Blackout in new york city in 1977,the chemical accidents emergency planning preparedness and response rules 1996 india,nat geo india shows - For Begninners

If you are thinking about installing a solar energy system to have power in a blackout, there are some facts you need to consider. In the event of a power outage, basic habits such as charging a cell phone or powering a small fan or space heater become essential. During a power outage, the power utility sends out repair crews to find and fix the points of failure. We have been using SMA inverters for a long time—they are great products with high reliability. These new inverters address both of the technical and safety issues by creating a small, independent circuit entirely disconnected from the grid. The SMA inverters represent a convenient compromise between many solar owner’s desires for backup power and their reluctance to make the large upfront investment in a full battery backup solution. The ability to generate and use a limited amount of clean solar power during a blackout adds to the other advantages of going solar. With a grid connection and net-metering rules, your solar power system can generate clean energy and share it with the grid. Solar energy systems are safe, reliable, and durable—the panels are warranted for 25 years. If we had those services, we know from experience that we could exist for weeks at a time with no electrical service from the utility company.
In regards to whether or not you need to isolate your solar system when electrical wiring repairs are being done: your electrician would probably know this, but they would want to shut off the inverter, which effectively shuts off your system so it is safe to do the electrical work. Our book can be purchased here, at McNally Jackson Books, Bluestockings, The Community Bookstore, Book Culture, and other fine NYC book retailers. Sign up for our Newsletter and we'll send you a short update on what's happening in New York each weekend! Earlier this week when India was reporting blackouts affecting half of the population, we reached out to Jim O'Neill, the economist who coined the acronym BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, and China).
He once described India to us as "complex."  To an investor conference, O'Neill identified India as the BRIC that had disappointed him the most. In his latest Viewpoints note, he continued to express his frustration with the country that can't seem to get its act together.
O'Neill recently circulated to the top people at Goldman Sachs 7 charts snapshotting the global economy. In the centre of Delhi, one of the world's biggest, dirtiest, noisiest cities, is an island of calm. Such outages are a daily occurrence for the rest of the population – or at least the two-thirds of India's 1.2bn inhabitants who actually have any electricity supply. The north Indian outage, possibly the biggest in the history of mankind, affected an estimated 700m people.
All things are relative and the "India Shining" slogan, coined for a marketing campaign in heady boom days almost a decade ago, can easily be justified when the current situation of the country is compared to the old days of famine, political instability, riots and disease. But it is increasingly difficult to reconcile the optimism surrounding India with the reality.
And yes, 6.5% GDP annual growth rate, even if down from nearly 10% in earlier years, still sounds impressive. Driving through the poor, if improving state of Bihar, on a late summer evening a year ago, the sight in every town I passed through, of large numbers of young men, some evidently drunk, out on the streets in the gathering dusk, brought home quite how easily India's "demographic dividend" could turn out to be the opposite.
Finally, there is the assumption that India, because it is a democracy, will become a compliant and constructive ally of the west. Currently, the muscles of the political leadership of India are so atrophied by long-term paralysis as to be incapable of reaction to even the most aggressive stimuli. Much business writing on the effects of the drought have focused on its agricultural aspects. But as consumers fret about the inevitable rise in food prices to come, the drought is unveiling another, darker threat to the American lifestyle, as it is now threatening U.S. Because virtually all power plants, whether they are nuclear, coal, or natural gas-fired, are completely dependent on water for cooling. Few Americans know (or up to this point have cared) that the country's power plants account for about half of all the water used in the United States. Michael Webber, associate director of the Center for International Energy and Environmental Policy at the University of Texas at Austin, is under no such illusions, stating that the summer's record high  heat and drought have worked together to overtax the nation's electrical grid, adding that families use more water to power their homes than they use from their tap.
Never mind the fact that by the time the Diablo Canyon NPP was completed in 1973, engineers discovered that it was several miles away from the Hosgri seismic fault, which had a 7.1 magnitude earthquake on 4 November 1927. On 12 August Dominion Resources' Millstone NPP, situated on Connecticut's Niantic Bay on Long Island Sound, was forced to shut down one of two reactor units because seawater used to cool down the plant was too warm, averaging 1.7 degrees above the NRC limit of 75 degrees Fahrenheit. The federal government is hardly known for its scaremongering tactics, but it would seem that Mother Nature is forcing Americans to belatedly consider making some lifestyle changes, as the choice seems to be devolving into energy conservation, turning down the air conditioner and digging deeper into the wallet for food costs. It might also be time for serious national discussion about renewable energy, including wind and solar. A large swath of Cuba was plunged into darkness on Sunday night in a widespread power failure, the cause of which was not disclosed.
Electricity went out from the city of Ciego de Avila in southeastern Cuba all the way to Havana, 250 miles to the northwest, and beyond to the westernmost province of Pinar del Rio. Phone calls around the island indicated power was returning in many areas, but not yet in the Cuban capital, which is the Communist country's biggest city with 2.2 million people.
There were unconfirmed reports that the outage was caused by the failure of a generating plant in Cienfuegos on Cuba's southern coast.
In Havana, street and traffic lights were out across the city, causing police officials to call in off-duty officers to direct traffic. The shortages of the 1990s followed the collapse of the Soviet Union, Cuba's top benefactor.
Utility companies in the United States are good at their job – so good that Americans can largely take for granted that, when they flip a switch, their lights will come on. But, in the United States, people enjoy consistent access to electricity thanks to extensive investments that provided near-universal access to power across the nation. In some communities, the post-Derecho blackout lasted for more than a week, as utilities struggled to repair and replace damaged infrastructure.
After Hurricane Sandy swept through New York, the hundreds of thousands of people who lost power in downtown Manhattan were eager to get their phones charged in order to communicate with loved ones.
For the hurricane’s aftermath, the company is offering free services outside Stumptown Coffee on 29th street and Broadway in Manhattan. When the company launched in September, it targeted restaurants, hotels, gyms and convention centers, but since the hurricane, the target venues have now expanded to hospitals and shelters, Billy Gridley, the company's CEO, said. To use the service, consumers simply swipe their credit cards to unlock one of the chamber's doors, choose a charging cord, plug in their phones and close the door to securely lock it. Nearly two years ago, the idea came Johnson, the company's CMO, when he was bartending in Manhattan's Meatpacking district and asked "ten times a day to charge up someone's phone." He convinced another bartender friend, Peter Harrison, to join the company before recruiting Jack Phelps, the current COO of the company, who brought on Gridley. And it solves a problem for the venues because now they can charge their customers' electronics without using their own devices or being liable for misplaced phones. Right now, Bright Box's charging stations are in well-known venues such as Manhattan's Irving Plaza and Pianos and Union Pool in Brooklyn, and the company plans on setting up stations in malls and sport stadiums soon.

Researchers have developed software to predict where blackouts are most likely to happen when storms hit, which could help authorities cut the amount of time people are in the dark after disasters like Hurricane Sandy. Sandy wreaked havoc in 2012, causing as much as nearly $50 billion in damage, making it the second-costliest hurricane to hit the United States.
As hurricanes approach, forecasts about their paths and the wind speeds areas might experience are often fairly accurate up to three days before landfall.
Analysts combine this data with knowledge concerning how vulnerable power lines are — for example, if they have a 50 percent chance of failure in 65 mph winds — to predict which parts of the electrical grid might go out when storms hit. However, storms change over time, and researchers want predictions that are as up to date as possible. Manually developing estimates based on each update would consume time the few analysts that are typically available might not have, and such tedious, repetitive labor is prone to error.
Instead of relying on analysts, Fernandez and his colleagues have developed software that fully automates the process of determining how storms might knock out power. All the extra variables the system analyzes “reduces problems of false positives and false negatives — that is, you don’t predict areas will stay in operation when they actually will get knocked out, or lose power when they actually ride the storm out,” he says. The software can finish power outage analysis within 15 minutes of receiving a weather advisory. It is also possible “to combine these models with climate change predictions to see how electrical grid outages might actually evolve over time as weather changes, where water will be and how people move in reaction to these changes,” he says. Future models could model other natural disasters that can impact the electric grid, such as earthquakes and wildfires. The blackout hit numerous big cities in the Northeast and Midwest, including Cleveland, Detroit, and Toronto. The blackout struck the city just after the stock exchange had closed and the evening was about to begin in New York. Some traders watched as their monitors blinked off at their desks as they were about to leave the floor.
This college student, Shmuel Aziza of France, got innovative in Brooklyn, charging his laptop via a car battery. The military was called to keep order across the nation as 11 out of the country's 23 states, or about 70% of the country's population, had to make due without things like traffic lights and underground transportation. While blackouts in Venezuela aren't that rare, the scale of this incident definitely stands out, and the fact that impacted oil rich states and Caracas, the capital, is a big deal. Nicolas Maduro, the country's leader and successor to the late Hugo Chavez blamed the blackouts on "folly by twisted and desperate minds" of the opposition, on state TV. Of course, according to the BBC, the opposition accuses Maduro of spending billions of state money to run his post-Chavez election campaign while ignoring necessary investment in Venezuela's electricity grid.
On July 13th, 1863: Mobs angered by the new draft rioted in NYC, burning buildings and looting stores (not even Brooks Brothers was safe). On July 13th, 1977: Lightning strikes at an electrical substation in upstate New York trigger a series of power failures, plunging the five boroughs into darkness.
There are many advantages to installing a grid-connected solar energy system, but having full power to your home or business during a blackout is not one of them. The electronics that control a solar electric system constantly adjust voltage and current in order to keep the panels operating at their most efficient and powerful operating point through a range of varying sunlight conditions. So, even if you disregard the need for efficiency, connecting this variable resource directly to your home’s electrical system would cause your lights to blink, damage your refrigerator, and wreak havoc on your computers and television.
The linemen and women can be jeopardized if there is a local power generator (like a solar array) leaking power onto the grid lines. The biggest “for” argument is that, with battery backup, your home or business can be powered during a blackout. These new inverters feature a secure power supply (SPS) that can connect to an external socket outlet and provide up to 1,500W of daytime power—when the sun is shining and the array is generating sufficient power—in the event of a grid outage. The inverter controls the solar panel electrical output as an alternative to sending out variable power levels. Solar panels and installation involve high initial expenses, but this cost is soon offset by savings on energy bills. With fossil fuel costs and utility rates predicted to rise, solar can be a good way to lock in long-term savings now.
Assuming your home is grid-tied (meaning you feed energy to the grid and draw when your demands exceed your solar output), if there is a black-out, your system will automatically shut down. If you (or your electrician) still have questions or you ever consider expanding your system, please give us a call! Since 1978, we've treated readers to the best that the city has to offer in dining, nightlife, attractions, and events, while also providing essential day-to-day information that will turn any traveler, transplant, or tourist into a seasoned New Yorker.
A look back at the newspaper's most iconic images Daily News' most iconic images As the Daily News celebrates its 96th birthday, we look back through our archives at the newspaper's most iconic photos taken throughout history. The country’s huge power blackouts highlight once more the scale of their challenges, and at the same time, ongoing economic indicators lead more to scale back cyclical GDP forecasts. India's wealth, though more and more unequally distributed, has grown very substantially in the last 20 years. In a recent book surveying the developing world, analyst and investment banker Ruchir Sharma says that India has, at best, only a 50% chance of becoming what he calls "a break-out nation".
This is imagined as a vague mixture of Rajasthani forts, new campuses packed with elite IT specialists and picturesque traditional villages.In fact, the new India being created by economic growth and urbanisation consists largely of thousands of square miles of bad quality apartment blocks sprawling around almost every major city. But many economists estimate India needs an economy growing at around 7% annually simply not to lose ground. Much of the impact of the power cut was cushioned by the precautions – generators, battery back-ups etc – that many businesses and households have already taken against the daily, shorter, outages. In worst-case scenarios, the consequence of a combination of tens of millions of people with unrealistically high aspirations, deteriorating prospects of improvement and a consistently mediocre standard of living will be high levels of social unrest. This is to underestimate the country's determination to pursue what it sees as its own interests, the legacy of decades of "non-aligned" international positions and an entrenched suspicion of America and Europe.
It was a desperate financial crunch that inspired the reforms of the early 1990s that made the growth of the last decades possible. To give but one, the hottest, driest summer since 1936 scorching the Midwest have diminished projected corn and soybean crop yields s in the U.S.
According to the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in Morgantown, West Virginia, the average NPP that generates 12.2 million megawatt hours of electricityrequires far more water to cool its turbines than other power plants.
The Millstone NPP, which provides half of all power used in Connecticut and 12 percent in New England, was only restarted twelve days later. No one at the state-owned electrical company could immediately be reached to explain the outage. But this one was more extensive than usual and reminded some of the 1990s when the country was short of energy and outages were a daily occurrence.
It's more or less like the Special Period, except in those days, blackouts were so common we had lanterns with kerosene.
But, if extensive investments are not made over the coming decade, the nation might soon use “blackout” as its mot du jor. And, of those who have access, many live in areas where monthly or even daily blackouts are an expected part of life.

Today, more than 160,000 miles of transmission lines and millions of miles of distribution lines run through the continental United States. And, as extreme as this storm felt to area residents at the time, it was – in fact – a somewhat routine event. Whenever they're ready to retrieve their phones, they simply swipe the same card, which acts as a key and unlocks the chamber holding the phone. Johnson told us it also encourages people to stay longer while their phones are charging, which potentially brings in more business.
The problem is that it can take analysts an hour to prepare each estimate based on a weather advisory, and hurricanes that hit the United States typically lead to more than 40 weather advisories, with updates issued every two to three hours around the clock — Sandy alone spawned 64 such advisories. After the software frees analysts up from this labor, these experts will be able to concentrate on refining estimates further by integrating power utility reports and other information from the ground during storms. They also plan to expand their model to include factors such as tree density, as well as to analyze storms worldwide instead of just the United States. For instance, while analysts could accurately predict when 80 percent of people who lost power would get electricity restored, “the 20 percent who waited much longer to get power back were much more dependent on local conditions — say, a tree hit a piece of equipment that took a long time to replace, or it took a longer time for a place to dry out after flooding than what models predicted,” he says.
Thousands of passengers had to be evacuated from subway tunnels, and others were evacuated from large buildings. Gov. A large portion of the rioters were Irish laborers who thought they were being drafted to free slaves who, once emancipated, would take over their jobs.  Over the three days of the riot, over a hundred civilians were killed, at least eleven of which were black men who were lynched. Though she was only nine years old when the 50s ended, Conn is best known for her role as the beauty-school dropout Frenchy in the 50s-set movie musical Grease, starring along side fellow New York native Stockard Channing.
Even homes with solar may lose power in the event of a grid outage if their system does not include some form of energy storage.
To do this, the system needs to be able to produce quantities of power that are not dependent on how much your house is actually using at the time. Therefore, utility rules mandate that in the event of a power outage, solar arrays must automatically shut down. The biggest “against” of battery storage is the cost, which can double the cost of your clean energy system.
This gives customers confidence that they can get a small supply of electricity from their solar inverter even when the grid is out and other solar PV systems are down.
You do not need to do anything, as your system would have been installed with an automatic disconnect that shuts your system down for you when the grid goes down.
In addition, they are the one BRIC nation that doesn’t appear to be here on mass in London. It revealed the parlous state of Indian infrastructure and provided a dramatic example of how public institutions have failed to keep pace with economic growth. If the environment has suffered hugely, at the proportion of Indians living in poverty has dropped. Hundreds of millions of young people will be pouring on to the labour market in coming years. Horrific gender imbalances due to the pre-or post-natal killing of girls will mean a serious shortage of partners for young males. It is likely, too, that after a few difficult years, the elephant will resume its slow lumbering march towards prosperity and stability. Given the drought, many facilities are overheating and utilities are shutting them down or running their plants at lower capacity. Nuclear Regulatory Commission spokesman David McIntyre explained, "Heat is the main issue, because if the river is getting warmer the water going into the plant is warmer and makes it harder to cool. This power grid allows utilities to – for the most part – balance supply and demand in the case of unexpected events. These types of windstorms occur frequently in the Midwest and are actually seen about once every four years in the Washington, DC area.
And, as a result of wind gusts and pouring rain, this storm has plunged more than 8 million people into darkness. And, unless Americans are willing to invest at least $673 billion into the aging infrastructure by 2020, they can expect blackouts to become a common headline.
With thousands injured, the draft riots of 1863 remain the largest civil insurrection in American history. The city was experiencing a severe financial crisis in addition to the panic inspired by the Son of Sam murders which were happening at the same time. Conn reprised her role in the lesser known, but still hilarious Grease 2 in 1982 and continues to act.
In a grid-connected system, that excess power is put back onto the grid for others to use, and your utility credits you on your bill for that power. Solar systems have detectors that sense whether power is coming across the grid, and whenever grid power is down, they automatically shut down too, to protect utility workers.
Batteries also compromise the “clean energy” aspect of solar—they are toxic and very costly to discard when no longer useful. The bottom line is, with new technology, grid-connected solar can deliver a limited amount of electricity to your home or business during a power outage. The reason this is necessary is so that your system is not feeding live power onto the grid when people may be working on the lines.
The bureaucrats in charge of Delhi's grids switch off the supply to hospitals before they plunge the homes of top politicians into darkness. And it also revealed quite to what degree the conclusion, so deeply rooted in the west, that India is not only "shining" but will only get progressively shinier, is complacent in the extreme. A whole world of top-class hotels, coffee chains serving cappuccino, glitzy domestic airlines, shiny new airports, information technology companies, quality private clinics, art galleries and the odd mass urban transit system has been dropped on top of the old India and partly obscures the heat, the crowds, the filth and the misery, as well as the cultural riches, for which this extraordinarily varied country has long been known.
If the promotion of the minister responsible for power in the wake of the outage inspires despair, the angry reaction of media and middle class is hopeful.
Accordingly, the price of a bushel of corn has jumped 62 percent since 15 June and soybeans gained 32 percent in the same period. Coal or natural gas plants need, on average, only 1890 and 719 liters respectively to produce the same amount of energy.
Pataki said that 600 trains were left stranded, and crowds of stranded passengers piled up in both Grand Central and Penn Stations.
This panic combined with the 25-hour blackout spurred lootings and fires across the city as well as the largest mass arrest in NYC history. Batteries have a relatively short life, compared to other solar system components; they are also very heavy and bulky, and require a lot of maintenance to perform at their best. And so the residents of the most upmarket parts of the city – so confident of their power supplies that they do not have generators – had to sit in the fetid monsoon temperatures of 35 degrees like everyone else. If defined in western terms, as people with salaried jobs, a car, the odd overseas holiday and an apartment or even house, then Indians fitting this category cannot number more than a couple of per cent of the population at best. A local definition, given to me by a young man in a cheap restaurant, are those who can afford an 11p cup of coffee.

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