face different and greater challenges. Nonetheless, employed black women still earn less than employed black men - black women earn roughly $0.91 to every dollar earned by black men.
While black workers continue to trail Whites in educational attainment, the number of African Americans with a college degree has been growing faster. Historically, Blacks have had persistently higher unemployment rates than the other major racial and ethnic groups. As shown in the chart, the unemployment rate among adult black men (aged 20 and over) has risen considerably more than for adult black women (aged 20 and over), creating an unemployment rate gap that grew throughout the recession and only narrowed in January 2012. However, as Chart 3 illustrates, the role of education in explaining the unemployment disparity faced by African Americans is very complicated. Additionally, the unemployment gap between Blacks and Whites is smaller for those with more education. Living in these areas means that Blacks live farther away from jobs and are surrounded by other unemployed persons who are less likely to refer them to jobs.
A PUMA is a statistical geographic area defined for the tabulation and dissemination of decennial census PUMS and ACS data. As one would expect, states with the largest black populations had very large numbers of unemployed black workers.
Overall, black men and white men are employed at higher rates than are black women and white women.
Together these industries employed nearly 1 million fewer Blacks in 2009 than they did in 2007. Black workers are in a good position to take advantage of many of the growing jobs in this industry, particularly as home health care aides are expected to grow by 69 percent by 2020.
In 2011, Blacks were under-represented in this industry, comprising only 5.9 percent of these workers. While some of this decline is due to fewer Blacks working compared to 2007, the positive trend holds even when controlling for the decline in working hours. Despite being at high risk for occupational injuries, the number of injuries and illnesses decreased 7 percent for black or African-American workers in 2010. This figure represents approximately 19 percent of total participants served by this program, which is greater than the African-American share of the population.


Of the 1,672,000 individuals who exited these programs from April 2010 through March 2011 after receiving staff-assisted services, over 340,000 were African-American.
Between July 2010 and June 2011, 1,114 (nearly 6 percent) of the 18,920 participants were African-American. Program services include academic and occupational skills assessments, job training, and temporary subsidized employment (transitional jobs) with active mentoring and oversight, followed by assistance in obtaining and retaining unsubsidized jobs. Close to 4 million EUC claimants (of which close to 1 million would be African-American) are projected to benefit from the extension that was passed in February 2012. This outreach has included a new project to work with faith-based and community-based job clubs or career ministries that provide a range of occupational and emotional supports to the unemployed, especially the long-term unemployed.
As of September 2011, a total of 11,618 African-American youth have been served in YouthBuild, representing nearly 55 percent of program participants.
These back wages, collected on behalf of 275,472 workers, including almost 90,000 who had not been paid the minimum wage for all of the hours they had worked, demonstrate that the WHD has become a stronger, more effective law enforcement agency.
In total, OFCCP negotiated over $12 million in financial remedies for victims of discrimination and recovered more than 1,400 potential job offers for affected workers. Such programs not only provided young people with their first paycheck, but taught them life-long employment skills.
It builds off the successful TANF Emergency Contingency Fund wage subsidy program that supported 260,000 jobs through the recovery. The Budget would provide grants that primarily fund the preservation, rehabilitation and transformation of HUD-assisted public and privately-owned multifamily housing. Known as Project Rebuild, this approach will not only create construction jobs for African Americans who were disproportionately affected by the loss of jobs in the construction sector, but will help reduce blight and crime and stabilize housing prices in areas hardest hit by the housing crisis. Funds could be used for a range of emergency repair and renovation projects, and modernization efforts to build new science and computer labs and to upgrade technology.
Resources to prevent additional layoffs in the state and local government would be key to helping African-American workers who are disproportionately employed in the public sector and who have been hit hard by job losses in the public sector.
The new extension provides additional reemployment services to the long-term unemployed, which is key for black unemployed workers, of whom nearly half (49.5 percent) have been unemployed for more than 27 weeks. This change complicates direct comparisons of published data between years but not within a single year. Census Bureau provides data for the Federal, state and local governments as well as voting, redistricting, apportionment and congressional affairs.
While the wage gap among Blacks is smaller than that for Whites, this is largely driven by the fact that African-American men face lower wages compared to men in other race groups in the economy. In addition, the increase in the black unemployment rate during the recession was larger than that for other races partly because workers with less education are particularly hard hit during recessions.
Although their unemployment rate started to decline later, African Americans also saw improvement over that time. African-American unemployment rates are higher than those for Whites at every education level. Unemployment rates for African Americans were lowest among those who attained a bachelor's degree or higher. Over the three years from 2008-2010, unemployed African Americans were 60 percent more likely than non-Blacks to live in a local area with double-digit unemployment rates (See table 2). While variation in the physical size and shape of PUMAs may complicate their use in defining local areas, this is the closest to a definition of a local area one can construct given publicly available data.
Overall in 2011, Florida (232,000), Georgia (220,000), California (208,000), New York (207,000), and Texas (192,000) had the most unemployed Blacks.
However, employment rates have fallen much more sharply for men than for women in either racial group since the 2007-2009 recession began. The Department is working alongside other agencies, including the Department of Education and the Department of Housing and Urban Development, in the Obama Administration to address the challenging labor market conditions facing black workers. Of the African Americans who exited these programs between October 2009 and September 2010 and were unemployed when they entered the programs, nearly half or 170,000 began employment within the quarter after their exit. Seven organizations were competitively selected based on past experience in providing transitional (subsidized) jobs and experience with their respective target groups. The Center for Faith-based and Neighborhood Partnerships estimates that between 15% to 20% of these job clubs serve African-American unemployed workers.
From July 2010 to June 2011, 29,937 Jobs Corps participants, over 50 percent of all participants served, were African-American. Twenty-three cases specifically involved African Americans (up 44% from last year) resulting in over $2 million in back pay (an increase of 33% over last year). Building on this success, the new Pathways Back to Work Fund will provide states with support for summer job programs for low-income youth in 2012, and year-round employment for economically disadvantaged young adults. This measure would be particularly helpful to unemployed African Americans, nearly half (49.5 percent) of whom have been unemployed for more than 27 weeks.
This extension also provides funding for a self-employment assistance program that would allow UI claimants to start their own businesses while receiving UI benefits.
However, even after removing the effect of this population control change, the unemployment rate for Blacks fell between December 2011 and January 2012. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is responsible for enforcing federal laws that protect job applicants and employees from discrimination because of the person's race or other characteristics or because the person was involved in an employment discrimination investigation or lawsuit.
Black women are also more likely than white women to express concern about an immediate family member becoming infected with HIV (70% vs. Black men employed full time earned on average $653 per week in 2011, 76.3 percent of the average salary earned by white men. Moreover, the unemployment rate for Blacks was slower to fall after the official end of the recession. Over the past year ending in January 2012, Blacks have seen strong job growth in a diverse range of industries, including financial activities, professional and business services, and education and health services. Not only has the unemployment rate remained high, but a large number of black teens are no longer in the labor force - either working or looking for work — which explains some of the drop in the unemployment rate. African Americans also have longer commute times than do non-Blacks, indicating that they are less likely to find jobs near their homes. In recent months, there have been signs of improvement in employment rates for black men.
The number of employed African Americans has risen by 700,000 over the year ending in January 2012. In particular, the Department and other agencies introduced programs to increase the skills of African Americans, encourage the creation of jobs in sectors and areas that reach African-American workers, and strengthen enforcement actions that address discriminatory practices. This is particularly important for African-American youth who are experiencing an unacceptably high rate of unemployment of over 40%. Persons who selected more than one race category are not included in the employment and unemployment data for any single racial category, but are included in the estimates of total US employment and unemployment. Mason (1998), "Evidence on Discrimination in Employment: Codes of Color, Codes of Gender," Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. The slower recovery for African Americans in the labor market has been partly the result of government layoffs after the official end of the recession.
African Americans are also benefiting from the slowing pace of job losses in state and local government which have disproportionately affected them. The share of black men with a job has risen from its May 2011 low of 56 percent to 59.7 percent in January 2012. In that time growth was widespread, with financial activities (+177,000), professional and business services (+160,000), and education and health services (+106,000) accounting for the largest gains. Blacks have been more vulnerable to the drastic layoffs in government in the past two years because they make up a disproportionate share of public sector workers. African Americans have also benefited from the slowing pace of job losses among state and local governments. Moreover, with the exception of health and education, Blacks are under-represented in the sectors that have experienced the greatest job growth during the recovery, including manufacturing and professional and business services. Additionally, African Americans are more likely than Whites to face extreme commutes of over an hour (10.3 percent vs. Public sector employment trends are particularly important to Blacks as they are 30 percent more likely than non-Blacks to work in that sector.



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