Books on vijayanagara empire in kannada,home daycare emergency plan sample word,magnetic pulse detector circuit - Tips For You

The glory of Vijayanagara Empire has inspired and fascinated many a writer and historian but its significance in terms of the religious ethos has not received due attention it deserves.
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Krishnadevaraya (IAST Ka?›a??a?‡a Deva RA?ya) was the greatest emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire who reigned from 1509a€“1530.[2] He is the third ruler of the Tuluva Dynasty.
Portuguese travellers Domingo Paes and Fernao Nuniz also visited the Vijayanagara Empire during his reign.
The rule of Krishna Deva Raya marks a period of much military success in Vijayanagara history.
The annual affair of the raid and plunder of Vijayanagar towns and villages by the Deccan sultans came to an end during the Raya's rule. He subdued local rulers and Velamas of Bhuvanagiri who were the feudatory of Gajapati kings of Odisha, and seized lands up to the Krishna river.
The Surya Vamsi Gajapatis of Odisha ruled a vast land comprising Andhra region, most of Telangana region, the whole of Odisha, parts of present West Bengal, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. Krishna Deva Raya established friendly relations with the Portuguese, who set up the Portuguese Dominion of India in Goa in 1510. The complicated alliances of the empire and the five Deccan sultanates meant that he was continually at war, in one of these campaigns, he defeated Golconda and captured its commander Madurul-Mulk, crushed Bijapur and its Sultan Ismail Adil Shah and restored Bahmani sultanate to Muhammad Shah. The highlight of his conquests occurred on 19 May 1520 where he secured the fortress of Raichur from Ismail Adil Shah of Bijapur after a difficult siege during which 16,000 Vijayanagar soldiers were killed. In 1524 he made his son Tirumala Raya the Yuvaraja though the crown prince did not survive for long. Sewe I remarks that Krishna Deva Raya was not only a monarch de jure, but he was also a de facto sovereign with extensive powers and strong personal influence. The administration of the empire was carried on along the lines indicated in his Amuktamalyada. The Portuguese Chronicler Domingo Paes praises Krishna Deva Raya as, a€?the most feared and perfect Kinga€¦ a great ruler and a man of much justicea€?. The rule of Krishna Deva Raya was an age of prolific literature in many languages, although it is also known as a golden age of Telugu literature.
The poet Muku Timmana praised him as a great general and stated: "O Krishnaraya, you Man-Lion. Among these eight poets Allasani Peddana is considered to be the greatest and is given the title of Andhra Kavita Pitamaha (the father of Telugu poetry). Once the Vijayanagara emperor Sri Krishnadevaraya was travelling via Vijayawada during his Kalinga campaign (c. Meaning: "If you ask, 'Why Telugu?' It is because this is Telugu country and I am a Telugu king. Sri Krishna Deva Raya's A€muktamA?lyada beautifully describes the pangs of separation (viraha) suffered by Sri Andal (incarnation of Mother Goddess Sri Mahalakshmi venerated as Sri Bhoomi Devi, the Goddess of Earth and the divine consort of Almighty Sriman Narayana) Andal (one of the twelve bhakti-era alwars) for her lover Lord Vishnu.
In Sanskrit, Vyasatirtha wrote Bhedo-jjivana, Tat-parya-chandrika, Nyaya-mrita (a work directed against Advaita philosophy) and Tarka-tandava. Krishna Deva Raya respected all sects of Hinduism and lavished on the Tirumala Venkateswara Temple numerous objects of priceless value, ranging from diamond studded crowns to golden swords. Krishna Deva Raya was formally initiated into the Vaishnava Sampradaya by Vyasatirtha.[32] He patronised poets and scholars in Kannada, Telugu, Tamil and Sanskrit.
Sri Krishnadevaraya reached here as part of his Eastern Campaign conquering Udayagiri, Bellamkonda, Kondaveedu, Nalgonda, Khammamettu, Kanakagiri, Rajahmundry, Kottam near Tuni, Saptamadalu, and Vaddadi. Quality education and relentless service is what prompted the founding of Sri Krishnadevaraya Educational Trust.
Speaking on the occasion, he said the tradition of exhibitions existed since the time of Sri Krishnadevaraya in the State, and people need to make use of such events where one can retreat during summer. Particularly the religious cults which profoundly influenced the religious, social and cultural life of the people during the Vijayanagara period have not keen taken up for indepth investigation.


Konduri Sarojini Devi (born in 1937) is a retired Professor of History, Osmania University, Hyderabad.
Its stock includes thousands of titles available for sale, plus thousands of other used and single title books, including a large selection of art history and language related texts. Krishna Deva Raya benefited from the able prime minister Timmarusu, who was regarded by the emperor as a father figure and was responsible for his coronation. On occasion, the king was known to change battle plans abruptly and turn a losing battle into victory.
He defeated the last remnant of Bahmani Sultanate power which led to the collapse of the Bahmani Sultanate.[9] In 1509 Krishnadevaraya's armies clashed with the Sultan of Bijapur at Diwani and the Sultan Mahmud was severely injured and defeated.
Ganga Raja, the Ummattur chief, fought Krishna Deva Raya on the banks of the Kaveri and was defeated. Krishna Deva Raya's success at Ummatur provided the necessary impetus to carry his campaign into the Telangana region which was in control of Gajapati Prathapa Rudra Dev. The exploits of the chief military commander, Pemmasani Ramalinga Nayudu, during the battle of Raichur were suitably rewarded by the grateful emperor.
Paes summarises the king's attitude to matters of law and order by the sentence, "The king maintains the law by killing." Offences against property (designed to maintain stability) and for murder ranged from cutting of a foot and hand for theft and beheading for murder (except for those occurring as a result of duel).
Though a follower of Vaishnavism he showed respect to all sects, and petty religious prejudices never influenced him, either in granting gifts or in his choice of companions and officers. Manu-charitramu which was patronised to Sri Krishna Devaraya is his popular prabandha work. From 14th poem of this work we can see that the, Lord also ordered the emperor to tell the story in Telugu and referred himself as King of Telugus (Telugu Vallabhuna??a) and refers Sri Krishnadevaraya as Kannada King (Kannaa??a RA?ya).
Lord Vishnu in the form of Sri Mannaru Swami of Sri Villiputtur commands Periyalwar to teach a king of the Pandya dynasty the path of knowledge to moksha. Additionally, he is known to have commissioned the making of statues of himself and his two wives at the temple complex.These statues are still visible at the temple at the exit. Krishna Deva Raya earned the titles Kannada Rajya Rama Ramana (lit, "Lord of the Kannada empire"), Andhra Bhoja and Mooru Rayara Ganda (lit, "King of three Kings"). Krishna Deva Raya was the son of Tuluva Narasa Nayaka,[6] an army commander under Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya, who later took control of the empire to prevent its disintegration and became the founder of the Tuluva Dynasty, the third Hindu Dynasty to rule Vijayanagara. During the campaign against Raichur, it is said that 703,000 foot soldiers, 32,600 cavalry and 551 elephants were used (See The battle of Raichur). Suspecting the involvement of Timmarasu, Krishna Deva Raya had his trusted commander and adviser blinded.
Paes could not estimate the size of Vijayanagar as his view was obscured by the hills but estimated the city to be at least as large as Rome.
His concern for the welfare of the people is amply proved by his extensive annual tours all over the empire, during which he studied everything personally and tried to redress the grievances of the people and to punish the evil doers. According to Barbosa, a€?The King allows such freedom that every man may come and go, live according to his own creed, without suffering any annoyancea€?.
Eight poets known as Astadiggajalu (eight elephants in the eight cardinal points such as North, South etc.) were part of his court (known as Bhuvana-vijayamu). As elsewhere in Indian poetry - see Sringara - the sensual pleasure of union extends beyond the physical level and becomes a path to, and a metaphor for, spirituality and ultimate union with the divine.
Amuktamalyada is also known by the name Vishnu-chitteeyam, a reference to Vishnu-chittudu, the Telugu name of Vishnuchittar aka Periyalwar.
He became the dominant ruler of the peninsula of India by defeating the Sultans of Bijapur, Golconda, the Bahmani Sultanate and the Raja of Odisha. He reorganized the army and recruited his troopers from several south Indian communities like Kabbili, Morasa and Tulu in order to make his cavalry efficient in the encounters against the Turks.[8] His main enemies were the Bahamani Sultans (who, though divided into five small kingdoms, remained a constant threat), the Gajapatis of Odisha, who had been involved in constant conflict since the rule of Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya and the Portuguese, a rising maritime power which controlled much of the sea trade. Taking advantage of the victory and the disunity of the Bahamani Sultans, the Raya invaded Bidar, Gulbarga and Bijapur and earned the title "establisher of the Yavana kingdom" when he released Sultan Mahmud and made him de facto ruler. Finally, in his last battle, he razed to the ground the fortress of Gulburga, the early capital of the Bahmani sultanate. At the same time, Krishnadevaraya was preparing for an attack on Belgaum that was in the Adil Shaha€™s possession; Krishnadevaraya took seriously ill. Furthermore, he considered Vijayanagar to be "the best provided city in the world" with a population of not less than a half a million. There remains a debate whether he was a Telugu, Kannadiga[16] or Tuluva by lineage.[17] His mastery and love of Telugu language and literature, preference to Telugu nobles in his court, preponderance of Telugu speaking commanders and warriors in his army owe much to his mother's influence.
According to the Vaishnavite religion there are eight elephants in eight corners in space and hold the earth in its place. He came to know about the holy temple of AsrA« A€ndhra Via??ha?‡u and visited Srikakulam village for a few days.


Observing the fast of the Vishnu's Day (Dvadasi), in the fourth and last watch of that God's night (Harivaasaram), Andhra Vishnu came to me in my dream.
Several other short stories are included in Amuktamalyada in the course of the main story of Godadevi, including the story of a brahma-rakshasa and an untouchable devotee (Maladasari Katha).
He built a beautiful suburb near Vijayanagara called Nagalapura.The king was of medium height, had a cheerful disposition, and was reputed to be respectful to foreign visitors, ruthless in maintaining the law, and prone to fits of anger. The feudal chiefs of Ummattur, Reddys of Kondavidu and Velamas of Bhuvanagiri who rebelled against Vijayanagar rule were conquered and subdued. The title advertised the boast that he was now the political arbiter of all the Deccan.[10] The Sultan of Golconda Sultan Quli Qutb Shah was defeated by Timmarusu who was the prime minister of Sri Krishnadevaraya.
Krishna Deva Raya offered prayers at Tirupati thereafter along with his wives Tirumala Devi and Chinnamma Devi. The empire was divided into a number of provinces often under members of the royal family and into further subdivisions. The Sanskrit name Amuktamalyada means the one who gives a garland that has been put on and taken off. She was awarded the Doctor of Philosophy for her thesis 'Religion in Vijayanagara Empire A.D. The Gajapati army was then met at Kondaviduraju where the armies of Vijayanagara, after establishing a siege for a few months and heavy with initial defeats began to retreat, until Timmarusu upon discovering a secret entrance to the unguarded eastern gate of the fort launched a night attack culminating with the capture of the fort and the imprisonment of the greatest swordsman of his time, Prince Virabhadra, the son of Gajapati Emperor of Kalinga-Utkal,Gajapati Prataprudra Deva. The administrative languages of the Empire were Kannada and Telugu.[14] Telugu was a popular literary medium, reaching its peak under the patronage of Krishnadevaraya. Pingali Surana wrote the still remarkable Raghava-pandaveeyamu, a dual work with double meaning built into the text, describing both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Travelogues indicate that the king was not only an able administrator, but also an excellent general, leading from the front in battle and even attending to the wounded. Bhattumurty alias Rama-raja-bhushanudu wrote Kavyalankara-sangrahamu, Vasu-charitramu, and Harischandra-nalopakhyanamu. The Vijayanagar army then accosted the Gajapati army at Kondapalli area and laid another siege. Among these works the last one is a dual work which tells simultaneously the story of King Harishchandra and Nala and Damayanti. This incident of visiting the temple must be between Ahobilam Asaasanam (dated December 1515) and SimhA?chalam Asaasanam (dated 30 March 1515). Krishnadevaraya then planned for an invasion of mainland Kalinga-Utkal but the Gajapati Emperor, Prataparudra, privy of this plan had built up a strategy to rout the Vijayanagara army and along with it its king, Krishnadevaraya. Tenali Ramakrishna first wrote Udbhataradhya Charitramu, a Shaivite work and later wrote Vaishnava devotional texts Pandu-ranga Mahatmyamu, and Ghatikachala Mahatmyamu.
The period of the Empire is known as a€?Prabandha Period,a€? because of the quality of the prabandha literature produced during this time. But the wily Timmarasu secured the information by bribing a Telugu deserter, formerly under the service of the mighty Prataprudra deva. Tenali Ramakrishna remains one of the most popular folk figures in India today, a quick-witted courtier ready even to outwit the all-powerful emperor.
Prataprudra was driven to Cuttack, the capital of the Gajapati empire and eventually surrendered to Vijaynagar, giving his daughter Princess Annapurna Devi in marriage to Sri Krishna Deva Raya. Among Dhurjati's works, a set of poems rather a collection of 100 poems called the "srikalahastheeshwara satakamu" (satakamu means set of 100 poems) is the most famous. The Vijayanagara emperors and their feudatories were highly learned persons and they did their best to sustain political freedom, preservation and popularization of Santana Hindu Dharma art literature, architecture, paining etc. The introductory chapter deals with the sites and the environment covering Anegundi, Kamalpur, Kadirampura, Malapangudi, Ananthasayanagudi, Naganahalli, Hospet and Timmalapura. The second chapter is devoted to the historical perspective which shows that the foundation of the Vijayanagara empire in the 14 century was an epoch making event, not only in the history of Karnataka, but also of the whole of South India. It reveals that its founders were inspired by patriotic ideals embodied with the spirit of freedom and determination to sacrifice anything on that account. The sculptural art which flourished during the Vijayanagara period, as finds mention in the fourth chapter, was influenced by the literary works like the Vedas, Puranas, Epics and canons on iconography as codified in the Agamas.
Chapters five, six and seven abundantly dwell on the Shaiva, Vaishnava and Jaina sculptures respectively.



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