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Image of the X1.2 class solar flare from the Sun on January 7, 2014, as seen from the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Solar astronomers have been keeping an eye on giant sunspot AR1944, and as it turned towards Earth today, the sunspot erupted with a powerful X1.2-class flare.
The SWPC forecasters said they are anticipating G2 (Moderate) Geomagnetic Storm conditions to occur on January 9, followed by G1 (Minor) levels January 10. But when we read the patent application, we find that actually the turbine does NOT run on atmospheric pressure – it requires compressed air. Thus, Kondrashov indicates that an external compressor must be used to fill the turbine’s compressed air tank before the turbine can be started.
Expecting an ambient heat engine to do any work, with only one heat reservoir, is exactly equivalent to expecting a teapot to boil water by absorbing heat from a block of ice.
Both processes are ruled out by the very same law – the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
In a strictly ambient heat engine there are not two heat reservoirs at different temperatures; no reservoir would be available at any temperature other than the ambient temperature. Flow of heat from a block of ice to lukewarm water would also result in a DECREASE of the total entropy. Once again: Expecting an ambient heat engine to do any work, with only one heat reservoir, is exactly equivalent to expecting a teapot to boil water by absorbing heat from a block of ice. In fact, we can show that the Kelvin-Planck formulation may be deduced from that of Clausius. Goldes’ make-believe strictly ambient heat engine would be a perpetual motion machine of the second kind, as defined above.
Goldes even claimed in 2008 that the POWERGENIE had been demonstrated already in an electric car, driven 4800 miles by his energy-multiplying horn-powered tuning-rod. But it seems that most people, for some reason, had difficulty accepting the notion that the law of conservation of energy could be proven false. Mark Goldes claimed in 2008 that this wonderful triumph of human genius would bring his company, Magnetic Power Inc, one billion dollars in annual revenue by 2012.
Aesop Institute’s make-believe strictly ambient heat engine is ruled out by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Aesop Institute’s very latest make-believe engine is a perpetual motion machine in the form of a self-powered air compressor, which uses a turbine to compress air to spin the turbine to compress air to spin the turbine.
But of course, the laws of physics always make an exception for the make-believe pretenses of Mark Goldes. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. The most powerful X-class flares can also affect power grids and other infrastructure on the Earth.Thursday's solar flare was the fourth X-class solar flare of 2014. NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory sees an X-class flare exploding off the right side of the sun.
While X-class flares are the most powerful eruptions on the sun, the star also experiences more moderate M-class solar flares (which can supercharge Earth's aurora displays) and weaker C-class storms. A A solar flare occurs when magnetic energy that has built up in the solar atmosphere is suddenly released. These magnetic lines slip around each other and lead to an eruption 35 times the size of the Earth and an explosive release of magnetic energy into space.The discoveries of a gigantic energy build-up have brought scientists a step closer to predicting when and where large flares will occur. Fortunately, these solar storms aren't expected to be catastrophic — and anyone living in the northern US or Canada might be able to see some colorful auroras on Friday night (see map below). Space experts have long warned that if a truly massive solar storm ever hit us — much bigger than the current one — it could knock out power grids across North America, leaving millions of people without electricity for months and causing widespread chaos.
The recent solar eruptions are benign by comparison — though the fact that there were two of them arriving in such close proximity is unusual. On September 9 and 10 of this week, two solar flares erupted from an active sunspot region, with the second being a large X1-class flare. The National Weather Service's Space Weather Prediction Center has been tracking these ejections ever since. The first reached Earth on Thursday night, creating a "moderate" G2 geomagnetic storm when it hit our planet's magnetic field.
This weekend's storms are expected to cause only modest disruptions, officials from the Space Weather Prediction Center said. An aurora occurs as the charged particles from the sun travel along the Earth's magnetic field in the upper atmosphere and collide with gas atoms, causing them to emit light. This eruption is also a reminder that the sun is capable of some truly enormous flare-ups, and much stronger solar storms in the future could do some serious damage. The biggest concern when it comes to space weather is the possibility that a solar-induced geomagnetic storm could do serious damage to our power grids. Here's how this would work: At certain points in the sun's cycle, as sunspots appear and flares erupt, the sun will occasionally eject part of its outer atmosphere — a cloud of fast-moving charged particles.


If those currents are large enough, they can overload electric grids — which is exactly what happened in Quebec in 1989. According to the Lloyd's of London report, the Northeastern United States is one of the places most at risk, thanks to its aging power grid and unique geologic features (see map).
In theory, there are technologies that could harden the grid and protect against stronger storms, such as capacitors that can help block the flow of ground currents induced by a geomagnetic event. Back in 2013, Joseph Kunches, a scientist at the Space Weather Prediction Center, told me that we're still learning about other activities that could potentially be disrupted by various types of solar weather. And there are still plenty of unknowns, such as the potential impact of solar eruptions on GPS technology.
One big problem we face in preparing for space weather is that it's unclear what we need to prepare for. Scientists who study space weather say it would be useful to have more spacecraft studying the sun, to give us more advance warning of storms. Right now, NASA operates four space satellites positioned between the Earth and the sun, which together can provide roughly 30 minutes' warning of a major solar eruption. This piece was updated between Friday morning and Friday evening after the second coronal mass ejection hit Earth.
This decaying sunspot is located near eastern limb and generated CME was not geoeffective, however, it produced a R2 (Moderate) Solar Flare Radio Blackout which can cause limited blackout of HF radio communication on sunlit side, loss of radio contact for tens of minutes and degradation of low-frequency navigation signals for tens of minutes.
A blast of Arctic air is expected to cause an outbreak of icy weather across the UK throughout this week.
An intense storm accompanied by golf-sized hailstones and gale-force winds was sweeping parts of northern Myanmar since April 19, 2016. An extensive severe weather outbreak is targeting the central United States, with the highest risk on Tuesday, April 26, 2016, into Wednesday, April 27. A new study, conducted by scientists from the University of Texas at Austin Jackson School of Geosciences, suggests the volcanic activity related to the plate-tectonic movements could have triggered climate changes in Earth's history.
A large landslide triggered by heavy rains has killed at least 16 people in the north-eastern Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh, officials said. After Atoyac River that disappeared when a huge sinkhole opened up on February 28, 2016, two more rivers in the mountains of the Mexican state of Veracruz are suffering the same fate. Severe thunderstorms accompanied by heavy rainfall and very large hail have been sweeping the states in northeastern India, since April 18, 2016. A very large earth crack opened on Britain's Jurassic Coast after heavy rains caused thousands of tons of earth to give way on April 13, 2016.
Previously she served as UT's Senior Editor and lead writer, and has worked with Astronomy Cast and 365 Days of Astronomy.
This is clearly indicated even in the article by Kondrashov posted by Goldes on his flimflam website. But he tries to pretend that once the turbine starts to spin, there will be no further reliance on the external compressor – the spinning turbine itself will compress the air that is making the turbine spin. Therefore the engine would have to DECREASE the total entropy – and therefore we know for certain that the engine will disappoint us. The brilliant idea of this revolutionary breakthrough is to blow a horn at a magnetized tuning rod, designed to resonate at the frequency of the horn, and then collect the electromotive energy produced by the vibrations of the rod. There is only pseudoscience, relentless flimflam, and empty claims of engines that are ruled out by the laws of physics. These three views of the X1.4 flare are in 131, 304 and 171 angstrom, showing off the crafts capabilities to see flares in different light bands. The sun is currently in an active phase of its 11-year weather cycle, and was expected to reach its peak activity in 2013.Images of the flare were captured by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory.
Their frequency varies from several a day, when the sun is particularly active, to less than one a week during quiet periods. They hit the Earth's magnetic field Thursday night and midday Friday, creating strong geomagnetic storms that may cause disruptions to the world's electric grids, GPS, and radio systems throughout the weekend.
But it is a reminder that the sun's occasional eruptions are capable of wreaking havoc here on Earth. A storm that big hit Earth back in 1859 (though there were no power grids then, just a bunch of telegraph wires that got frazzled), and we just barely missed getting blasted by a similar-sized solar eruption in 2012.
And the map above could change throughout the night (so if you live below in an area with poor or no visibility, that doesn't necessarily mean you're out of luck, though there are no guarantees). They appear fairly often in places like Alaska or Iceland, but it takes a strong storm to get auroras this far south. In a worst-case scenario, a massive solar storm could leave 20 to 40 million people in the Northeast without power, according to a sober assessment last year by Lloyd's of London.
As I've detailed before, businesses and government agencies have been devising plans to cope with disruptive space weather — from hardening power grids to rerouting flights that might get disrupted by geomagnetic storms.
If this "coronal mass ejection" hits the Earth's magnetic field in just the right way, it can induce a strong ground current that can travel through power lines, pipelines, and telecom cables.


Even a storm that knocked out just 20 key transformers would be "extremely concerning." And in a doomsday scenario, 40 million people could go without power indefinitely. Modern society relies on electricity for a great many things — and we don't do very well without it. Power utilities could try to take precautions if they had advance warning of a major solar storm headed their way. For example, PJM Interconnection operates a major portion of the US power grid from Illinois to the District, supplying power to some 60 million people. In Quebec, the Canadian government has spent about $1.2 billion on these technologies since the 1989 blackout. In 2012, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission issued an order that would eventually require grid operators to prepare both operational and technological responses to a space weather event. Nowadays, airlines run a number of commercial flights over the poles, such as routes between Atlanta and Tokyo.
Astronauts working outside the Earth's protective shield can be particularly vulnerable to bursts of solar radiation, which can have harmful health effects.
It's possible that even solar storms could degrade the signal as it makes its way from the satellite to the ground. It's still difficult to predict, for instance, whether a solar outburst will actually create a storm when it hits Earth. But these satellites are all reaching the end of their planned lives (and fuel tanks), and there's only one replacement satellite scheduled to launch in 2014. As of April 22, 2016, more than 10 000 people across all 19 departments of the country are currently displaced due to flooding. According to residents, more than 2 000 homes in Manipur and other buildings suffered extensive damage.
A CME is a fast moving cloud of charged particles which can interact with Earth’s atmosphere to cause aurora, so observers in northern and southern latitudes should be on the lookout for aurora, possibly through January 10. Harmful radiation from a flare cannot pass through Earth's atmosphere to physically affect humans on the ground, however -- when intense enough -- they can disturb the atmosphere in the layer where GPS and communications signals travel.
This image was captured by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory and shows a blend of light from the 171 and 304 Angstrom wavelengths. They can also interfere with our GPS systems and force airplanes in polar regions to divert flights. But even so, it's hard to protect against a truly massive storm, and it doesn't help that we're about to lose some key observational satellites.
Those can often take years to replace, as many weigh up to 400 tons and are custom built, with intricate supply chains.
One 2004 study by Carnegie Mellon University found, for instance, that a large number of Pittsburgh's services were wildly unprepared for an extended blackout. After receiving a warning, its human operators could redispatch electricity to reduce the flow of current from west to east. But if the companies get a last-minute warning from the Space Weather Prediction Center of a geomagnetic storm, the planes often have to divert their routes away from the poles or risk losing radio contact with the ground. That means that if we ever got serious about, say, traveling to Mars, we'll need a better grasp on space weather. GPS is built into so much of the modern economy — from navigation to geophysical exploration by oil and gas companies — that any interference with those signals could prove quite costly.
A great deal depends on how a coronal mass ejection interacts with other solar winds as it moves toward us. Astronomers have said that this sunspot region remains “well-placed and energetic” so there could be subsequent activity. X-class denotes the most intense flares, while the number provides more information about its strength.
Half the city would lose water after three days if the city's electrical pumps couldn't be revived. That would minimize the grid's vulnerability to ground currents, Frank Koza, the executive director of operations support at PJM, said at a space weather conference in Silver Spring I attended back in June 2013. Kunches likened it to knowing that a hurricane is coming, but not being able to measure its barometric pressure. It is exactly analogous to trying to use a generator to power a motor to spin the generator to power the motor to spin the generator. Most hospitals have backup systems in place, but emergency rooms would be strained if the air conditioning went out during a heat wave.



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