Can lice live in extreme cold,outdoor survival skills,electricity and power systems ltd - And More

Head lice, otherwise referred to as pediculosis in medical terms, have been around for ages and are considered human parasites. This article about headlice is going to take a more in depth look at several areas which include the following: the head lice life cycle, head lice eggs, head lice symptoms, and head lice removal. Because they are considered human parasites and as such they depend upon the human body, in particular, the scalp and hair for their food. Dandruff are tiny flakes of dead skin cells which can be brushed off while nits look like dandruff but can’t be removed by normal brushing. Seeing live lice on children is not a very common occurrence, kid’s are more likely to be infested with the eggs or nits. A 14 month old boy was referred from an accident and medical clinic with a fluctuant abscess on his occiput. He was given a script for a combination lice treatment and an antibiotic to clear the infected lice bites.
Often the patient will be itchy especially around the nape of the neck and may just have a few scabs just above the hair-line. When you have a good look you can spot some eggs (nits) or lice (adults) on the hair and scabs on the scalp from bites or from the host scratching. Throughout time, lice, particularly head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer), have been a common reoccurring problem, especially in schools. Before World War II, head lice were fairly common in the United States, body and crab lice much less so. Human louse infestation, called pediculosis, can spread rapidly and may reach epidemic proportions if left unchecked.
It is generally assumed that body lice evolved from head lice after mankind began wearing clothes. Head lice and body lice are morphologically indistinguishable, although head lice are smaller than body lice. Female lice lay six to seven eggs (nits) per day and may lay a total of 50 to 100 eggs during their life which may last up to 40 days.
Head lice should be suspected when there is intense itching and scratching of the scalp and the back of the neck or when there is a known infestation in the community. Body lice are found in tight-fitting sites or seams of clothing, usually close to the skin.
The biggest problem in controlling head lice infestations is convincing parents, teachers and even school administrators that head lice infestations are not caused by filthy conditions. Adequate sanitation, including frequent changes of clothing, and laundering clothing and bedding in hot water, or dry cleaning, ordinarily is enough to prevent permanent infestations of body lice, since they remain on the clothing and are killed by the cleaning process. Over-the-counter products which should be effective include those containing permethrin or pyrethrins (pyrethrum extract) as active ingredients.
Nit combs, with much smaller spaces between the tines, are also commercially available for regular use in the control of head lice. Students and library users may be unknowingly bringing bed bugs into the University of Saskatchewan’s libraries.
However, Library Director of Finance and Physical Resources Dale Amerud maintains that there are no known bed bugs in the Murray Library.
Mattresses, furniture and carpet — wherever they can fit — are common places where bed bugs live. Bed bugs are not uncommon in libraries since books, library shelves and cloth-covered furniture are perfect places for the insects to hide. Amerud says that the campus libraries are being closely monitored for bed bugs, and urges students to report a bug immediately to prevent a full infestation. The older residences in McEown Park have been dealing with bed bug infestations for years and now the pests have moved into the Natural Sciences Library — and most likely other libraries on campus.
Residence Operations Manager Lucille McInnes wrote to the Sheaf that the residence office has finalized a plan to eradicate bed bugs from residence this summer. Bed bugs are incredibly resilient: they can last anywhere from 30 to 550 days without feeding. I do wish that the writer had done a more thorough investigation and referenced her sources(especially which edition of On Campus news this was reported in).
I’m not sure why this was printed now as this officially happened in the fall the week of September 22, 2012 when first stage larval bed bugs were found in a chair at Natural Sciences. This article makes it seem that all the libraries on campus are currently infested and that it is being kept secret from students when this is simply NOT TRUE. The Natural Sciences library subsequently was chemically treated, test traps were set for a period of three months to monitor any possible reinfection and it was given the all clear.
This author is spreading unnecessary panic and added stress to students during finals – a time when libraries are the absolute busiest of the year. Can anyone really concentrate on studying if they keep wondering if there’s creepy crawlies all over them?
This lice pictures page is designed to give pet owners a visual guide to the common lice species (louse species)infesting domestic animals and answer the commonly-asked questions: "what is lice?" and "what does lice look like?" Everyone knows that they need to protect their pet cats, dogs, horses,birds, rodents and livestock animals against lice infestation, but not everyone knows what lice or lice infestation actually looks like.
Lice, also known as Pediculosis are small, grayish-white, wingless bugs, about the size of a sesame seed. Although it’s rare, you can also catch head lice through headphones, sporting helmets or any foam rubber that comes into contact with an infested person. Once head lice infestation starts it can spread rapidly and prompt action is needed to control an outbreak. Head lice are transmitted through contact with other infected persons or via contact with a towel that has active eggs or lice on it. It has a unique ability to make itself look darker when it is living on people with dark hair. Once hatched, the lice egg shells will actually remain on the head attached to a hair shaft. She is a top beauty expert as a result of sharing budget-friendly advice that helps all women, and even some men, look and feel their best. She has done over 500 radio interviews, and has appeared on myriad TV shows including: The Doctors, Extra, Style Network, Discovery Channel, Soap Talk, Los Angeles KTLA and KCAL Morning News, and many more.
He had had impetigo of his scalp and had taken a couple of courses of antibiotics with brief resolution then recurrence of the scabs.
After World War II and the emergence of DDT as a louse control agent, outbreaks of lice were much less common.
In a group of people, such factors as age, race (for example, African-Americans are rarelyinfested with head lice (Slonka et al. Dark nits (eggs) of head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, glued on pieces of hair shafts.
For example, one school principal denied the existence of a head lice infestation in his school, even though the wife of a University of Florida graduate student, who was a teacher at that school, confirmed that such the problem existed. Education of all levels of society on the biology and control of head and body lice is essential for controlling frequent reoccurring infestations. Weems, Jr., Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, and Thomas R.
On Campus News reported that this was the first case of a bed bug in a library in five years.
Bed bugs are usually brown but change to a rusty red after feeding on animal or human blood.
However, eradicating bed bugs from the residences will be difficult if students continue to bring them from the university’s libraries. The chair was isolated, the library was closed that weekend, signs were placed on the doors of Natural Science explaining the situation to students, staff were informed to tell anyone the situation if they had questions.
As it is now – facilities management monitors every library for possible infestation.
Lice are more likely to spread through head to head contact or shared items used on a regular basis. It takes approximately seven days for the nymph to mature in an adult louse and during this seven day period the must feed off the hosts blood. This process of hair growth and egg attachment to the hair shaft makes the identification of lice easier.
She has made it her mission to help women solve their “head to toe” challenges with “look and feel good” tips that they can afford.
The parents were advised to treat the whole household for lice including washing all bedding, clothes, towels and car seat covers in hot waters.
Head louse infestations throughout the United States affect people on all social and economic levels. 1975)), sex, crowding at home, family size, and method of closeting clothes influence the course and distribution of the disease. Lice do not have wings or powerful jumping legs so they move about by clinging to hairs with their claw-like legs. Newly hatched lice will periodically take blood meals and molt three times before becoming sexually mature adults. The nymphs and adults all have piercing-sucking mouthparts which pierce the skin for a blood meal. Infestations usually occur where humans continuously wear several layers of clothing due to inadequate heating or during periods of war or natural disasters. The principal's denial of the problem, and his refusal for our staff to cooperate with his school nurse, prevented us from controlling the infestation and preventing its recurrence. Prescription products containing the active ingredients malathion and lindane are not recommended for use on children or adults.


There was a false alarm in the Murray Library earlier this year when a bath bug was mistaken for a bed bug. This lice pictures page aims to make the identificationand recognition of lice problems in pets and livestock easier for pet owners so thatprompt lice treatment and ongoing lice control measures can be implemented much faster.
Lice are usually found behind the ears, and near the neckline at the back of the neck, or the nape. They are spread by close contact with infested articles such as hats, brushes, combs, hair accessories, pillows, backs of chairs, car seats or close contact with people who have lice.
Similar to the nymph, the adult louse feeds off the host’s blood and can only live away from the host for about two days.
Lice or their eggs are easily transmitted from person to person on shared hats, coats, scarves, combs, brushes, towels, bedding, upholstered seats in public places, and by personal contact. Head lice prefer to live on the hair of the head although they have been known to wander to other parts of the body. Louse infestations may also occur in poorly managed nursing homes, and among the homeless. Lice lay oval, hard, whitish nits (eggs), on the hair shaft, usually less than one-half-inch from the scalp. Eggs killed by treatment as well as unaffected eggs may remain attached to hair shafts and should be removed as soon as possible. With human blood to live on, during their 30-day life span, it is not unusual for female lice to lay close to 100 nits. As a result, head lice infestations are most prevalent among children, whereas body and pubic (crab) lice are more frequently encountered among young adults and middle-aged persons.
Body lice live in the seams of clothing, generally where it touches the skin, and only contact the body to feed, usually holding on to the clothing while they do this. Children have been killed or severely burned as the result of accidents that occurred while using these flammable liquids. Although it is arguable how long an adult head louse can live without blood, some claim it is as long as 2 – 5 days without being on a person.
When someone becomes infested with lice, it is likely that the entire family will become infested. Combs and other tools used to remove lice should be soaked in a lice killing solution such as rubbing alcohol after use. This may include: viable eggs, which are dark, egg casings, which are lighter in color, nymphs, nymph moltings, or casings and adult lice.
Massive populations of bloodsucking lice types can sometimes also produce severe anaemia (blood loss) and weakness in addition to this annoying skin irritation. The term "lice" is also used to refer to active infestation of the feathers and haircoatof animals and people with various species of sucking and biting louse. To say that apet or a person "has lice" means that the individual's hair coat or feather plumage is infested with these irritatingparasites. In appearance they are small insects, usually about 1-2mm in length, however, depending upon the louse species in question they can sometimes be quite a bit larger (bird lice are often very large - for example, swan lice can be up to about 5-8mm in length). Lice bodies are usually white to very paleyellow in color, with a darker orange-tan to brownish-colored head.
Like ticks and mites, lice have a dorso-ventrally flattened, pancake-like shape (they look as though they have been squashed from above).
Like most other insects, lice have three main body parts: a head, a thoraxand an abdomen and, like most other insects, lice have six legs (three on each side) that originate from the mid-section of the body (thorax). In the case of many sucking lice species, the legs and gripping claws (feet) are exceptionally large in size, compared to the size of the louse's body,and very strong. The legs and gripping claws of many of the biting louse species are much smaller and weaker by comparison.
The head and mouthparts of the louse are also equipped and shaped according to the louse's feeding style.
Sucking lice, which feed on the blood of host animals, have a small head (narrower than the width of the louse'sthorax) and long, piercing mouthparts for drinking blood.
Biting or chewing lice, which feed on the skin materials and dander of host animals, have a huge head (bigger than the width of thethorax) and toothed, grinding, mandibular mouthparts for biting and chewing the skin.Unlike many other insects, lice have no wings and do not fly. Lice move from host to host and from host to environment to host by direct host contact (lice infested hosts brushing up against the bodies of non-infested hosts)and through direct contact with lice or nit infested bedding, brushes, nesting sites, yards and blankets.Lice are mobile, but do not move at high speed. Pet owners can often easily find liceclinging to the fur and feathers of their pets with a simple, but thorough, search. Lice eggs (lice nits) are long, white, rice-shaped eggs, about 0.5-1mm in length (depending on the species).
They are normally found firmly attached to the shafts of the fur or feathers, somewhere around the base of the hair coat and plumage.
Owners can find lice eggs by parting the hair or feathers of the host animal and examining the fur and feather shafts close to the skin.
There are three juvenile nymph stages (each new nymph stage is the result of the nymph stage before itgrowing in size and shedding its skin - termed "molting" or "moulting"), which increase in size with every moult before finally becoming adult lice with the final moult.
The fur of this mouse still looks quite good - there are no bald spots or places on the skin thathave been heavily traumatized through the rodent's scratching and excessive grooming activities.
The lice nits can be clearly seen in image 14, as white, elongated objects that have been laid along the hair shafts of the mouse's fur.
Lice photo 14 has been magnified in lice picture 15 and a couple ofthe louse nits have been labeled for you. In louse photo 16, a heavily infested region of themouse's coat has been photographed - if you look very closely, you should be able to seemany lice eggs located all through the layers of the mouse's fur. The stomach of this mouse louse (adult or nymph) appears bright redunder the microscope because this species of louse is a sucking louse and it feedsupon the red blood of its mouse host. The murine (mouse) louse pictured, like all other lice, has a dorso-ventrally flattened, pancake-like shape (it looks as though it has been squashed from above). Lice have three main body parts: a head, a thorax and an abdomen (these have been labeled in lice pictures 22 and 25) and, like most other insects, lice have six legs (three on each side) that originate from theunderside of the mid-section of the body (thorax). The two louse Orders can be identified by the width of their heads relative to the width of their thoraxes and, less reliably, by the size of their legs.
Chewing or biting lice, like Felicola (lice picture 26, below), have a large, often-triangular, head that is bigger and wider than the width of their thorax, whereas sucking lice (louse picture 27, below) have a small head, that is narrower than the width of their thorax. Sucking lice tend to have enormous, strong, well-developed legs and claws for gripping their host's fur very tightly, whereas biting lice tendto have very small, comparatively weaker, legs and claws. Biting lice hang on to their host's fur or featherswith their strong, chewing mandibles much of the time and so probably don't need highly developed legs forgrasping the coat or plumage of their hosts. The triangular head of the biting louse is widerthan the width of the louse's thorax and the legs of the biting louse are small and weak compared tothose of the sucking louse (louse photo 27). Notice that there is no blood inside of the biting louse's stomach (no red central region). The head of the sucking louse is narrower than the width of the louse's thorax and the legs of the sucking louse are large and strong compared to those of the biting louse (lice pic 26). Once the Order of the louse has been identified as being of either the biting louse variety orthe sucking louse variety, then the basic Genus of the louse is generally very easy to determine,based upon the species of the host that the louse was found upon.
Most species of animal host (aside from cattle, dogs and guinea pigs) haveonly one Genus of biting lice and one Genus of sucking lice that infests them and so, oncethe Order of the louse has been identified, it is usually very simple to determine the Genus of the louse parasite based on the species of host it was found upon.
For example, horses have two kinds of lice - a biting louse species called Damalinia equi and a sucking louse species called Haematopinus asini. Sheep have several species of sucking lice that infest them, but all are of the same Genus: Linognathus (Linognathus ovillus, L. Even more conveniently, some species of host animal only have a single species of louse (either a sucking or a biting louse variety) that infests them and so it is, thus, very easy to determine the species of the louse just by identifying that the insect in question is a louse.
For example, mice have only one kind of louse - a sucking louse called Polyplax serrata and cats have only one kind of louse - a chewing louse called Felicola subrostratus. In the case of birds, there are no Anopluran (sucking lice)varieties - birds only have Mallophagan chewing or biting lice species parasitising their feathers. As mentioned previously, the size and width of the louse's head relative to the width of its thorax is important to the determination of the Order that the louse comes from. Biting or chewing lice (Order Mallophaga), like Felicola (louse image 28, below), have a large, often-triangular, head that is bigger and wider than the width of their thorax, whereas sucking lice (Order Anoplura) have a small head that is narrower than the width of their thorax.
The mouthparts are also important in determining whether a louse is of a sucking or a biting variety. Biting lice have enormous, grinding, toothed mandibles for hanging onto their host's feathers and fur shaftsand for eating their host's skin materials (e.g. Sucking lice have thin, retractable, elongated, tube-like mouthparts, which are inserted through the host animal's skin to facilitate the consumption of blood. Their heads differ in shape from one another (Damalinia's is more rounded, Felicola'sis triangular), but both lice have the broad head (wider than the thorax) that is typical of the Order Mallophaga. The structures protruding from the sides of the insects' heads in these lice pictures are their antennae. Lice pictures 30 and 31: These are microscope photographs of the feline biting lice, Felicola,taken from beneath the insect's body. The six legs of the insect, protruding from beneath the thorax,are clearly visible in these lice pictures, as are the biting mouthparts (indicated in image 31).
Pictures of lice 32 and 33: These are close-up microscope photographs of the mouth-parts of a biting louse (Felicola). The mouth has two chewing mandibles (one on each side) with three-pronged teeth on each mandible.These mandibles move in and out in a guillotine-like chewing action. These mouthparts help the louse to hold on tightly to the animal's hairs and feathers and they also help the louse to grind down the keratin and dander materials of the host animal's skin into sizes that are small enough for theinsect to ingest.


The clawed front legs of the chewing louse can also be seen in these images (labeled) and these may help to hold and feed food (dander, keratin flakes, scale and so on) into the louse's mouth.
Biting lice pictures 36 and 37: And, because we can, here are some more close-up microscopic photos of the mouth-parts of a biting louse.
Lice pictures 38 and 39: These are microscope photographs of the mouse sucking lice, Polyplax serrata,taken from above the insect's body.
The six legs of the insect, protruding from beneath the thorax,are clearly visible in these lice pictures, as are the biting mouthparts (indicated in image 39), visible through the translucent head.
Pictures of lice 40 and 41: This is an extreme close-up view of the head of the mouselouse, Polyplax serrata. The louse picture shows the elongated, tubular mouthparts (termed stylets) of the louse,which the louse inserts through the host animal's skin, like straws, in order to drink its blood. When the sucking louse is not in the process of feeding (like in these lice pictures), the long, straw-like stylets are retracted high up inside of the louse's head, out of sight.
We can only see themin this picture because the louse's head is transparent and see-through. Lice pictures 44 and 45: In this louse picture, the microscope has been carefully focussed uponthe skin surface at the bottom (ventrum) of the louse's head. When the louse wants to drink the host animal's blood,it protrudes its straw-like stylets out through this mouth hole and into the host animal's skin.
The size and span of the sucking louse's claws is possibly dependent upon the diameter of the hair shaft that the individual sucking louse species has been designed to infest.
For example: sucking louse varieties on cattle and horses have very large claws to better grip the very wide hairs present on these animals' coats. The sucking louse probably needs such large, strong claws because it has no strong mandibles to help it to cling onto the host animal's hairs.
The biting louse (Mallophaga), in contrast, has rather small, weak-looking legs compared to those of the sucking louse. The biting louse's huge, grasping mandibles probably more than make up for this lack of limb strength. Chewing lice pictures 46 and 47: These are photographs of the feline biting louse, Felicola,taken from beneath the insect's body. The six legs of the insect, protruding from the thorax,are clearly visible in these lice pictures, as are the biting mouthparts. The right middle and rear legs of the insect, protruding from the thorax, are clearly visible in this lice picture. The abdomen contains the insect's reproductive and digestive organs as well as the series of air-filled tubules that make up the insect's respiratory system.
Eggs grow and mature in the female louse's abdomen before they are laid on the animal's fur.
The stomach of this feline louse is not red because this species does not feed upon the blood of thehost animal.
Heavy infestations of sucking lice areable to cause severe anaemia in their equine hosts and severely infested and weakened horses (especially old horses) can potentially die as a result of their infestation.
Note, however, that death fromlouse infestation is very uncommon and is generally contributed to by the kinds of adverse living conditionsthat caused the lice to proliferate in the first place: starvation or malnutrition, neglect, stress, inclement weather, over-crowding, poor housing and severe age or pre-existing illness. It does not tend to cause anaemia orsevere life-threatening debility, however, it does tend to irritate the horse hosts to a significantdegree (a trait it shares with the sucking lice - which are also very itchy). The intense itchiness can result in reduced time spent grazing, which can result in the animal becoming thin (ill-thrift) and unhealthy. The loss of fur is the result of the horse scratching itself up against trees and fences in an attempt to relieve the itchiness of the parasites' lice bites. This particular horse was very old, thin and crippled: a stressed, debilitated state that facilitated the multiplication of the insect pests.
Horse lice pictures 61 and 62: These are close up photographs of the coat of the lice horse in image 60.
The horse's coat is coarse and rough and of poor quality and bears many patches of thinly-haired tohairless bald spots, where the horse has broken the hair shafts scratching and rubbing itself up against trees and fences in an attempt to remove the lice infestation.
Being in such an open position, these lice are perfectly placedto infest the coats of any other horse hosts that happen to brush alongside this louse infested animal. These lice pictures show that, with a thorough inspection of the horse's coat, horse lice are not all that hard to find. Then notice the louse's head (pointing upwards) - it looks like a broad, brown-red trianglesitting on top of the louse's body. The thorax (small and narrow) is hard to discern, but sits just betweenthe head and the abdomen.
The lice eggsor nits are long, narrow, white, rice-grain-like structures attached to the hair shafts of the horse's coat.When the fur of the horse was parted, particularly in the areas of the coat under the mane, alongside the neck and around the withers, poll and tail-base, clusters of lice and lice eggs (lice nits)could be found at the base of the hairs.
These images show what this severe lice infestationlooked like and what you might look for when trying to diagnose lice infestation on a horse.
The adult lice arepositioned against the horse's skin, head down and bottom-up, chewing on the dander.
Further up the hairs, small lice nits or eggs (which look like white grains of rice) can also be seen. What is lice - picture 68: This a microscope image of the horse lice species, Damalinia equi.
The louse egg pictured has a blunt end (it looks cut-off) indicating that it has hatched already. 5b) Feline lice (cat louse) - cat lice treatment and information:Lice tend to infest cats most commonly during the seasons of Winter and Spring, however, they can be present all year 'round if conditions are favourable. Lice on cats do not come from dogs or rodents or livestock, but from other cats and are spread from cat to cat through direct body contact (e.g. Cats are infested with only one kind of lice: a biting louse variety called Felicola subrostratus. Most of the cat lice infestations that I have seen have been in outdoor, stray, feral or wandering cats,which have most likely been in contact with other free-living, lice infested cats. Of those cases of feline lice infestation that I have seen, most of them tend to only be very mild, with but a few lice found here and there on the animal's coat. It often takes a good deal of careful hunting to find adult lice and nits on a cat's coat and suspicious cat owners need to be very thorough in their search for them. The reason for the very low numbers of lice found on cats has probably got a lot to do with the cat's fastidious grooming habits. Many of the adult and nymphal lice probably get licked up and consumed by the cat as it grooms and nibbles itselfin response to the itchy bites of the insects.
Overgrooming and scratching is one of the mainsigns of lice in the cat and cats may become secondarily afflicted with furballs as a result ofthis overgrooming and hair consumption. The most importantthing is to make sure that the lice product you choose is specifically designed for and safe for cats. Please note that maldison and carbaryl are organophosphate and organophosphate-like chemicals with a high potential for toxicity in animals and people. If used, products containing these active ingredients must be applied very carefully, according to the strict instructions on the product label. Owners are advised to take appropriate safety precautions when using such insecticide products (i.e.
Owners arealso advised to be aware of and to take appropriate environmental precautionswhen using such insecticide products, including pyrethrins (i.e.
Debilitated cats should not be bathed in maldison or carbaryl or pyrethrin and cats should not be allowed to consume these products.
Brushes, bedding, rugs, cat boxes and other fomites that could spread lice from host to host should also be treated to ensure that these are not allowed to remain as sources of reinfestation. The following case (a stray, louse infested cat brought into our clinic)is a prime example of this. Cat lice picture: This entire, male, ginger tom cat was brought into the vet clinicafter being trapped by rangers in a reserve. He was skinny and unhealthy, with a large burstabscess on the side of his face (the blood you can see on the right ear).
These are the pale yellow dots with the dark-brown heads that you cansee all through the fur. Picture A: As the cat had such a severe lice burden and appeared so unwell, anunderlying disease condition was suspected. This cat was tested for FIV (Feline Immunodeficiency Virusor Feline AIDS), a common immunosuppressive virus in our local feral cat populations,and found to be positive.
It is unknown whether the virus per se was the exact cause of thecat's debilitated, lousey condition (cats can carry FIV without symptoms for a variable period oftime) or whether it was just the cat's severe malnutrition, stress and exposure to extremeweather (the cat was caught at the end of winter) that caused it to become so susceptible to the parasites. Heavy infestations of sucking lice are able to cause severe anaemia in their murine hosts and severely infested and weakened mice (especially old mice) can potentially die as a result of their infestation. Mouse lice bites are also very itchy and some micewill literally tear their fur from their bodies, leaving behind big patches of baldness. Some itchy mice will even scratch their skin to the point of outright bleeding, leaving behind big sores and scabs on the skin.
This kind of severe itching and self trauma can be one of the signs of lice that owners might recognise first in their mice and should be a clue for owners to have a close look at their pet's coat for lice or nits.



Electronics course lectures 2013
Zombie survival quiz flash game
Bsa emergency preparedness kit checklist australia


Comments to “Can lice live in extreme cold”

  1. I_S_I writes:
    Canned goods, and other specialty.
  2. SES_REJISORU writes:
    Penguin for small child who loves.
  3. hesRET writes:
    Low-cost, but if you are 24% elastic fiber means require them but as we usually say.