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DESCRIPTION: It should be emphasized that most of all of the previous maps discussed in these first three volumes have been one-of-a-kind, manuscript maps. The conservatism of the Higden maps (#232) can be explained by their 14th century model, but in the late 15th century a world map appeared in print which was extremely peculiar and whose antecedents we do not know.
Among the numerous fine woodcut illustrations and genealogical tables are two double-page maps: one of Palestine and one of the world.
The world map is oriented to the East with Asia on top and the other two continents below, T-O style, though the three water divisions (Don, Nile, Mediterranean) are not shown (Book II, #205).
This description corresponds completely with the picture on the map and the olive branches also are now clear. Other pictures on the map include two dragons in Libya, crowned kings and a queen in various kingdoms, the Pope in Rome, a figure in the holy land which is perhaps Saint Jerome (a major source for the book), and a phoenix in flames in Africa. This world map is often described as a€?the first modern printed mapa€?, in that it bears no relation to Ptolemy and it is not of medieval schematic type.
Of more convincing pictorial quality is the map of Palestine, which, measuring 58 x 40 cm, presents a birda€™s eye view over the hills and seas of the Holy Land. Over 100 places-names and geographic features are identified, with towns and countries named.
Arguably the greatest technical advance in human history was the invention of printing, and it is ironic that the first use of this invention in the service of cartography marked a€?the end of an era rather than the beginning of a new onea€? a€“ Tony Campbell. Winter, H., a€?Notes on the World map in a€?Rudimentum Novitioruma€?, Imago Mundi, Volume 9, p. This map does not have Adam and Eve in the east (at the top), as others do, but shows, on a mountain from which four rivers rise, within a group of trees, two pulpits with a man in each holding a green leaf in a lifted hand. Of more convincing pictorial quality is the map of Palestine, which, measuring 58 x 40 cm, presents a birda€™s eye view over the hills and seas of the Holy Land.A A  This map is believed to be based upon an important lost delineation of Burchard of Mt. Traditional Turkish Miniature & Paintings Workshop,Turkish Miniatures are he oldest surviving illustrations belong to the Uighur Turks. We have an Art Studio in Sultanahmet area and our teachers are professional in Traditional Turkish Miniature & Watercolor Paintings.
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The Historical Development of the Ottoman Court Miniature In the Ottoman era, miniature art was produced for more than three hundred years.
Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror was not only a truly great statesman but a cultured man of liberal outlook. In addition to portraits, a number of manuscript illuminations have survived from this period. Following his victories over the Safavids and Mamluks, which had hitherto been the two most powerful states in the Islamic world, Sultan Selim I (1512-20) brought a large number of artists to the Ottoman court in Istanbul, most of them from the Tabriz palace. Besides the matchless illustrations in the Suleymanname, the reign of Suleyman has also left us important examples of portraiture. The Oldest Turkish Illustrated Documents,The oldest illustrated documents on paper among Turkish tribes, are from the period succeeding Akhuns. Moslem Miniatures,The oldest miniatures found in Moslem circles are from the 9th, 10th, 11th centuries and they have been found in Egypt. The 16th Century Ottoman Miniatures,The conquest of Istanbul was the first step into a new phase of the Ottoman cultural life.
The beginning of the eighteenth century was the start of both opening to the Western world and increasing the necessary self-renovation efforts for the Ottoman Empire.
Levni Abdulcelil Celebi is the most accomplished and famous Ottoman painter of the early eighteenth century. Levni has made a series of sultans’ portraits, ending with that of Sultan Mustafa II’s for Demetrius Cantemir’s book, The History of the Growth and Decay of the Ottoman Empire.
Levni was both a painter and a poet; he has expressed his artistic personality both visually, in his paintings and rhythmically in his poems. The point of view developed by Levni has both influenced later artists and opened a path of innovations in the Ottoman art of depiction. At different periods, depending on the centre of calligraphy at the time, the Arabic script was known variously as anbari, hiri and mekki in pre-Islamic times, and after the Hegira these were qualified by the term medeni. Ottoman - Turkish Calligraphy, also known as Arabic calligraphy, is the art of writing, and by extension, of bookmaking. Ottoman Turkish calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on the page. The traditional instrument of the Turkish - Ottoman calligrapher is the kalem, a pen made of dried reed or bamboo; the ink is often in color, and chosen such that its intensity can vary greatly, so that the greater strokes of the compositions can be very dynamic in their effect.
The first of those to gain popularity was known as the Kufic script, which was angular, made of square and short horizontal strokes, long verticals, and bold, compact circles.The Diwani script is a cursive style of Arabic calligraphy developed during the reign of the early Ottomans (16th and early 17th centuries). Due to its rich subject matter, longevity, and freshness, Turkish miniature painting of the Ottoman period occupies a special place in the history of Islamic painting.
We have an Art Studio in Sultanahmet area and our teachers are professional in Traditional Turkish Miniature & Watercolor Paintings.
In our studio, we provide all the materials for our students including old miniature papers.
Ottoman miniatures and illuminated manuscripts were prepared mostly for sultans but also for important and powerful figures in their retinues. A distinctive feature of Ottoman miniature art is that it portrays actual events realistically yet adheres to the traditional canons of Islamic art, with its abstract formal expression. The nakka?’s (designer-painters), of the Ottoman court were required to illustrate daily events. Ottoman miniature painting, which was periodically affected by different artistic influences, was essentially a form of what can be called “historical painting”.
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HODJAPASHA ART and CULTURE CENTER,RUMI,The name Mevlana Celaleddin-i Rumi stands for Love and ecstatic flight into the infinite. The Mevlevi, or Mevleviye, one of the most well-known of the Sufi orders, was founded in 1273 by Rumi's followers after his death, particularly his son, Sultan Veled Celebi (or A‡elebi, Chelebi) in Konya , from where they gradually spread throughout the Ottoman Empire. The Mevlevi Order is also linked to other Dervish orders such as the Qadiri (founded in 1165), the Rifa'i (founded in 1182), and the Kalenderis.
Following a recommended fast of several hours, the whirlers begin to rotate on their left feet in short twists, using the right foot to drive their bodies around the left foot.
The Mevlevi Sema Ceremony is proclamated as an INTANGIBLE WORLD HERITAGE in Traditional performing art social practices themes by UNESCO in October 2005.
Calligraphy Lesson in Istanbul,Ottoman - Turkish Calligraphy, also known as Arabic calligraphy, is the art of writing, and by extension, of bookmaking. Turkish Tiles Workshop Ceremic ( Cini ) Lesson,The art of Turkish tiles and ceramics have a very important in the history of Islamic art. Turkish Baths or 'hamams' as they are named, are for many aspects of health, not just for external cleanliness. Football Match Tickets in Istanbul,Galatasaray Fenerbahce and Besiktas game tickets ,Daily Istanbul Group Tour ( Sightseeing Tours ),or individuals and small groups. 3 Days Yoga Tour in Istanbul,You will be able to learn the basic or advance techniques about yoga and have a nice time during your visit in istanbul . Known to the west as Whirling Dervishes, the Mevlevi Order was founded by Mevlana Rumi in the 13th century.
Felt Making Workshop in Istanbul,elt is a non-woven cloth that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing woollen fibres. The present size of the Jewish Community is estimated at around 26,000 according to the Jewish Virtual Library. Les Arts Turcs Photo Safari Tour,istanbul,turkey,estambul,photo safari tour,Istanbul is an enchanting city of ancient beauty and modern charm . Let the experts and artists of Les Arts Turcs take you on a tour of this diverse city, specially tailored for the photographer or videographer.
DESCRIPTION: This highly controversial map has only recently been uncovered (1957) and therefore has only a short history of scholarly analysis. THE MANUSCRIPT: First brought to the publica€™s attention in 1957 by an Italian bookseller, Enzo Ferrajoli from Barcelona, the document now known as the Vinland map was discovered bound in a thin manuscript text entitled Historia Tartarorum (now commonly referred to as the Tartar Relation). The Tartar Relation, in essence, is a shortened version of the more well-known text entitled Ystoria Mongolorum, which relates the mission of Friar John de Plano Carpini, sent by Pope Innocent IV to a€?the King and People of the Tartarsa€™, which left Lyons in April 1245 and which was away for 30 months. The fate of the Speculum Historiale was very different, for Vincenta€™s work became a standard reference book on the shelves of monastic libraries and was constantly multiplied during the next two centuries in manuscript form. According to these same scholars, the Tartar Relation text does have some significance in its own right as an independent primary source for information on Mongol history and legend not to be found in any other Western source.
That the map and the manuscript were juxtaposed within their binding from a very early date cannot be doubted.
The association of the map with the texts is reinforced by paleographical examination, which has enabled the hands of the map, of its endorsement, and of the texts to be confidently attributed to one and the same scribe. The map depicts, in outline, the three parts of the medieval world: Europe, Africa, and Asia surrounded by ocean, with islands and island-groups in the east and west.
In the design of the Old World the map belongs to that class of circular or elliptical world maps in which, during the 14th and 15th centuries, new data were introduced into the traditional mappaemundi of Christian cosmology. Written in Latin on the face of the map are sixty-two geographical names and seven longer legends. Before proceeding to analyze the geographical delineations of the map in detail, we may briefly survey the antecedent materials, cartographic and textual, to which comparative study of it must refer. As noted above, the representation of Europe, Africa, and Asia in the map plainly derives from a circular or oval prototype. Variations of this basic pattern were introduced to admit new geographical information, ideas, or new cartographic concepts.
The circular form of the medieval world map, in the hands of some 14th and 15th century cartographers, is superseded by an oval or ovoid; and even in the 14th century rectangular world maps begin to appear, mainly under the influence of nautical cartography. Most of these variations in the form and design of world maps were adapted from the practice of nautical charts and, in the 15th century, of the Ptolemaic maps. If the Vinland map was drawn in the second quarter of the 15th century, and perhaps early in the last decade of that quarter, it would take its place after that of Andrea Bianco and would be contemporary with the output of Leardo, whose three maps are dated 1442, 1448, and 1452 or 1453. As previously noted, the outlines of the three continents form an ellipse or oval, the proportions between the longer horizontal axis and the vertical axis being about 2:1.
It is not necessary to assume that the prototype followed by the cartographer was also oval in form.
If the model for the Vinland map corresponded generally in form and content to Andrea Biancoa€™s world map, then the variations introduced by its author are not less significant than the general concordance.
Comparison of the geographical outlines of the Vinland map with those of Bianco suggests that its author, while generally following his model, was inclined to exaggerate prominent features, such as capes or peninsulas, and to elaborate, by fanciful a€?squigglesa€?, the drawing of a stretch of featureless coast. EUROPE: With the reservations made in the preceding paragraph, the cartographera€™s representation of the regions embraced by the a€?normala€? portolan chart of the 15th century, the Mediterranean and Black Seas, Western Europe, and the Baltic, closely resembles that of Bianco in his world map, which reflects his own practice in chart making. Scandinavia, as in all maps before the second quarter of the 16th century, lies east-west in both maps; but there is a conspicuous divergence in their treatment of its western end, which both cartographers extend into roughly the longitude of Ireland. In its delineation of the British Isles, the Vinland map again diverges from that in Biancoa€™s world map. These differences seem too great to fall within the limits of the license in copying which the author of the Vinland map evidently allowed himself in those parts of his design which agree basically with Biancoa€™s rendering and may derive from a common prototype. In the Vinland map, Europe is devoid of rivers, save for a very muddled representation of the hydrography of Eastern Europe.
The twelve names on the mainland of Europe are, with two exceptions, those of countries or states. AFRICA: The general shape and proportions of Africa, extending across the lower half of the Vinland map, also correspond to a type followed, with variation, in most circular world maps of the 14th and 15th centuries, and deriving ultimately from much earlier medieval and classical models. Alike in the general form of Africa (with one major variation) and in the detailed outlines of the continent, the Vinland map agrees with Biancoa€™s circular map of 1436 (which itself has, in this part, close affinities with the design of Petrus Vesconte).
The hydrographic pattern of the African rivers in the Vinland map is a somewhat simplified version of that drawn by Bianco, with the Nile (unnamed) flowing northward from sources in southern Africa to its mouth on the Mediterranean and forking, a little below its springs, to flow westward to two mouths on the Atlantic; the western branch is named magnus [fluuius]. The African nomenclature of the Vinland map, some fourteen names, is conventional, over half the forms corresponding to those of Bianco. Africa is the continent in which we have noted some striking links between the Vinland map and Biancoa€™s world map of 1436. The great advance in the knowledge which, from the second half of the 13th century, reached southern Europe about the interior of West Africa and the Sudan was reflected in many maps, from the information collected by merchants on the Saharan trade routes and in the markets of Northwest Africa.
ASIA: If we are justified in supposing the cartographera€™s prototype to have been circular, he, or the author of the immediate original copied by him, has adapted the shape of Asia, as of Africa, to the oval framework by vertical compression rather than lateral extension. It is in the outline of East Asia that the maker of the Vinland map introduces his most radical change in the representation of the tripartite world which we find in other surviving mappaemundi and particularly (in view of the affinities noted elsewhere) in that of Andrea Bianco. This version of East Asian geography is found in no other extant map, and its relationship to the prototype followed for the rest of the Old World is best seen by comparison with Biancoa€™s delineation, which itself descends from an ancient tradition. It is a striking fact, and one which perhaps does credit to his realism, that, in order to admit into his drawing of the Far East a representation derived from a new source under his hand, he has gone so far as to jettison the Earthly Paradise from the design.
The concentration of interest on the Greenland sector has led to the comparative neglect of the Asian section, which has topographical features at least as unusual. The remaining islands of Asia are drawn in the Vinland map very much as by Bianco, with some simplification and generalization, and may be taken to have been in the prototype. Within the restricted space allowed by his revision of the river-pattern and of the coastal outlines, the author of the Vinland map has grouped the majority of his names in two belts from north to south, on either side of the river which runs from the Caspian to the ocean. For Asia the compiler of the Vinland map shows the same conservatism in his use of sources as for Africa; and, apart from the modifications introduced from his reading of the Tartar Relation, this part of the map could very well have been drawn over a century earlier. To the north of the British Isles, the Vinland map marks two islands, presumably representing either the Orkneys and Shetlands or these two groups and the Faeroes. To the west of Ireland the Vinland map has an isolated island, also in Bianco; and to the southwest of England another, drawn by Bianco as a crescent. Further out, and extending north-south from about the latitude of Brittany to about that of Cape Juby, Biancoa€™s world map shows a chain of about a dozen small islands, drawn in conventional portolan style. Further south, the Vinland map lays down the Canaries as seven islands lying off Cape Bojador, with the name Beate lsule fortune.
ICELAND, GREENLAND, VINLAND: In the extreme northwest and west of the map are laid down three great islands, named respectively isolanda Ibernica, Gronelada, and Vinlandia Insula a Byarno re et leipho socijis, with a long legend on Bishop Eirik Gnupssona€™s Vinland voyage above the last two. The three islands are drawn in outline, in the same style as the coasts in the rest of the map; and there can be no doubt that the whole map, including this part of it, was drawn at the same time and by a single hand.
The land depicted to the west of Greenland in the northwest Atlantic has the following legend (in translation): Island of Vinland discovered by Bjarni and Lief in company.
The question a€?what kind of map is this?a€? the answer must be: a very simple map, simple both in intention and in execution. In finding cartographic expression for the geography of his texts, the maker of the map has practiced considerable economy of means. Examination of the nomenclature has suggested that the Vinland map, in the form in which it has survived, is the product of a stage of compilation (the work of the author or cartographer) and a subsequent stage of copying or transcription (the work of a scribe who was perhaps not a cartographer).
The process of simplification described above was presumably carried out in the compilation stage. These considerations must govern our judgment of the date and place of origin to be ascribed to the map.
The Map was interesting to historians as apparent evidence that Norse voyages of the 11th and 12th centuries were known in the Upper Rhineland in the mid-15th century, and consequently that some continuity of knowledge existed between the early discovery of what we know as America and the rediscovery of western lands in the later 15th century.
As a world map the Vinland map does not fit into the framework of medieval cartography as conceived in Western Europe. SOURCES: Analysis of the nomenclature and of its affinities with other maps or texts suggests some general remarks about the Vinland map and about its mode of compilation.
In those parts of the map in which (as noted above) the influence of O1 predominates, there are very few names which cannot be traced to it or to the common stock of toponymy found in contemporary cartography (and therefore perhaps in O1). On this assumption, some other names (if they were not in O1) and all the legends (which can hardly have been in O1) must be attributed to the compiler of the map, i.e.
Whether the novelties in the nomenclature of the Atlantic island groups were in O1 or were introduced by the compiler of O2 cannot be determined; the affinities between their delineation in the Vinland map and in surviving charts suggest that the names also may have been found by the compiler in maps which have not survived.
At each stage of derivation, from O1 to O2, and (less probably) from O2 to the Vinland map in its present form, there must have been a process of selection or thinning out of names. The representation of the Atlantic, with Iceland, Greenland, and Vinland, was almost certainly not in the prototype used for the tripartite world, but was added to it by the cartographer from another source or other sources. The world picture of the 14th century, which was taken over into the mappaemundi of the next century, including the prototype used in the Vinland map, owed its general form and plan to geographical concepts of classical origin, confirmed and modified by the authority of the Christian Fathers. On this pattern were to be grafted geographical facts derived from experience and unknown to the creators of the model.
Printed in LA?beck in 1475, the map was an illustration for a universal history in Latin entitled Rudimentum Novitiorum sive chronicarum historiarum epitome [A Handbook for Beginners].
The province of Palestine is more or less in the center, where Jerusalem, unnamed, is represented by a formidable castle.
They are not, however Adam and Eve, but two men, each holding what may be an olive branch in his hand, apparently having a conversation.
They undertook to unite themselves in the pleasures of (worldly) goods and the love of God in one law and in one road to wisdom. This question is interesting also for the cartographer, considering that it is the first reliably dated printed map. A man-eating devil in northern Asia is already in the process of devouring a victima€™s severed arm. Each country is represented as a separate hill accompanied by either a figure of the sovereign or several small buildings representing towns. It contains the reproduction of a theological treatise a€?De Adventu Messiea€? taken from a MS.
Beginning with the invention in Europe of the printing process and the publication of the first printed map in 1472, the traditional T-O map in the EtymologiA¦ of St.
Sion, the 13th century Dominican from Magdeburg whose account and map of his pilgrimage (Prologus) were widely known throughout late medieval and early renaissance Europe.
The eight and nineth century paintings found at Chotcho, there capital in Turfan, are the earliest examples of Turkish book illustrations known.
In our studio, we give beginner, intermediate & advanced level of traditional Turkish Miniature & Watercolor painting lessons. For more info please send us an E-MAIL,history of Ottoman & Turkish Minature Paintings,Ottoman miniatures and illuminated manuscripts were prepared mostly for sultans but also for important and powerful figures in their retinues.
The earliest Ottoman Turkish miniatures were created under the patronage of Sultan Mehmed II some 150 years after the establishment of the Ottoman state.
In spite of the fact that there was no tradition of portraiture in the Islamic world, he had his likeness painted just as Western monarchs did and for this reason invited Italian painters to his court. These works, which were probably produced in Edirne, bear traces of the Timurid and Karakoyunlu Turkmen miniature styles found in mid-fifteenth century Shiraz. A significant number of these artists had been those who the Safavids had earlier brought from Herat to Tabriz, along with the last Timurid sultan.The lengthy sultanate of Suleyman the Magnificent (1520-66), witnessed a gradual expansion and strengthening of the Ottoman borders. A number of these, noteworthy for their great originality, were both written and illustrated by a certain Nasuh al-Silahi, nicknamed Matraki because of his expertise in a sport called matrak. Turkish portrait painting, which began during the reign of Mehmed the Conqueror but suffered a decline under his immediate successors, was revived during these years by the Turkish navigator Haydar Reis, who used the pseudonym Nigari and whose most important works are preserved in the Topkapy Library. These documents dating from 717-719 are in Turkish, Chinese and Arabic and they belong to a Turkish emir who battled with Moslem armies in Pencikent near Samarkand.
The characteristics of the period in the field of paintings and miniatures may be summed up as the meeting of the eastern and western painting schools, as the widespread interaction and communication and as the widespread availability of display. The famous miniature painters of the age were master Osman, Ali ?elebi, Molla Kasim, Hasan Pasa and Litfi Abdullah.
Although this period during which cultural relations with Europe were increasing is named “the westernization” or “the renovation” period, it is much too complicated to be explained in a single phrase. The originals of these engraved portraits printed in the book have not survived to our day.
The fact that the title ‘Celebi’ is used with Levni’s name, shows that he was an educated, elegant, well mannered, respectable gentleman from a high social class within the Ottoman society. The Koran, which was the first Islamic text compiled in book form, was first written in mekki-medeni hand in black ink on parchment, without diacritics or vowel signs. In Persia and further east, meanwhile, kufi was transformed into a script known as mesrik kufisi, which was used until superseded by the aklam-i sitte scripts. It was invented by Housam Roumi and reached its height of popularity under Suleyman I the Magnificent.
The most important of these works are still preserved in the place in which they were produced, for example, Topkapy Palace in Istanbul, and other palaces of the Ottoman sultans. Nearly all these paintings are concerned with important events of the day, such as Turkish victories, the conquest of fortresses, state affairs, festivals, formal processions, and circumcision feasts. To preserve the freshness of the works they prepared and to ensure that the orders of the sultan were carried out, they worked very rapidly, with the result that the Turkish miniature is devoid of fine and elaborate ornamentation. The bulk of Turkish miniatures comprise works of documentary value deriving from the depiction of actual events.
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Rumi is one of the great spiritual masters and poetical geniuses of mankind and was the founder of the Mevlevi Sufi order, a leading mystical brotherhood of Islam. He is the Divine Voice giving the good news to those seeking beauty , truth , goodness , light and Divine Truth. Today, Mevleviye can be found in many Turkish communities throughout the world but the most active and famous places for their activity are still Konya and Istanbul.
The Mevlevi Order was outlawed in Turkey at the dawn of the secular revolution by Kemal AtatA?rk in 1923.he Mevlevi Sema Ceremony Mevleviye are known for their famous practice of whirling dances.
The body of the whirler is meant to be supple with eyes open, but unfocused so that images become blurred and flowing.
Explore Old Istanbul, from the ancient tradition of the Turkish bath to the mystic Whirling Dervishes, from the Egyptian Spice Market to the trade secrets of the Silk Road linking Europe with China.
It is an important part of the weddings & special ceremonies.,Turkish Miniature & Watercolor Paintings Workshop,Turkish Miniatures are he oldest surviving illustrations belong to the Uighur Turks.
We will transfer to your hotel MINA Hotel 3 Days Hotel and Tour Reservation in Istanbul,discover Istanbul with us. While some types of felt are very soft, some are tough enough to form construction materials. We will transfer to your hotel MINA Hotel ,3 Days Hotel and Tour Reservation in Istanbul,Discover Istanbul with us. The vast majority live in Istanbul, with a community of about 2,500 in A°zmir and other smaller groups located in the rest of Turkey.
We can show you the photogenic side of Istanbul - the mesmerizing blur of dervishes in their whirling dance, the dazzle of the wares of the bazaar, the delicate beauty of long-forgotten gems of classical architecture hidden in the maze of city streets, the serene faces of old men relaxing in the smoke-filled haze of a teahouse, birds-eye views of Istanbula€™s scenic panoramas. This fact not withstanding, it may also claim, during this rather short period, to have undergone more intensive scrutiny and examination in both technical and academic terms than any other single cartographic document in history. This manuscript text and map were copied about the year 1440 by an unknown scribe from earlier originals, since lost. Whereas Carpinia€™s Ystoria is not considered a rare text, no manuscript or printed version of the Tartar Relation has survived, save the one bound with the Vinland map.
It is because the Tartar Relation, one, had the good fortune to become embodied in a manuscript of this popular work (possibly a substitute for, or an addition to, Books XXX-XXXII, which also contained an abridgement of Carpinia€™s own account) and, two, because, in general, a bulky manuscript like the Speculum Historiale had a better chance of physical survival than a slender one like Tartar Relation bound separately.
Additionally the Tartar Relation does act, partially, as one of the chief sources for some textual legends on the Vinland map with regards to Asia. As part of Vincenta€™s encyclopedia of human knowledge entitled Speculum Majus, Speculum Historiale was included as a chronicle of world history from the time of mana€™s creation to the 13th century, in 32 sections or books.
The physical analysis, together with the endorsement of the map, points with a high degree of probability to the further conclusions that the map was drawn immediately after the copying of the texts was completed, and in the same workshop or scriptorium, and that it was designed to illustrate the texts which it accompanied. Further evidence on their relationship and on its character must be sought in the content of the map. The derivation of the map, in this respect, from a circular or oval prototype is betrayed by the general form of Europe, Africa, and Asia, which are rounded off (or beveled) at the four oblique cardinal points, although the artist had a rectangle to fill with his design. The whole design is drawn in a coarse inked line, with evident generalization in some parts and considerable elaboration in others. The features named are seas and gulfs, islands and archipelagos, rivers, kingdoms, regions, peoples, and cities. It is, of course, not to be supposed that its anonymous maker had direct access to all surviving earlier works with which his shows any affinity in substance or design; but identification of common elements will help us to reconstruct the source or sources upon which he drew. Even when the world maps of the late Middle Ages, drawn for the most part in the scriptoria of monasteries, attempted a faithful delineation of known geographical facts (outlines of coasts, courses of rivers, location of places), they still respected the conventional pattern which Christian cosmography had in part inherited from the Romans, and, in part, created.
The traditional orientation, with east to the top, came to be abandoned by more progressive cartographers, who drew their maps with north to the top (following the fashion of the chart makers) or south to the top (perhaps under the influence of Arab maps). While the work of Leardo is considerably more sophisticated in compilation and more a€?learneda€? in its incorporation of varied geographical materials than that of Bianco, the world maps of both these Venetian cartographers plainly depend for their general design on models of the 14th century.
Since the map is oriented with north to the top, the longer axis lies east-west, and the two greater arcs at top and bottom are formed by the north coasts of Europe and Asia and by the coasts of Africa respectively. In fact his map has striking affinities of outline and nomenclature with the circular world map in Andrea Biancoa€™s atlas of 1436 (#241).
His personal style of drawing, save perhaps in the outlines of certain large islands, shows no sign of the idiosyncrasies of the draftsmen of the portolan charts, although these have left a clear mark on the execution of Biancoa€™s world map. The orientation and outline of the Mediterranean agree exactly in the two maps, although in the Vinland map it has a considerably greater extension in longitude, in proportion to the overall width of Eurasia. Bianco shows Scandinavia as terminating in an indented coast projecting westward with a large unnamed island off-shore, divided from it by a strait; but the author of the Vinland map has altered the island to a peninsula and the strait into a deep gulf by drawing an isthmus across the south end of the strait.
In both, Ireland has the same shape and coastal features, derived from the representation in contemporary Italian charts; and Biancoa€™s version of Great Britain also is that of the portolan chart makers, with the English coasts deeply indented by the Severn and Thames estuaries and the Wash, with a channel or strait separating England and Scotland, and with Scotland drawn as a rough square with little indentation. In view of the novel elements in the northwest part of the map, we must reckon with the possibility, but no more, that its author found this version of the British Isles in a map of the North Atlantic which may have served him as a model for this part of his work and from which may stem not only his representations of Iceland, Greenland, and Vinland, but also his revisions of Scandinavia and Great Britain and of the islands between.
The lower course of the Danube is correctly drawn as falling into the Black Sea; but the copyist or compiler appears to have erroneously identified it with the Don (which debouches on the Sea of Azov), for the name Tanais is boldly written just above the river, with a legend about the Russians.
The only European city named in the Vinland map is Rome, while Biancoa€™s world map marks only Paris.
The northwest coast was by this date known as far as Cape Bojador, and this section is traced with precision in both maps. Errors made by the anonymous cartographer in common with Bianco, or derived from their common prototype, are the transference of Sinicus mons [Mount Sinai] to the African side of the Red Sea and the location of Imperits Basora [Basra] in the eastern horn of Africa (Bianco also incorrectly places the Old Man of the Mountain (el ueio dala montagna; not in the Vinland map) in Africa instead of Asia).
It also seems, although no doubt deceptively, to provide the latest terminus post quem for dating both.
The wealth of detail for this region recorded by Carignano, the Pizzigani, and the Catalan cartographers is wholly absent from Biancoa€™s world map and from the Vinland map. Thus, in place of the steeply arched northern coast of Eurasia shown by Bianco, we have a flattened curve which abridges the north-south width of the land mass. The prototype is, in this region, not wholly set aside for traces of it remain but rather adapted to admit a new geographical concept which, significantly enough, can be considered a gloss on the Tartar Relation. The most prominent of these is the Magnum mare Tartarorum [the Great Sea of the Tartars] set between the eastern shores of the mainland and the three large islands on the margin, and occupying an area approximately one-third of that of continental Asia. Again, the northernmost of these islands on the Map has the inscription, Insule Sub aquilone zamogedorum, while the text states that the Samoyeds are a€?poverty stricken men who dwell in forestsa€™ on the mainland of Asia. The three small islands in the Persian Gulf appear in both, though Biancoa€™s crescent outline for them (of portolan type) is not reproduced by the anonymous cartographer; the large archipelago depicted by Bianco (again in portolan style) in the Indian Ocean is reduced to four islands, and the two bigger oblong islands to the east of them are in both maps.
Instead of Biancoa€™s representation of the Arctic zones of Eurasia (with two zonal chords, delineations of skin-clad inhabitants and coniferous trees, and a descriptive legend), the Vinland map has only the two names frigida pars and Thule ultima. The nomenclature for Asia, with twenty-three names, is richer than that for the other two continents; some names come from the common stock found in other mappaemundi, but the greater number are associated with the information on the Tartars and Central Asia brought back by the Carpini mission. The cartographera€™s neglect to use any information from Marco Polo or from the travelers in his footsteps, notably Odoric of Pordenone, is common to all maps before the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (in which East Asia is drawn entirely from Marco Polo) and to most maps of the first half of the 15th century.
His delineation of them, indeed, closely resembles that in Biancoa€™s world map, which is in turn a generalization, with nomenclature omitted, from the fourth and fifth charts (or fifth and sixth leaves) in his atlas of 1436. The two islands appear, in exactly the same relative positions, in Biancoa€™s world map, although they are absent from the charts of his atlas.
These islands, the Azores of 15th century cartography and the Madeira group, are represented in the Vinland map, in more generalized form and without Biancoa€™s characteristic geometrical outlines, by seven islands, having the same orientation and relative position as in Biancoa€™s map, and with the name Desiderate insule. Their agreement in outline with the two large islands laid down in exactly the same positions at the western edge of Biancoa€™s world map is striking: in particular, the indentation of the east coast of the more northerly island and the peninsular form of its southern end, the squarish northern end of the other (and larger island) and its forked southern end, are common to both maps.


That they lie outside the oval framework of the map suggests that they were not in the model, apparently a circular or elliptical mappamundi, which the cartographer followed in his representation of Europe, Africa, and Asia.
For this part of the map there are no earlier or contemporary prototypes of kindred character for comparison, and indeed (except in respect of Iceland) no representations with much apparent analogy can be cited before the late 16th century.
It is drawn as a rough rectangle, with a prominent west-pointing peninsula in the northwest, the EW axis being considerably longer than the N-S axis. The northernmost point of Vinland is shown in about the same latitude as the south coast of Iceland and somewhat lower than the north coast of Greenland; and its southernmost point in about the latitude of Brittany. Residual from the representation described under the previous name, the large elliptical island being suppressed. Buyslaua = Breslau (Bratislava), where Carpinia€™s party stopped on the outward journey and was joined by Friar Benedict.
Ayran (NE of the Caspian) Perhaps Sairam in Turkestan, a station on the old highway, east of Chimkent and N.E. Vinlanda Insula a Byarno re pa et leipho socijs [Island of Vinland, discovered by Bjarni and Leif in company]. The links between the map and the surviving texts which accompany it strongly suggest that it was designed to illustrate C. There is a decided incongruity between, on the one hand, the care and finish which characterize the writing of the names and legends, with their generally correct Latinity, and, on the other hand, the occurrence of onomastic errors which knowledge of current maps and geographical texts or reference to the prototype used by the compiler would have corrected.
If we are justified in supposing the scribe who made the surviving transcript of the map to have been ignorant or naive in matters of geography, the draft which he had before him for copying must have been the product of selection and combination already exercised by the compiler. The evidence, internal and external, which indicates that the manuscripts were produced in the Upper Rhineland in the second quarter of the 15th century can only apply to the map included in the codex. In its representation of Europe, Africa, and Asia it can be referred to, and collated with, not only extant cartographic works of similar character and design, but also a text which is bound in the same volume and to which its content is clearly related. This information was limited in its scholarly impact by the failure of historians to find any other evidence of continuity or to discover that the evidence contained in the Map had ever been known to anyone concerned with exploration either before Columbusa€™s voyage or after.
In respect of toponymy, as of outline and design, the correspondences between this map and Biancoa€™s world map of 1436 are almost certainly too extensive to be explained by coincidence. Some of these anomalies (Aipusia, aben, Maori) are plainly the product of truncation or corruption in transcription, and indicate that the draftsman lacked the knowledge to correct his own errors in copying. In Asia however, while a number of names and the basic geographical design derive from O1, the authority of the Tartar Relation of other Carpini information generally prevails in the toponymy. The names for Iceland and Greenland may point to literary sources, perhaps of Norse origin (these names, however may have been in cartographic sources used by the compiler); so, with more certainty, do the name and legends relating to Vinland.
For Europe and Africa, Biancoa€™s world map has considerably more names than the Vinland map; in Asia the balance is redressed by the introduction of names from the Tartar Relation.
The lucky accident that his sources for the Old World can be easily identified or reconstructed allows us to hazard some inferences about his treatment of his sources for the Atlantic part of his map. Patristic geography, as formulated in the Etymologiae of Isidore of Seville (7th century, #205), envisaged the habitable world as a disc, the orbis terrarum of the Romans encircled by the Ocean and divided into three unequal parts, Europe and Africa occupying one half and Asia the other half of the orbis, with the Earthly Paradise in the east. According to its publisher, Lucas Brandis, it was designed so that a€?poor men unable to afford a library can have a brief manual always on hand in place of many books.a€? The paupers of whom Brandis spoke may have meant poor preachers or friars minor but also may have referred to a growing number of book owners among the merchant class in a thriving commercial city such as LA?beck.
In the west, three columns stand for the Pillars of Hercules at the entrance of the Mediterranean.
Schwarz arrives only at the conclusion that the author had been a cleric, and infers from the word noster at a specific place that the author was of Lubeck or its vicinity.
We do not know if there was a manuscript version that formed its base, as none has ever been found, but there are a great number of universal histories of this type, which were very popular in the late Middle Ages. Theodore Schwarz describes this image only very briefly, although it is natural to see in them two disputing men, two priests.
Shirley.A  The Rudimentum Novitiorum would go on to become more widely known through later French translations under the title Mer des Hystoires. The most famous of these artists was Gentile Bellini, who is known to have painted a portrait of the young sultan when he visited Istanbul from September 1479 to December 1480. The clothing and usage of color prove that these paintings were produced during the Ottoman period. Portraits of Sultan Suleyman, the great Barbarossa, and Sultan Selim II are among his works painted on single sheets.
Seljuk Turks established the first school of miniatures in Baghdad within their vast empire covering Turkestan, Iran, Mesopotamia and Anatolia in the 12th century. While the Hisrev and Shirin, Sheraz school in the beginning of the 15th century, Iran Italian painters called by Mehmet the Conqueror continued their activities, Turkish artists on the other hand, carried on the domestic traditions. We should also mention the Persian, Albanian Bogdanian and Hungarian artists who largely contributed to the art of miniature in the cosmopolitan Ottoman society. Contrasting colours were used side by side with warm colours with an avant-garde approach in colour selection. In the beginning of this process, Ottoman Art progressed along a path balanced between the traditional and the new. There is only a short piece of information about Levni in the ‘Mecmua-i Tevarih’ that Hafyz Huseyin Ayvansarayi wrote in the second half of the eighteenth century. Kebir Musavver Silsilname (A3109) in the Topkapy Palace Museum Library is a series of sultans’ portraits that constitutes a turning point in Ottoman portraiture. In one of his poems, the artist states that the pseudonym ‘Levni’ was attributed to him by others. The large scale form of kufi known as iri kufi, which was mainly used on monuments, was reserved for decorative purposes in combination with some elements of embellishment. Calligraphy is especially revered among Islamic arts since it was the primary means for the preservation of the Qur'an.
There are examples of miniature painting which date from the middle of the fifteenth to the beginning of the nineteenth centuries. Other museums and libraries in Istanbul also house rare manuscripts containing outstanding examples of Turkish miniature painting. The Ottoman painter arrived at a spare mode of expression, free of superfluous detail and focused on the essence of its subject. Delpopolo is the first counselor to treat her as an equal, and he helps her get to the bottom of her self-destructive behavior, her guilt about past actions, and her fears about leaving the Center when she turns eighteen. Rumi was born on 30 September 1207 in Balkh in present day Afghanistan to a family of learned theologians. The Mevlevi were a well established Sufi Order in the Ottoman Empire, and many of the members of the order served in various official positions of the Caliphate.
At their dancing ceremonies, or Sema, a particular musical repertoire called ayin is played.
The Sema takes place in a large circular-shaped room that is part of the mevlevihane building.
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Calligraphy is especially revered among Islamic arts since it was the primary means for the preservation of the Qur'an.Ottoman Turkish calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on the page. Interest has been virtually international in scope and has covered every aspect pertinent to a document purported to be of seminal historical significance: its historical context, linguistics, paleography, cartography, paper, ink, binding, a€?worminga€?, provenance or pedigree, etc. The Tartar Relation itself was initially bound as part of a series of volumes containing 32 books of Vincent of Beauvaisa€™ (1190-1264) Speculum Historiale [Mirror of History]. Clearly, Painter points out, any circulation that the Tartar Relation may have had in separate form was too limited, in view of the normal wastage of medieval manuscripts, to ensure its transmission to the present day. Based upon various internal and external evidence, it is likely that the juxtaposition of the Speculum Historiale and Tartar Relation first occurred prior to the drafting of the Yale manuscript of 1440, but sometime after the 1255 date of the original production of the Speculum, so that the Yale manuscript is itself a copy of an earlier manuscript, now unknown, in which the Speculum Historiale, Tartar Relation and Vinland map were already conjoined. The Yale manuscript contains only Books XXI-XXIV, and comparative calculations indicate that 65 leaves are missing that could account for the table and text of Book XX (these four Books cover the history from 411 A.D. The physical association of the map with the manuscript is demonstrated beyond question by three pairs of wormholes which penetrate its two leaves and are in precise register with those in the opening text leaves of the Speculum.
These texts may have included, in addition to the surviving books (XXI-XXIV) of the Speculum and the Tartar Relation, other books of the Speculum conjectured to have formed the missing quires and a lost final volume of the original codex. The nomenclature is densest in Asia, where it is largely borrowed from the Tartar Relation or a similar text.
Moreover, in the light thrown on the cartographera€™s work-methods and professional personality by his treatment of sources which are to some extent known, we may visualize his mode of compilation or construction from materials which have not come down to us. The elliptical outline is interrupted, in its western quadrant, by the Atlantic Ocean and by the gulfs or seas of Western Europe, and in its eastern by a great gulf named Magnum mare Tartarorum; the curvilinear outline is however continued southeastward from Northern Asia by the coasts of the large islands at the outer edge of this gulf.
The features common to both maps, and in some cases peculiar to them, are sufficiently numerous and marked (as their detailed analysis will demonstrate) to place it beyond reasonable doubt that the author of the Vinland map had under his eyes, if not Biancoa€™s world map, one which was very similar to it or which served as a common original for both maps.
Some apparent differences in the rendering of particular major regions in the Vinland map, which may be due to the use of a different cartographic prototype or simply to negligence by the copyist, are discussed in the detailed analysis which follows. The distinctive shapes in which Bianco draws the Adriatic, Aegean, and Black Seas reappear in the Vinland map.
This seems a more probable explanation of the feature than to suppose that it represents the gulf of the northern ocean supposed by medieval geographers to cut into the Scandinavian coast and drawn in various forms by cartographers of the 14th and 15th centuries, from Vesconte to Fra Mauro. The a€?Danubea€? is shown as rising just south of the Baltic and turning eastward in about the position of Poland; at this point it forks, and a branch flows in a general southeasterly direction to fall into the Aegean. Beyond it the coast line, conventionally drawn, trends southeastward with two estuaries or bays similarly shown by both cartographers, although the anonymous map has a slight difference in the river pattern. They have in common the precise tracing of the northwest coast as far south as Cape Bojador, and if they shared a common prototype, this (it might be supposed) could not have been executed before the voyage of Gil Eannes in 1434.
The latter repeats Biancoa€™s anachronistic reference to the Beni-Marin and his erroneous location of two names; but these aberrations, which appear to be peculiar to Bianco, do not help in dating. This concept is the Magnum mare Tartarorum with, lying beyond it and within the encircling ocean, three large islands which appear to derive from the cartographera€™s interpretation of passages in C. This great sea is connected in the north with the world ocean by a passage named as mare Occeanum Orientale [the eastern ocean sea]. The Tartar Relation also states that the Tartars have one city called a€?Caracarona€™ (Karakorum) but this city does not appear on the Vinland map.
The elimination of East Asia by the western shoreline of the Sea of the Tartars has affected the distribution of place names in the Vinland map and its delineation of the hydrography.
The location and arrangement of the names cannot, in general, be connected with Carpinia€™s itinerary (or any other itinerary order), nor with any systematic conception of Central Asian geography. The affinity between the two world maps, in this respect, is so marked as to distinguish them from all other surviving 15th century maps and to confirm the hypothesis that one has been copied from the other or that both go back to a common model for their drawing of the Atlantic islands.
These islands (unnamed in the two world maps) are Satanaxes and Antillia, which make their first appearance in a map of 1424 and have been the subject of extensive discussion by historians of cartography. Greenland, somewhat larger than Iceland, is dog-legged in shape, with its greatest extension from north to south. Between these points Vinland is drawn as an elongated island, the greatest width being roughly a third of the overall length; the somewhat wavy details of the outline, if compared with this cartographera€™s technique in other parts of his map, seem to be conventional rather than realistic. To facilitate location of the name and legends on the original map, numbers have been added, keying them to the reproduction at the end of this section. Presumably intended for the Orkneys and Shetlands, or one of these groups and the Faeroes]. The form (for Dania) common in mediaeval cartography, and found in many charts and world maps. Mediaeval world maps commonly show a pair of such legends, indicating the regions, outside the oikoumene, too cold or too hot for human habitation. Although the second word is truncated, no trace of further letters can be seen in ultraviolet light. The name is, however, placed too far inland and too far east for Mauretania, and this may be a corruption of another name in the prototype, e.g.
The concept of the Western Nile, or a€?Nile of the Negroesa€?, represented in mediaeval cartography arose from the identification of the Niger, by some classical writers, as a western branch of the Nile and from subsequent confusion of the Niger, the Senegal, and the Rio do Ouro (south of C. Although of diverse languages it is said that they believe in one God and in our Lord Jesus Christ and have churches in which they can pray]. The remaining children of Israel also, admonished by God, crossed toward the mountains of Hemmodi, which they could not surmount].
This name is placed in the approximate position of India media of Andrea Bianco, who (like most medieval geographers) distinguished three Indiasa€”minor, media, and superior. According to Carpini, one of the nations of the Mongols: a€?a€¦ Su-Mongal, or Water-Mongols, though they called themselves Tartars from a certain river which flows through their country and which is called Tatar (or Tartar)a€?.
The Khitai, who ruled in China for three centuries before the Mongol conquests under Ogedei and Kublai, a€?originated the name of Khitai, Khata or Cathay, by which for nearly 1,000 years China has been known to the nations of Inner Asiaa€?. Carpinia€™s statement that a€?they called themselves Tartars from a certain river which flowed through their countrya€? (see above, under Zumoal) reflects the opinion of other 13th century writers, such as Matthew Paris. In medieval cartography generally Thule is represented as an island north or NW of Great Britain; some writers identified it as Iceland.
The name and delineation probably embody the mapmakera€™s interpretation of what he had read or been told of the Caspian Sea. The last phrase of the legend is inconsistent with the geographical ideas of the Mongols, contrasting with those of the Franks, as reported by Rubruck: a€?as to the ocean sea they [the Tartars] were quite unable to understand that it was endless, without boundsa€?. These islands, and the Postreme Insule, are associated with the cartographic concepts in the two preceding legends (see notes on Magnum mare Tartarorum and on Tartari a rmant .
This is written in the center (between the fourth and fifth, counting from the north) of the chain of seven unnamed islands extending in a line N-S from the latitude of Brittany to that of C. The name is placed westward of, and between, two large unnamed islands, to which it plainly refers.
In no other map or text is the form Isolanda found, or the epithet Ibernica annexed to the name for Iceland. The Icelandic name Groenland, in variant forms (including the latinization Terra viridis), is used in all early textual sources. 1001 rest on the sole authority of the a€?Tale of the Greenlandersa€? in the 14th-century Flatey Book. What other undetected changes or corruptions the copyist may have introduced into the final draft we cannot tell, since his original, the compilera€™s preliminary draft, is lost.
For its delineation of lands in the north and west Atlantic, the cartographic prototypes (if it had any) either have not survived or have been so transformed as to be difficult to identify; and if the codex once included a text relating to these lands, this too has now disappeared.
Finally, the inscriptions on Greenland and Vinland in the Map offered a few scraps of information which differed somewhat from what was commonly accepted.
1440 on the argument that it is in the same hand as the Tartar Relation, of which the Map is held to be an integral part.
It seems to be an inescapable inference that the author of the Vinland map (or of its immediate original) employed no eclectic method of selection and compilation from a variety of sources, but was content to draw on a single map, which must have been very like Biancoa€™s, for the majority of the names, as well as the outlines, in Europe, Africa, and part of Asia. Thus, in Europe, Ierlanda insula may perhaps arise from his misinterpretation of O1 or of some other map in which the names for Ireland and for the islands north of Scotland misled him; and Buyslava may come from the reports of the Carpini mission. The degradation of names from this source points again to carelessness or ignorance in the copyist, although in one instance - Gogus, Magog - he, or the compiler of O2, has emended the debased form (moagog) in the Tartar Relation by reference to O1.
In the absence of the prototype O1, we cannot say whether its author or the compiler of the Vinland map was responsible for introducing the few names in the Old World which must have come from classical or medieval literary sources and the nomenclature for the Atlantic islands. His apparent preference for the simple solution or the single source admits the possibility that the western part of his map also derives, in the main, from one prototype rather than that it combines features from several; it may have been modified by interpolation or correction from another source (as is the representation of Asia from the Tartar Relation), and this too must be taken into account. This theoretical and schematic construction did not necessarily imply belief in a a€?flat eartha€?, although it is uncertain whether Isidore himself admitted the sphericity of the earth. Like Higden, the anonymous author of Rudimentum included several lengthy geographical digressions, one on the world and one on the holy land.
The mapa€™s most striking feature is its conformation of the land as a succession of a€?hillocksa€?, each surmounted by a castle or tower and bearing the name of a province or territory. The scholar Anna-Dorothee von den Brincken thinks they might be a Jew and a Christian having a harmonious discussion, thus symbolizing the unity of the Old and New Testaments. If, however, the second is true, it would be interesting to know why the words of the Majorcan scholar (born 1235) found an echo precisely in LA?beck. We must however note that this would be true only for the version printed in Lubeck but not of possible of the earlier MSS. Von den Brincken notes that the twenty years before the booka€™s publication are barely covered in the history and opines that the printer updated an older work. The leaf, the well-known symbol of peace, might signify here that the disputing men are not enemies, but friends. The prologue of the treatise shows that the idea on which the drawing in Rudimentum Novitiorum is based is not original. If, however, the second is true, it would be interesting to know why the words of the Majorcan scholar (born 1235) found an echo precisely in Lubeck. The people in these miniatures, especially male figures, have portrait quality, with their names inscribed below. In addition to these artists who had been brought from cities like Herat and Tabriz in the east, artists of other nationalities such as Hungarians, Albanians, Bosnians, Circassians, and Georgians were also found.
One of them relates to events from the time of Bayezid II and its illustrations depict conquered fortresses and cities (R. His use of dark green, bordering on black as the backround of his portraits is one of the distinguishing features of the artist’s personal style.
This school has continued until the end of the 14th century, but the most important works and examples are from the 13th century.
We can see this dual influence in the works of Sinan Bey from Bursa, who was the pupil of Hisamzade Sunullah and Master Paoli. According to the registers of the 16th century, the number of miniaturists in Sileyman the Magnificent's court only were 29 instructor-masters and 12 apprentice-pupils.
The finish consisted of egg-white, starch, lead carbonate, gum tragacanth, salt of ammonia. Between the years 1703 and 1730, under the patronage of Sultan Ahmed III and his famous and powerful Grand Vizier, Nev?ehirli Damat Ibrahim Pasha, opportunities were provided in all art fields. The author says that Levni Abdulcelil Celebi, started work as the apprentice of an illuminator when he came to Istanbul from Edirne; that he showed progress in his work and became a master working in the saz style. While painting these portraits, ending with that of Sultan Ahmed III, Levni used creative novelties taking traditional elements as a base.
Meaning both ‘colorful’ and ‘varied’, the name ‘Levni’ truly describes his personality reflected in his very colorful and diverse style. In time this style of writing divided into two forms; the sharply angled form being reserved for Korans and important correspondence. The form of mensub hatti known as verraki mentioned above, which was generally reserved for copying books and therefore known as neshi (a derivation of the verb istinsah, "to copy"), was the prototype for the muhakkak, reyhani and nesih scripts which emerged in the early eleventh century. As decorative as it was communicative, Diwani was distinguished by the complexity of the line within the letter and the close juxtaposition of the letters within the word.In the teachings of calligraphy figurative imagery is used to help visualize the shape of letters to trace.
In addition, Ottoman miniatures can be found in museums, private collections, and libraries around the world, most notably the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin. Ottoman miniatures are also records of contemporary events, filtered through the artists’ own concepts of reality.
Shavonne tells him the truth about her crack-addicted mother, the child she had (and gave up to foster care) at fifteen, and the secret shame she feels about what she did to her younger brother after her mother abandoned them. Escaping the Mongol invasion and destruction, Rumi and his family traveled extensively in the Muslim lands, performed pilgrimage to Mecca and finally settled in Konya, Anatolia, then part of Seljuk Empire. This is based on four sections of both vocal and instrumental compositions using contrasting rhythmic cycles and is performed by at least one singer, a flute-player (neyzen), a kettledrummer and a cymbal player. In all those areas in Turkey you can find different variations of tour programmes from walking tour to Full package tours according to our all budget guests. 4 Days Hotel and Tour Reservation in Istanbul,There is no another city which has 2 contients in the world so are you ready to see this fabulous city ??, Vip Transfer & Rent A Car Service in Istanbul,Expertise in the automotive field, the innovative concept of quality-oriented car rental and chauffeur driven hire service as soon as possible..
The choice of the name Vinland and the appearance of this Norse discovery prominently displayed on the map was what attracted such immense popular and scholarly attention.
All indications (paper, binding, paleography, etc.) point to an Upper Rhineland (Basle?) source of origin for the present three-part manuscript. This foregoing explanation or scenario has been the one put forward by the a€?believersa€™. The sources of all of the names and each of the legends are examined in great detail in Skelton, et ala€™s The Vinland Map and the Tartar Relation.
We may even catch a glimpse of these materials, as they are reflected in the Vinland map, and of the channels by which they could have reached a workshop in Southern Europe (this assumes that the ascription of the manuscript to a scriptorium of the Upper Rhineland is valid).
The only parts of the design which fall outside the elliptical framework are the representations of Iceland, Greenland, and Vinland, in the west, and (less certainly) the outermost Atlantic islands and the northwest-pointing peninsular extension of Scandinavia. If this original was circular, the anonymous cartographera€™s elongation of the outline to form an ellipse may be explained by his choice of a pattern into which elements not in the original, notably his delineation of Greenland and Vinland and his elaboration of the geography of Asia, could be conveniently fitted, perhaps also, or alternatively, by the need to fill the rectangular space provided by the opening of a codex.
The Peloponnese and the peninsula in the southwest of Asia Minor are treated with the anonymous cartographera€™s customary exaggeration.
On the source of this farrago, which is in marked contrast with the relatively correct river pattern drawn in Central Europe by Bianco and the chart makers, it is perhaps idle to speculate; it seems to involve a confusion of the Oder, the lower Danube, and the Struma. Yet this section of coast had been laid down in very similar form on earlier maps; as Kimble puts it, a€?Cape Non ceased to be a€?Caput finis Africaa€™ about the middle of the 14th centurya€?, and a€?the ocean coast as far as Cape Bojador (more correctly, as far as the cove on its southern side) was known and mapped from the time of the Pizzigani portolan chart (1367)a€™a€™. Nor was the transference of the Prester John legend to Africa a novelty in the middle of the 15th century. Against the most northerly island is inscribed Insule Sub aquilone zamogedorum [Northern islands of the Samoyeds]; then in the center Magnum mare Tartarorum. It may be recalled here that there is nothing in the Tartar Relation referring to Greenland and Vinland. The four streams issuing from Eden, shown by Bianco as the headwaters of two rivers flowing west and falling into the Caspian Sea from the northeast and south, have disappeared from the Vinland map, in which we see only the two truncated rivers entering the Caspian from the east and south respectively. They appear, rather, to be dictated by the cartographera€™s need to lay down names where the design of the map allowed room for them. In point of date, Biancoa€™s atlas of 1436 is the third known work to show the Antillia group, and the fourth chart of the atlas names the two major islands y de la man satanaxio and y de antillia. Its outline, on the east side, is deeply indented and in the form of a bow, the northeast coast trending generally NW-SE to the most easterly point, and the southeast coast trending NNE-SSW to a conspicuous southernmost promontory, in about the latitude of north Denmark; from this point the west coast runs due north, again with many bays, to an angle (opposite the easternmost point) after which it turns NW and is drawn in a smooth unaccidented line to its furthest north, turning east to form a short section lying WE. The island is divided into three great peninsulas by deep inlets penetrating the east coast and extending almost to the west coast.
This legend, the first part of it seems to be distilled from references to the defeat of a€?Nestoriansa€? by Genghis Khan and their diffusion in Asia. The course of the river of the Tartars, as depicted in the Vinland Map, recalls Rubrucka€™s statement that the Etilia (i.e.
The Vinland Mapa€™s location of the name, in the extreme north of Eurasia, places Thule (as Ptolemy and other classical authors did) under the Arctic Circle.
The name Magnum Mare was applied by Carpini and Friar Benedict to the Black Sea while Rubruck called it Mare maius. As the examples already cited show, the name Insulee Sancti Brandani (in variant forms) is commonly ascribed by chart makers to the Azores-Madeira chain. Medieval mapmakers, from the 10th century (Cottonian map, Book II, #210) onward called the Island or Ysland (v.l. This legend on Vinland Map, if it faithfully reproduces a genuine record, accordingly authenticates Bjarnia€™s association with the discovery of Vinland and adds the significant information that he sailed with Leif. They also prompt the suspicion that missing sections of the original codex may have been illustrated by the other novel part of the map, namely its representation of the lands of Norse discovery and settlement in the north and west of the Atlantic.
In a map of this form, drawn like the circular mappaemundi, on no systematic projection, we do not of course expect to find graduation for latitude and longitude, even if the quantitative cartography of Ptolemy had been known to its author. If Biancoa€™s world map be assumed to have resembled, in form and content, the model followed by the compiler for the tripartite world, we can however assess the performance of the final copyist by comparison of his work with Biancoa€™s map, so far as it takes us. Bjarni, it was implied, had accompanied Lief on his first discovery of Vinland; Bishop Henricus, the Eirik of the annals, who was said there to have gone to look for Vinland, was stated to have found it, and at a different date. Some students have been reluctant to accept these propositions; the provenance of the Map had not been established, the nomenclature also presents difficulties, as does the representation of certain topographical features, in particular the accurate delineation of Greenland, a point heavily stressed by the editors of The Vinland Map and the Tartar Relation. For convenience of reference, this Bianco-type original, which has not survived, will be cited as O. In Africa, Phazania must have been taken by the author of O1 or from Pliny or Ptolemy; and magnus fluuius (if not a coinage of the cartographer) perhaps from a geographical text of the 14th or early 15th century. The names for Iceland, Greenland, and Vinland, with the legend on Vinland, must, like their delineations, be held not to have been in O1.
The Rudimentum is a fascinating world history and encyclopedia structured on medieval Christian theology.
Another idea is that they represent Enoch and Elijah, Old Testament characters who went directly to heaven without suffering death. In this grove for a long time they disputed in friendly conversation the advent of the Messiasa€?.
Burcharda€™s narrative account appears in its entirety in the same third section as the map of Palestine in Rudimentum Novitiorum. The book was, however, translated into French, maps and all, under the title Mer des Hystoires in 1488. The question is now: is this an original idea of the artist, or is it based on something which existed before? After tese earliest examples, there was almost four centuries of time gap, which no book illustrations survived, until the preiod of the Suljuks in Anatolia. From documentary evidence we know that Sinan Bey and his student Siblizade Ahmed were the two artists singled out for training. All rooted in different artistic traditions, all working together on a salaried basis to carry out the directives of the palace. Nigari was to become, next to Sinan, the master architect, the greatest Turkish portrait painter. Meanwhile, upon closure of the Heart academy for painting in the beginning of the 16th century, its famous instructor Behzat was met with a deserved esteem in Tabriz in 1512. Levni is the artistic extension of the tendencies and directions summarized as “westernization” that started to appear in the beginning of the eighteenth century. He has introduced new understanding of painting his figures, compositions and his technique, in his miniatures that depict the circumcision ceremonies of Sultan Ahmed III’s heirs to the throne (1720). Since this was most often used in the city of Kufa, it became known as kufi.The other form, which did not have sharp angles and could be written at far greater speeds, was employed in day-to-day uses, and due to its rounded, flexible character was suited to artistic application.
The fact that Ottoman art fostered more portraiture than the art of any other Islamic culture, with the exception of Mogul India, is another indication of this trend towards realism. When his father Bahaduddin Valad passed away, Rumi succeeded his father in 1231 as professor in religious sciences. There is also a Mevlevi monastery or dergah in Istanbul, near the Galata Tower, where the sema ceremony is performed and accessible to the public.During Ottoman Empire era, the Mevlevi order produced a number of famous poets and musicians such as Sheikh Ghalib, Ismail Ankaravi (both buried at the Galata Mevlevi-Hane) and Abdullah Sari. The oldest musical compositions stem from the mid-sixteenth century combining Persian and Turkish musical traditions.
In the 1950s, the Turkish government, began allowing the Whirling Dervishes to perform annually in Konya on the Urs of Mevlana, December 17, the anniversary of Rumi's death. With our professional team you will spend a nice and well organised holiday, TURKEY TOURS,tour,tours in istanbul,istanbul in tour,turkey tours,tours in turkey,istanbul hotels,istanbul hotel,hotels of turkey,anzac day tours,Tours in Istanbul,Welcome to Istanbul - Our company is recommended in Lonely Planet guide book & trusted since 2000. With our professional team you will spend a nice and well organised holiday, TURKEY TOURS,tour,tours in istanbul,istanbul in tour,turkey tours,tours in turkey,istanbul hotels,istanbul hotel,hotels of turkey,anzac day tours,Tours in Istanbul,Welcome to Istanbul - Our company is recommended in Lonely Planet guide book & trusted since 2000.
Nurdogan, who kindly explained and showed me what he works on in his establishment "Les Arts Turcs". It was invented by Housam Roumi and reached its height of popularity under SA?leyman I the Magnificent. It must be noted that the textual content of these Books show no relationship with either the Vinland map or the Tartar Relation, but, instead, are to be seen within the context of all 32 Books of the Speculum Historiale. These two explanations, taken together, may account for a further modification probably made by the cartographer to his prototype. The outline of Spain is depicted with slight variation from Biancoa€™s, the Atlantic coast trending NNW (instead of northerly) and the north coast being a little more arched. Some have concluded that, if authentic, the Vinland map was not drawn primarily to illustrate the Tartar Relation.
The four longer legends written in Asia or off its coasts are all related, by wording or substance, with the Tartar Relation. Since the outline given to these two islands both in the world map and in the fourth chart of Biancoa€™s atlas is easily distinguishable from that in any 15th century representation of them, the concordance with the Vinland map in this respect is significant. Here we have at once the most arresting feature and the most exacting problem presented by this singular map. The approximation of the east coast and of the southern section of the west coast to the outline in modern maps leaps to the eye. The more northerly inlet is a narrow channel trending ENE-SSW and terminating in a large lake; the more southerly and wider inlet lies roughly parallel to it. The second part of the legend relates to the medieval belief that the Ten Tribes of Israel who forsook the law of Moses and followed the Golden Calf were shut up by Alexander the Great in the Caspian mountains and were unable to cross his rampart.
The first to cross into this land were brothers of our order, when journeying to the Tartars, Mongols, Samoyedes, and Indians, along with us, in obedience and submission to our most holy father Pope Innocent, given both in duty and in devotion, and through all the west and in the remaining part [of the land] as far as the eastern ocean sea].


The cartographer has perhaps confused the Great Khan (Kuyuk) with Batu, Khan of Kipchak, whom the Carpini mission encountered on the Volga. Hence their identification with the Tartars and their location by Marco Polo in Tenduc, with a probable reference to the Great Wall of China. Volga) flowed from Bulgaria Major, on the Middle Volga, southward, a€?emptying into a certain lake or sea . Members of the Carpini party were somewhat confused about the courses of the rivers flowing into the two seas, supposing the Volga to enter the Black Sea.
These are the Azores, laid down in charts with this position and orientation from the middle of the 14th century to the end of the 15th, and the Madeira group. The Vinland Map is the earliest known map to move the name further out into the ocean and apply it to the Antillia group, the word magnce being added to justify the attribution and make a clear distinction from the smaller islands to the east.
It might be said that the dominant interest of the compiler or cartographer lay in the periphery of geographical knowledge, to which indeed the accompanying texts relate; and such a polarization of interest is exemplified in the themes of the seven legends on the map. He emerges from this test on the whole creditably, for the outlines of the two maps are (as we have seen) in general agreement. Much argument has centered around the possibility that Norse voyagers might have circumnavigated and charted its coasts, or provided a written description of them. The fact that, in regard to a few names or delineations, the Vinland map seems to show affinities with charts in Biancoa€™s atlas of 1436, rather than with his world map, may suggest that O1 was of Biancoa€™s, or at any rate of Venetian authorship.
Sinus Ethiopicus could have been deduced from Ptolemya€™s text; Andrea Biancoa€™s connection with Fra Mauro, in whose map this very name is found, and his conjectural association with O1 lend substance to the possibility that this name stood in O1, although corrupted in Biancoa€™s own world map. This hypothesis indeed, while it must be tested by collation of other extant maps from which the prototype may be reconstructed, has (prima facie) some support both from the analogy of the cartographera€™s treatment of the tripartite world and also from the uniformity of style which characterizes all parts of the drawing, alike in the east and in the west, in those parts where we know, and in those where we suspect, a cartographic model to have been followed.
Paradise is not labeled, but near one of the streams is the word Evilath [Havilah], one of the regions watered by the four rivers mentioned in the book of Genesis.
Sinai are the burning bush and Moses receiving the Tablets of the Law, and, on Calvary, the Crucifixion.A  This map of Palestine is considered the earliest printed regional map. Another work of the same period is an undated copy of the Kulliyat-i Katibi (Complete Works of Katibi) (TSMK, R.989). At first, the Persian influence, especially that of the Herat school during the Timurid period, was apparent.
The second illustrates Sultan Suleyman’s military expedition against Hungary in 1543 and the Mediterranean campaign of Barbaros Hayreddin Pasha, the famous admiral Barbarossa, which took place in the same year 1608. The age of Suleyman the Magnificent made visible to us through the portraits of Nigari, Matraki’s city topographies, and the Suleymanname was an extremely important period in Ottoman miniature painting, firmly establishing its subject matter and giving birth to a new style.The most characteristic examples of Ottoman miniature art were produced in the second half of the sixteenth century as a result of the patronage of Sultans Selim II (1566-74) and Murad III (1574-95). Samarkand was renowned during 6th-8th centuries by its drawing workshops where illustrations on wood, plaster and leather were made.
After the text and tables were completed, the paper was handed to the miniaturists to be painted.
His personality and artistic talent, and the period’s conditions have mutually affected each other, opening the way for a new point of view in the Ottoman art of painting.
Ayvansarayi continues to declare that he was the leading painter, until Sultan Mahmud Khan ascended the throne and depictions with perspective was introduced. Surname-i Vehbi (A3593), in Topkapy Palace Museum Library, is named so after the poet of its text, Seyyid Vehbi. Turkish paintings, calligraphy, photography, music.When we speak of Turkish calligraphy, we refer to writing of aesthetic value in characters based on the Arabic script, which the Turks had adopted as their writing medium after their conversion to Islam. From the fifteenth to the twentieth centuries, royal portraits formed an integral part of the art of the book.
But Shavonne’s faith is tested when her new roommate, mentally retarded and pregnant Mary, is targeted by a guard as a means to get revenge on Shavonne.
Rumi 24 years old, was an already accomplished scholar in religious and positive sciences.The mevlevi brotherhood is founded completely on love and tolerance. He teaches that every thing is within the human being and that the whole universe is under man's command.Mevlana is a great lover of the Divine Truth.
Music, especially the ney, play an important part in the Mevelevi order and thus much of the traditional "oriental" music that Westerners associate with Turkey originates with the Mevlevi order. The repertoire was continuously broadened, and the first notations were made from the early twentieth century onwards. Sufism Speech with Dervish EROL,Known to the west as Whirling Dervishes, the Mevlevi Order was founded by Mevlana Rumi in the 13th century. Therefore, no proverbial rock has been left unturned in subjecting these manuscripts to all of the state-of-the-art technology and worldwide scholarly debate. The Vinland map and Tartar Relation had become physically separated from the 15th century Vincent text and were later re-bound together as a separate volume in their present 19th century (Spanish) binding. Some authorities speculate that possibly the link or actual reference to the Vinland portion of the map could be supplied in the missing 65 leaves. The northerly orientation of the map should perhaps be attributed to expediency rather than to the adoption of a specific cartographic model, for it enabled the names and legends to be written and read in the same sense as the texts which followed the map in the codex.
The latter, however, deserves credit for originality in his removal of the Earthly Paradise, an almost constant component of the mappamundi; for, as Kimble observes, a€?the vitality of the tradition was so great that this Garden of Delights, with its four westward flowing rivers, was still being located in the Far East long after the travels of Odoric and the Polos had demonstrated the impossibility of any such hydrographical anomaly, and the moral difficulties in the way of the identification of Cathay with Paradisea€?. Here again we have plain testimony to the derivation of the Vinland map from a cartographic prototype, and to the character of this prototype. The a€?shut-up nationsa€? were also identified with Gog and Magog and with the Tartars, who were held to be descended from the Ten Tribes. In many 15th century charts the chain has (usually written in larger lettering to the north of Madeira) the general name Insule Fortunate Sancti Brandani, or variants. The alternative form Branzilio (or Branzilia), suggesting an association with the name of the legendary island of Brasil, is not found in any other surviving map. The chart-forms characteristic of Biancoa€™s style of drawing are not reproduced in the Vinland map; at what stage these disappeared we do not know, and they were not necessarily in the original model followed by the compiler. The historical statements about Vinland contained in the map, on the other hand, doubtless come from a textual source, as those in Asia and Africa can be shown to do. There is no encircling ocean, and the only labeled sea is a€?Mare Amasorieo,u,,,, in the north, possibly intended for the Caspian Sea.
Or these may be the Master and his Novice, source of rivers and all knowledge; alternatively according to Winter they may represent a€?. The French editor added material on French history and some new illustrations, including a woodcut of the baptism of Clovis.
The minatures illustrate a fantasy world of demons, evil spirtis and sceens from nomadic life. This work which contains the greatest number of miniatures from this early period is a copy of the Iskendername (Book of Alexander the Great) by the Turkish poet Ahmedi (Venice, Biblioteca Marciana, Cod.
Paintings in this style were found mostly in the works of the famous poet Ali ?ir Nevai, written in an eastern dialect of Turkish. The reigns of these sultans mark the classical period of Ottoman miniature art and the most productive era in historical painting.
The miniatures were divided as 1)Illustration of books, compositions (depiction of certain subjects and events) and 2)portraits. The author states that Levni died in 1732, and that he is now buried across the Sadiler Tekkesi, opposite Akturbe, near the Otakcylar Mosque.
In this work there are 173 miniatures by Levni, exhibiting his talent for observation and his documentative attitude. It was this form which began to give rise to new scripts after the development of pens with nibs of different widths in the eighth century. The Arabic characters gradually assumed an aesthetic function after the advent of Islam, and this process gathered momentum from the mid-eighth century onwards, so that calligraphy was already a significant art discipline by the time the Turks joined the Islamic world.
As freedom begins to look more and more likely, Shavonne begins to believe that maybe she, like the goslings recently hatched on the Center’s property, could have a future somewhere else—and she begins to feel something like hope.
Indeed, if one buys a CD of Turkish Sufi music, chances are it will be Mevlevi religious music. They performed in France, for Pope Paul VI, and at the Brooklyn Academy of Music and other venues in the United States and Canada - under the direction of the late Mevlevi Shaikh Suleyman Hayati Dede. The first mosque in Istanbul was built in Kadikoy on the Asian side of the city, which was conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1353.
The Order wrote of tolerance, forgiveness, and enlightenment.Istanbul Day Tours, Istanbul city tours, Sultanahmet Tours, Walkig Tours in istanbul, Art Tours in istanbul, walking tours in istanbul, group tours in istanbul, private tours in istanbul, hire a guide in istanbul, off the paths tour in istanbul, excursions in istanbul, ottoman tour, byzantine tour in istanbul, classical sightseeing tours in istanbul Swimming Tour in Istanbul,Kilyos is a small Black Sea village which is surrounded by green forests. The result has been a polarization of many prominent authorities from many disciplines into three camps: the a€?believersa€™, the a€?nonbelieversa€™, and the a€?undecideda€™.
Only through extremely fortunate circumstances did the ultimate reunion with this particular copy of Vincenta€™s manuscript occur, also in 1957, in Connecticut.
The classical Insulae Fortunatae were the Canaries, the only group known in antiquity, and the association with St. The name Brasil, in many variants, was generally applied by cartographers of the 14th and 15th centuries (a) to a circular island off the coast of Ireland, and (b) to one of the Azores, perhaps Terceira; the variant forms of the name include Brasil, Bersil, Brazir, Bracir, Brazilli. Eric [Henricus], legate of the Apostolic See and bishop of Greenland and the neighboring regions, arrived in this truly vast and very rich land, in the name of Almighty God, in the last year of our most blessed father Pascal, remained a long time in both summer and winter, and later returned northeastward toward Greenland and then proceeded [i.e. All the major divergences, in the geographical elements of the Vinland map, from the representation in Bianco can be traced to its compilera€™s reading of the Tartar Relation or to changes forced upon him by the design adopted. These instances suggest that the draftsman of the Vinland map, as we have it, may not have been its compiler, but that the map may have been copied from an immediate original or preliminary draft (having the same content) by a clerk or scribe who was no geographer and did not have access to the compilation materials. Kemmodi) montes, where a borrowing from a classical text (such as Pomponius Mela), in which the rendering of the initial aspirate was retained, may be suspected; the form in the Vinland map could hardly have been derived from Ptolemya€™s.
On the re-cut map a few new images appear-ships, birds, and trees-but the basic format was unchanged. Published in 1475, the illustrated world history, Rudimentum Novitiorum, included two remarkable maps - one of Palestine and this one of the world. There are also other Seljuk works in different styles showing evidence of Byzantian influence.Due to its rich subject matter, longevity, and freshness, Turkish miniature painting of the Ottoman period occupies a special place in the history of Islamic painting. However it was under Suleyman’s reign that Turkish painting began to acquire its distinctive and fundamental character.
Throughout most of these years, the Turkish and Persian works of Seyyid Lokman, the court-appointed ?ahnameci, were illustrated in rapid succession by selected painters working in the imperial studio. The most important development of the 9th century Uygur Turks in the art of painting, was accomplished by the painters and their school in the town of Kizilkent. Moslems used these original illustrations in the translations; but although the text were not changed in the later translations, the miniatures were made differently. Sultan Selim Iran and Aleppo to Istanbul after the seizure of Tabriz and he ordered his men to create favourable conditions for those artists' work.
Information on each page of the Surname-i Vehbi is given, yet details are included only about the miniatures which have been chosen due to both their distinction in the manuscript and the importance of the characters in the depicted scenes. Among the earliest of these were the celil reserved for large scale lettering, and tomar or tumar which was the standard large size pen used in official correspondence.
Therefore it is necessary to begin with a brief review of the structure of Arabic characters and their development during the early centuries of Islam.
Contemporary artists in the Islamic world draw on the heritage of calligraphy to use calligraphic inscriptions or abstractions in their work.
During the Ottoman period, the Mevlevi order spread into the Balkans, Syria, and Egypt (and is still practiced in both countries where they are known as the Mawlawi order). Many practitioners kept their tradition alive in private gatherings, and thirty years later, the Turkish government began to allow performances again, though only in public.
Graveyard ( Cemetary ) Tours in Istanbul,Cemeteries in Turkish cities were originally made on the outskirts of the cities, so that as cities expanded, the grave yards became part of the inner city landscape.
The village is just a forty five minutes drive from Istanbul.Turkish Music Lesson in Istanbul,The last august 2004 I stayed in Istanbul, during a holiday trip.
While the coupling of this name, in the Vinland map, with one from the Tartar Relation (Nimsini) may however mean that Hemmodi too came from a Carpini source, it is more likely that the cartographer was here trying to integrate his two sources.
Of many examples, Nicomedia (from Asia Minor) is shown next to the Pope near Rome and again in Africa, perhaps an error for Numidi, India is north of Persia, which is next to Taprobana.
To preserve the freshness of the works they prepared and to ensure that the orders of the sultan were carried out, they worked very rapidly, with the result that the Turkish miniature is devoid of fine and elaborate ornamentation. After his ten years on the throne, topographies of cities and fortresses and miniatures documenting the life of the Sultan gradually gained importance.
By taking the name of the Persian heroes in Firdausi’s famous epic poem, the original ?ahname, the Ottoman sultans sought to supplant-metaphorically-their Persian counterparts. Foremost among them was the master Osman, the greatest name in Ottoman historical painting and the artist who mostly shaped Turkish miniature art during the classical period.
Their sense of light in pictures and their search for the influence and impression of shadow and light, served largely for the formation of Seljuk miniature school and canalized it. Soon after Shah Kulu from Tabriz was leading these artists in an academy which was called by the Turks "Nakkashanei-i Irani" (The Persian Academy of Painting). The head painter used to draw the main composition with thin brushes and then his assistants and pupils painted in part by part.
In such cases, ones should know the different styles of the other Moslem miniatures such as Iran and India.
Gild was used in architectural details, in the background and the ground of calligraphic works. This information clarifies that the artist went to the palace atelier, nakka?hane, when he arrived from Edirne, and at first worked in the saz style. Levni has also shown his sensitivity to the subject of human figures in an album of full body portraits now in the Topkapy Palace Museum Library (H.2164) of the period’s typical characters, depicted in his personal style.
Pens with a nib width two thirds of that of the tomar pen were known as suluseyn, and those with nibs one third in width were known as sulus. The most succinct definition of calligraphy formulated by Islamic writers is, "Calligraphy is a spiritual geometry produced with material tools." The aesthetic values implied by this definition held true for centuries.
The Bosnian writer Mesa Selimovic wrote the book Death and the Dervish about a Mevlevi dergah in Sarajevo. From the 1990s, restrictions were eased and private groups re-emerged who try to re-establish the original spiritual and intimate character of the Sema ceremony.
The general name Desiderate insule given in Vinland Map to these islands is not found in any other map; the only explanation we can hazard is that it may allude to the Portuguese attempts at discovery and colonization of the Azores from, probably, 1427 onward. The question is now whether the same pictorial representation is not found in possible earlier MSS.
The illustrations in this book dealing with Ottoman history constitute the earliest examples of ‘historical painting,’ which was to become the essence of Turkish miniature art. Though the tradition was already well established by the time of Suleyman, it was during his reign that the ?ahname acquired its formal character and bequeathed us some of the most magnificient examples of Turkish miniature art. It is known from documentary sources that Osman occupied a position in the court atelier from the first years of Selim II’s reign, becoming its most productive and prominent member during the years 1570-90. The miniatures of the antique age are disorganised and most of them have descriptive qualities.
Kaaba depictions, sports and especially horse-riding scenes took place in the Turkish miniatures.
Under this writing system most of the letters underwent a change of form according to whether they were positioned at the beginning, middle or end of a word.
Following the death of Mehmed the Conqueror, during the reign of his son Sultan Bayezid II (1481-1512), artists were brought to the palace in Istanbul and set up in the nakka?hane (imperial studio). Suleyman appointed Arifi, who had gained renown for his poetry in Persian, to the position of ?ahnameci and assigned him the task of writing a complete history in verse of the Ottoman sultans. In addition to working with Lokman, he was responsible for illustrating the works of other writers as well.
Among thousands of books in the library there are the oldest Turkish gilded and miniature manuscripts. It goes without question that the period beginning with Mehmet the Conqueror and ending with Sultan Selim I, was one of the most interesting and important phases in Turkish painting and miniatures.
The head painter, the author and writer of the story were also depicted in some of the miniatures.
They portrayed people in straight profiles or from the front instead of the three fourth profile seen in Persian miniatures.
Turkish art of miniature, as all the other handcrafts, followed the historical line of the state and had its golden age during the 16th century. It is thought that Levni must have settle in Istanbul before 1710 and never left Istanbul after 1718. Other new writing styles which emerged (although all later fell into disuse) were riyasi, kalemu'n-nisf, hafifu'n-nisf and hafifu's-sulus. The idea of cutting the nib of the reed pen at an angle instead of horizontally was his, and an innovation which contributed enormous elegance to writing.
When transformed into an art the characters took on highly elaborate shapes, and the rich visual impact attained when they were joined together, and above all the fact that the same word or phrase could be written in various ways opened the door to the infinite variety and innovation which is a prerequisite of art. He is prejudiced toward none because he knows that everything is the manifestation and actualization of God and he reflects this as a spritual state to the mind and heart of man Mevlana is asuperior and saintly master . Yoga Lesson in Istanbul,Yoga is a group of ancient spiritual practices originating in India. The handwriting is similar in character to that of the manuscript and shows the same idiosyncrasies in individual letters.a€™a€™ The map was therefore probably prepared by the scribe who copied the texts of the Speculum and the Tartar Relation. The inner or western coasts of the three islands and the eastern coast of the mainland, fringing the Sea of the Tartars, have no counterpart in any known cartographic document, but are drawn with elaborate detail of capes and bays.
This river has many other very large branches, besides that of Senega, and they are great rivers on this coast of Ethiopiaa€?. The challenged typesetter, working backwards, probably had some problems with the difficult geographical names. 4914 of 1381, and 4915, of about the same time), but according to a kind communication from the Bibl.
In order to carry out the Sultan’s project, Arifi was given the most talented calligraphers and painters of the time.
For many of these projects, he headed groups of artists chosen from the court atelier and directed their work. The oldest wooden print and illustrated book in the world belongs to Uygurs and is in the above library. The subjects were taken from the antique age, whereas the style was influenced by oriental, Uygur painting.
Various styles and ways of expression were searched, the influences were are guide and syntheses were attained. The most refined lines forming the basis of the picture were the lines bordering spaces, the lines on coloured surfaces and the lines of facial expression. As their names indicate, some of the new scripts were based on tomar and written with pens which were specific fractions (half, one third, or two thirds) of the tomar pen.
Once "the six hands" had taken their place in the art of calligraphy together with all their rules, many scripts apart from those mentioned above were abandoned, and no trace of them but their names remains today (for example, sicillat, dibac, zenbur, mufattah, harem, lului, muallak and mursel).Following the death of Yakut his conception of "the six hands" was carried by scribes who had trained under him from Baghdad to Anatolia, Egypt, Syria, Persia and Transoxania. Just as the characters could be written singly in several different ways, so there was an astonishing diversity of different scripts or "hands". Just as the ocean can only fill the jug to its capacity , so mevlana can only fit into words and our perception in proportion to our capacity . Considering that this sea represents (so far as we know) the cartographera€™s interpretation of a textual source, it may be suspected that the outline of its shores was seen by him in his minda€™s eye and not in any map. During this period, portrait painting lost its importance and painters in the court atelier devoted their efforts mostly to the illustration of literary works. In the period from 1558 until 1592, Osman and his team illustrated several of Lokman’s ?ahnames, which are written in Persian and in verse. The main characteristics of the Seljuk-Baghdad school were vigour, briskness, power of expression, caricature quality, over ornamentation, lack of scenery and accentuation of figures.
In the process of scaling down, the scripts took on new characteristics of their own, while the word kalem, which referred to the writing instrument, also came to be used for the writing itself (for example, kalemu'n-nisf literally means "half pen").
New generations of calligraphers who trained in these lands dedicated themselves to the path taken by Yakut as far as their aptitude permitted. The Arabic characters were adopted — primarily motivated by religious fervour by virtually all the peoples who converted to Islam, so that just a few centuries after the Hegira they had become the shared property of the entire Muslim world.
He is a monument to spritually who , through his sublimity , displayed his moral values , his knowledge , wisdom love , intelligence , perception of God , behaviour , everything . Jewish community have lived in the geographic area of Asia Minor for more than 2,400 years.
In an article by Carmelo Ottaviano there is a reproduction of a theological treatise a€?De Adventu Messiea€? taken from a MS. Nurtured by the influence of Western Christian art on traditional Islamic miniatures, a truly original style of painting prevailed. The first of these, which actually dates back to the final years of Suleyman’s reign, is called the Zafername (Book of Victories. Another important aspect of this ind is that some manuscripts have been written in letters same with the ones on the Goktirk Orhun epitaphs. Before starting to study the Ottoman miniature, I shall refer to two more schools of miniature related to Turks.
Turkish miniature lived its golden age during that period, with its own characteristics and authentic qualities. For scripts such as kisas and muamerat, which were invented for specific uses and did not involve the proportional scaling down of the pen, the term hat was used.Under the Abbasids, learning and the arts flourished, leading to a swelling demand for books in Baghdad and other major cities. The term "Arabic calligraphy", which is appropriate with respect to the early period, broadened in scope over time to become what more accurately might be described as "Islamic calligraphy".
His is the true representative of the prophets , the highest element and realization of love and intelligence.
In the later Middle Ages, Ashkenazi Jews migrating to the Byzantine Empire and Ottoman Empire supplemented the original Jewish population of Asia Minor. The bulk of Turkish miniatures comprise works of documentary value deriving from the depiction of actual events.
This attitude has a main reason, and that is the inevitable necessity to know the contradictory schools in order to comprehend to one under study.
The most renowned artists of the period were Kinci Mahmut, Kara Memi from Galata, Naksi (his real name Ahmet) from Ahirkapi, Mustafa Dede (called the Shah of Painters), Ibrahim ?elebi, Hasan Kefeli, Matrak_i Nasuh, Nigari (who portrayed Sultan Selim II and whose real name was Haydar. To meet this demand the number of copyists known as verrak also rose, and the script which they employed in the copying of manuscripts was known as verraki, muhakkak or iraki. In the hands of the Ottoman Turks, these six scripts were poised to begin the ascent to their zenith.CALLIGRAPHY,calligraphy in istanbul,calligraphy in turkey,istanbul in calligraphy,Turkish - Ottoman Calligraphy Lessons in Istanbul.
This writing system, known as nabati because it was used by the Nabat tribe in pre-Islamic times, derives from the Phoenician. Choose love that you might be a chosen one."To give up one's own existence and become non-existent in God , th is , to bind ones's heart completely to God , is shortest way to God .
At the end of the 15th century, a large number of Sephardic Jews fleeing persecution in Spain and Portugal settled in Asia Minor on the invitation of the Ottoman Empire. Lokman’s second “book of kings, the ?ahname-i Selim Han”, is concerned with Selim II’s sultanate (TSMK, A.3595). The Chinese influence in the 14th century Mongolian miniatures, is felt in the landscapes made with Chinese ink. The borrowed look of the figures indicate that they were the ordinary individuals of protocol in every period.
From the end of the eighth century, as a result of the search for aesthetic values by calligraphers, writing forms according to specific proportions and symmetries became known as asli hat and mevzun hat. In its early form, the script gave no clue of its future potential as such a powerfully aesthetic medium, the characters consisting of very simple shapes. Photo Safari Tour in Istanbul ,Istanbul is an enchanting city of ancient beauty and modern charm . Despite emigration during the 20th century, modern day Turkey continues a Jewish population. New York, Kraus Collection), describes and illustrates events from the period of Osman Gazi the founder of the dynasty, up to Yyldyrym Bayezid, the ‘Thunderbolt.’ The fifth, known as the Suleymanname (Book of Sultan Suleyman is in the library of Topkapy Palace Museum and deals with the period between 1520-58 during the reign of Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent. The third is the first volume of the ?ehin?ahname (Book of the King of Kings) and describes events that occurred between the years 1574-81 during Murad III’s reign (IUK, F.1404). The dominant characteristics of those pictures were Chinese style clouds, the curved lines and flower outlines.
One of the calligraphers who contributed to the development of writing, and the most outstanding among those of this period was Ibn Mukle (? With the emergence of Islam, however, and particularly after the Hegira, the Arabic script became the literary vehicle of the last Semitic religion.
Illuminated with 69 miniatures, the book, highly innovative in layout, set the standard for later ?ahnames. The last ?ahname to emerge from this collaboration between Lokman and Osman was the second volume of the ?ehin?ahname, covering the years 1581-88 of Murad’s reign (TSMK, B.200).
The numbers of those literate in the Arabic script multiplied rapidly, and in time it was perfected into a vehicle equipped to record the Koran, and hence the language as a whole, with precision.
In this way that person no longer acts in accordance with his ego , doing the bad things that would cause harm to others. Each year thousands of people from the far corners of the world, travel to Konya in response to Mevlana's call of 735 years ago: "Come, come again, whoever you are, come!Heathen, fire worshipper or idolatrous, come!
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The elegance with which these court painters depict their subject marks a new stage in the development of the Ottoman miniature. These ?ahnames, all with the same dimensions and layout, contain more than two hundred miniatures of a documentary nature, detailing important architectural works, military campaigns and major victories, important court ceremonies and celebrations, the sultans’ accession to the throne, and their deaths.URKISH MINIATURES,Turks had the tradition to illustrate manuscripts during the cultural periods before Islamic belief. Lettering complying with these rules was called mensuh hatti, a term meaning "proportional writing".While these developments were taking place, kufi script was enjoying its heyday, above all for copying korans. Vowel signs known as hareke were invented to express the short phonemes which accompanied the consonants.
Scenery and figures have been united in the Mongolian miniatures after the Chinese influence ended. The method of determining the sound of letters which resembled one another in form, by means of disparate positioning and diacritical marks was developed. They depict a number of victorious wars by which the Ottomans expanded their empire, such as the conquest of Rhodes, the siege of Belgrade, the Tabriz and Hungarian campaigns, the well known Mohacs episode and the seizing of Buda.Tarih-i SultanBayezid Nasuh al-Silahi al Matraki,A variety of other scenes are also portrayed, including royal hunts, the presentation of gifts to the sultan, and the receptions, of famous people like Admiral Barbarossa and Devlet Giray Han, who was the ruler of the Crimean Tatars.
No written or illustrated document has yet been found from the time of the Chinese Han dynasty, of Huns and Goktirks.Nevertheless, the large quantities of stone engravings, textiles,ceramics, works of art made of metal, wood, leather which have survived to the present day, prove that the above mentioned cultural circles were quite developed in other fields of art.
Realism, portrait Characteristics, light and shadow, perspective were dominant in large figures. Artists like Matrak_i Nasuh who depicted the Iraqian campaign of Sileyman the Magnificent with details of the resting places and the Mediterranean ports, were very few. As time passed, the use of diacritics to distinguish the undotted from the dotted forms of the same letters was introduced.
Both the diacritics, the vowel signs and the unmarked letter symbols took on decorative forms which played a major role in the development of writing as an art. Mevlana's books are translated to many languages and are among the best selling books of their sort all over the world. The withering influence of natural conditions have prevented the survival of these first examples. Meanwhile, the frequently used definite article, consisting of the letters alif and lam, became a balancing element in the aesthetics of calligraphy. At present, Mevlana, better known there as Rumi, is the "best selling poet" in United States of America. The Essential Rumi by Coleman Barks has sold more than a quarter of a million copies and is one of the top 1000 best selling books at Amazon.
It is by far the largest selling poem book ever!Sufism is a mystical Muslim school of thought and aims to find love and knowledge through direct personal experience of Allah. Folk stories such as "Hisrev and Shirin", "Leyla and Mecnun" have been depicted in the poetic atmosphere of poet Sadi. Sufism, often referred to as the mystical dimension of Islam, was formerly understood in Orientalist scholarship as a spiritual movement that reached its apogee during the medieval period of Islamic history, with its crowning achievement being the brilliant literary productions in Arabic and Persian that became the classics of the Sufi tradition. Some Sufis (primarily in "the West") are involved with other religions, or no formal religion -- as directed by the higher source of wisdom within the human heart.
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Despite emigration during the 20th century, modern day Turkey continues a Jewish population.The present size of the Jewish Community is estimated at around 26,000 according to the Jewish Virtual Library.
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