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Information identified as archived is provided for reference, research or record-keeping purposes. Since its inception in the 1950s within the context of civil defence, emergency preparedness training in Canada has evolved with changing world conditions, modified government priorities and shifting strategic directions. Following the Second World War, civil defence continued to be recognized as a national concern in Canada. From 1951 until 1954, federal courses were given at the Federal Civil Defence Staff College in Ottawa. The establishment of the Canadian Civil Defence College in Arnprior, Ontario, in January 1954 greatly increased the capacity of the federal government to train civil defence personnel.
The main objectives of the College were to train specialists in aspects of civil defence work and assist others with responsibilities in local civil defence. The focus of the courses conducted at the College between 1954 and 1972 related to wartime planning, particularly nuclear warfare.
In 1959, the Civil Defence Order was promulgated, creating the Emergency Measures Organization (EMO), under the Privy Council Office. In 1965, the designation of the College was changed to the Canadian Emergency Measures College.
The late sixties and early seventies saw a decline in interest in wartime civil defence planning and a growing interest in civil protection. The Emergency Measures Organization was reincarnated as the National Emergency Planning Establishment (NEPE), which was renamed Emergency Planning Canada (EPC) in 1975. By 1980, renewed interest in emergency planning, with an emphasis on peacetime disaster response, led the federal government to merge the Emergency Planning Secretariat and Emergency Planning Canada within the Privy Council Office.
As part of the heightened interest in emergency planning during this period, the College was granted a formal coat of arms by then President of the Queen's Privy Council, The Honourable Yvon Pinard.
While the College coat of arms is no longer used officially, visitors to the College will see it on our walls and its image is represented on our website as a link to the College's heritage.
By 1985, emergency preparedness training had reached a peak at the Federal Study Centre with over 100 courses, workshops and seminars being offered.
In 1986, Emergency Planning Canada's name was changed to Emergency Preparedness Canada (EPC) to better represent its function. From 1989 to 1994, a number of reviews were undertaken concerning the scope and responsibilities of the College. The Training Strategy, which ran from April 1994 to March 1999, resulted in more Canadians receiving training and education in emergency preparedness and response than in the past. In 2000, the College and its provincial and territorial partners started developing the National Training Strategy, which was approved in 2001. The College became part of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada in 2004, the federal department responsible for coordinating the government of Canada's response to any emergency event. Despite the changes to its identity and training programs, the College has remained a source of pride among the almost 100,000 emergency management personnel who have attended our programs. PigTrace is an industry led, live animal traceability initiative designed to ensure protection, prosperity and peace of mind for the Canadian pork industry and its customers. PigTrace is an important tool for quickly identifying affected swine operations in order to avoid costly market disruptions and production losses in the event of a disease outbreak or food safety issue. Using uniquely designed software and reporting tools, PigTrace allows movement information to be reported without creating additional workload. The Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act (the Act) includes the provision that the Minister, MCSCS may formulate emergency plans respecting types of emergencies other than those arising in connection with nuclear facilities. The PERP describes the arrangements and measures that may be taken to safeguard the health, safety, welfare and property of the people of Ontario affected by an emergency. While the focus of this plan is on emergency response, it also recognizes the important link to prevention, mitigation, preparedness (plans, training, public education, exercises, and emergency information), and recovery, as proactive components that are critical elements in any emergency response.
Emergency Management Ontario (EMO) is the organization charged with responsibility to monitor, coordinate, and assist with the promotion, development, implementation and maintenance of emergency management programs in Ontario.
This edition of the PERP supersedes and replaces the Provincial Emergency Response Plan, dated December 2005.
An emergency is a situation or an impending situation that constitutes a danger of major proportions that could result in serious harm to persons or substantial damage to property and that is caused by the forces of nature, a disease or other health risk, an accident, or an act whether intentional or otherwise. Emergency management consists of organized programs and activities taken to deal with actual or potential emergencies or disasters. Prevention refers to the actions taken to prevent the emergency itself and can greatly diminish the response and recovery activities required for certain emergencies. Preparedness refers to those measures taken prior to the emergency or disaster to ensure an effective response.
Emergency Management Ontario (EMO) is the overall provincial emergency management organization, and is responsible for the promotion, development, implementation and maintenance of effective emergency management programs throughout Ontario, and for the coordination of these programs with the federal government.
The PERP is the plan that is used to coordinate overall provincial emergency response and outlines how EMO and the ministries respond to widespread or large-scale emergencies.
Emergencies vary in intensity and complexity depending on factors such as time of occurrence, weather conditions, severity of impact, nature of the affected infrastructure and buildings, and demographics. Occasionally, emergencies arise that overwhelm the capacity of community authorities to completely carry out the emergency response operations necessary to save lives and protect property.
If necessary, the province can declare an emergency and directly control the commitment and application of provincial resources, and possibly those of affected and unaffected communities. Provincial response support can be provided to the Government of Canada in the event of a national emergency. The aim of the PERP is to establish a framework for a systematic, coordinated and effective emergency response by the Province of Ontario to safeguard the health, safety, welfare and property of its citizens, as well as to protect the environment and economy of the area affected by an emergency, excluding nuclear emergencies. The federal government, through Public Safety Canada (PS) is responsible for the national emergency response system. The Province has exclusive jurisdiction for matters of property and civil rights in the province and for all matters that affect the public health, safety and environment of the province, under this Act. The federal government has also made arrangements with First Nations and with the province concerning emergency preparedness and response activities in Ontario under which the province agrees to provide assistance in emergency preparedness and response to First Nations communities. The Ontario government is responsible for protecting public health and safety, property and the environment within its borders. The Minister of Community Safety and Correctional Services (Minister, MCSCS) formulates the PERP under authority of subsection 8.1 of the Act. References in this plan to the Minister, MCSCS will refer to those powers vested in the Solicitor General by the Act2. Pursuant to section 6 of the Act, ministers of the crown presiding over a ministry of the Government of Ontario and agencies, boards, commissions or other branches of government designated by the Lieutenant Governor in Council shall formulate emergency plans for the type of emergency assigned by the Lieutenant Governor in Council.
Declaration of a provincial emergency may also be made by the Premier of Ontario, if the urgency of the situation requires that such a declaration be made immediately.
Ministers’ emergency plans shall authorize Crown employees to take action under the emergency plans where an emergency exists but has not yet been declared to exist (section 9(a) of the Act). Ministers of the Crown and Crown employees are protected from personal liability for doing any act or neglecting to do any act in good faith in the implementation or intended implementation of emergency plans such as the PERP (subsection 11 (1) of the Act). Pursuant to section 14 of the Act, ministry emergency plans shall conform to the standards set out in regulations under the Act. Pursuant to subsection 6(1) of the Act, the Lieutenant Governor in Council may assign to a minister, the responsibility for the formulation of an emergency response plan to address a specific type of emergency. Ontario municipalities possess legislated responsibilities to establish emergency management programs under the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act.
Coordination of provincial response to emergencies that occur in the North and in unorganized territories is the responsibility of the ministry to which the type of emergency that has occurred has been assigned through the OIC. Provincial ministries that are assigned a type of emergency by the OIC will produce emergency response plans according to their assigned type of emergency, to enable the Province of Ontario to respond effectively to each emergency. These plans identify issues arising from provincial emergencies that require a broader response than a primary ministry’s response capabilities, and outline how inter-ministerial issues will be coordinated.
Denotes a plan which is in the process of development, is subject to change as a result of internal or external review, and is also still subject to various approvals. Denotes a plan that has been extensively reviewed, which may or may not have been exercised or evaluated, and has yet to receive final approvals.
Denotes a plan which has completed the review process, has likely been exercised and evaluated, and has received all of the necessary approvals. The Chief, EMO is responsible for monitoring, coordinating, and assisting with the promotion, development, maintenance, and, through the PEOC, the implementation of these plans. Under certain circumstances, it may be necessary to enhance the coordination of provincial emergency response by implementing provisions from this plan. If the urgency of the situation requires that declaration of a provincial emergency be made immediately such a declaration may also be made by the Premier. 2.3 It is not possible, without the risk of serious delay, to ascertain whether the resources normally available can be relied upon.
Therefore, an emergency could be declared if operational information indicates that existing government resources and legislative powers are insufficient to address the emergency. The process leading to a provincial declaration of emergency will vary depending on the situation. When a provincial declaration of emergency is made, the Premier (or minister designated to exercise the powers conferred on the Premier by the Act,) will ensure that the federal government is informed. Once a provincial declaration of emergency has been made the LGIC has the power to make emergency orders and may delegate these powers to a Minister or to the Deputy Minister of Emergency Planning and Management. A Minister to whom powers have been delegated may delegate any of his or her powers to the Deputy Minister of Emergency Planning and Management.
These orders are only made if they are necessary and essential, would alleviate harm or damage, and are a reasonable alternative to other measures.
The decision-maker must determine whether it is reasonable to believe that the order will alleviate harm or damage.
The decision-maker must believe the order represents a reasonable alternative to other measures that are available to address the emergency.
This part of the test requires the consideration of options that may be available before an emergency order is made.
The order must apply only to the areas where it is necessary and should be effective only for as long as necessary.
Orders generally prevail over all Ontario statutes and regulations, with limited exceptions (E.g.
It is important to note that this criterion does not require that all other alternatives be attempted prior to making an emergency order.
An order made by the LGIC or a Minister is revoked 14 days after it is made unless revoked sooner. A provincial emergency declaration may include the Province of Ontario in its entirety or any portion or area thereof. During an emergency, the Premier, or a Minister to whom the Premier delegates the responsibility, is required to regularly report to the public with respect to the emergency. The Premier is required to submit a report in respect of the emergency in the Assembly within 120 days after the termination of an emergency.
The Deputy Minister of Emergency Planning and Management is required to make a report to the Premier in respect of any orders that he made, within 90 days after the termination of an emergency, for the Premier to include in his report. The basic structure established for the response to a provincial emergency, following the IMS model, is illustrated in Figure 4.1. The LGIC and the Premier of Ontario provide overall direction to the management of the emergency response. The mandate of the Cabinet Committee on Emergency Management (CCEM) is to ensure that the province is prepared to address emergency situations and assume other responsibilities, as Cabinet deems appropriate.
The PEOC provides overall coordination of the provincial response, based on the strategic direction from the Deputy Minister and CCEM. During all stages of response, EMO (through the Deputy Minister of Emergency Planning and Management) will ensure that both the Cabinet Committee on Emergency Management (CCEM) is kept fully informed of the emergency situation and receive current assessments and updates on which to base operational decisions. The PEOC coordinates with the primary ministry to ensure that there is no duplication of effort, and that the operation runs smoothly. Decisions regarding operational emergency response requirements will be conveyed by the PEOC to those Ministry EOCs and community EOCs that are involved in the emergency response. Emergency management refers to a wide range of measures to protect communities and the environment from risks and to recover from emergency events stemming from either natural or human-induced causes. Through legislation and government policy, Public Safety Canada, which was created in DecemberA 2003, is responsible for leading by coordinating the management of emergencies among federal departments and agencies. We did not examine the performance of emergency management efforts by provinces, territories, or local communities. The H1N1 pandemic, theA 2003 eastern seaboard power blackout, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), massive flooding, and terrorist conspiracies and attacks have demonstrated that global trade, international travel, and cyberspace have increased the speed at which emergencies escalate in scope and severity. Public Safety Canada is faced with the challenging task of providing the coordination necessary for an overall federal approach to emergency management, in an environment where departments have operated as needed and through their ministers to provide federal assistance on a case-by-case basis. Public Safety Canada has not exercised the leadership necessary to coordinate emergency management activities, including critical infrastructure protection in Canada.
Public Safety Canada has made considerable progress in improving federal emergency coordination through its Government Operations Centre.
Public Safety Canada has developed a strategy to protect Canadaa€™s critical infrastructure, but this strategy is still in draft form. Progress has been slow untilA 2009 on Public Safety Canadaa€™sA 2004 commitment to develop a cyber security strategy, although threats to computer-based critical infrastructure, including federal information systems, have been growing and evolving. Although theA 2004 National Security Policy called for first respondersa€™ equipment and communications to be interoperable, keyA gaps remain for voice communications.
7.2 Under Canadaa€™s Constitution Act,A 1867, provinces and territories have primary responsibility for emergency management within their boundaries.
7.4 Building the capability to manage a coordinated federal response to an emergency of national significance is a huge undertaking and cannot be achieved overnight. 7.5 TheA 2004 National Security Policy, ourA 2005 audit of national security and emergency preparedness, the House of Commons Standing Committee on Public Accounts, and the Senate Standing Committee on National Security and Defence all called for updated federal legislation to clearly define and ensure adequate emergency management powers and responsibilities for the Minister of Public Safety. The Emergency Management Act requires the Minister of Public Safety to exercise leadership for emergency management by coordinating emergency management activities among federal departments and agencies, and in cooperation with the provinces and territories. As well, other federal ministers are to identify the risks that are within their area of responsibility, including those related to critical infrastructure, and to prepare, maintain, test, implement, and exercise emergency management plans in respect of those risks in compliance with the policies, programs, and other measures established by the Minister of Public Safety. 7.9 Public Safety Canada is the coordinating agency for federal departments, which have various roles to play in an emergency.
7.10 If a department or agency has a clear mandate to respond to an emergency and is responsible to act, it is the subject matter expert. 7.12 Public Safety Canadaa€™s role as the lead department for coordinating federal emergency management includes critical infrastructure protection. To establish policies and programs for emergency management plansA and operations, provide advice to departments, and evaluate their plans.
To coordinate the emergency management activities among federal government institutions along with those of the provinces and territories. To promote a common approach to emergency management, including the adoption of standards and best practices. 7.14 Specifically, we examined Public Safety Canadaa€™s responsibility to lead by coordinating the efforts of other federal entities and by coordinating federal efforts with those of the provinces and territories. 7.15 We did not examine the performance of provinces, territories, or local communities in their deliveryA of emergency management services or activities, nor did we examine provincial and territorial or private sector critical infrastructure protection efforts. 7.16 More details on the audit objectives, scope, approach, and criteria are in About the Audit at the end of this chapter. 7.17 Public Safety Canada is responsible under legislation to exercise leadership through planning, establishing policies and programs for emergency preparedness, cooperating with provinces and territories, and promoting a common approach to emergency management. 7.18 Because the subject matter expertise and experience for dealing with emergencies resides in several different departments, Public Safety Canada has an important role to ensure that all potential hazards are addressed, that plans exist and have been shared and tested, and that, during a crisis, the kind of response needed is quickly established without confusion. 7.19 We found that while Public Safety Canada played a coordination role in some emergencies, including participating in the development of response plans for avian and pandemic influenza, it has yet to establish the policies and programs that would help define its leadership and coordination role for emergency management in an all-hazards environment.
7.20 In order to move forward in its mandate to exercise leadership, Public Safety Canada needs to have experienced and knowledgeable staff in place.
7.22 In the face of these challenges, Public Safety Canada has taken the first steps toward establishing its leadership role by developing the interim Federal Emergency Response Plan, a framework for coordinating emergency response activities across government. 7.23 While the framework may be considered complete, the roles and responsibilities and the capabilities (contained in its annexes) needed for an integrated, coordinated approach to emergencies have not been updated or completed.
7.24 The Federal Emergency Response Plan outlines a decision-making process to help coordinate a federal response to emergencies. 7.27 In order to be ready to respond, emergency management plans need to address the most important risks. 7.28 TheA 2004 National Security Policy and theA 2007 Emergency Management Act recognized that the federal government needed to better understand Canadaa€™s vulnerability to emerging risks and use this information to develop comprehensive emergency plans and programs.
7.29 We found that Public Safety Canada has made limited progress in developing the guidance that departments need to achieve a consistent approach when identifying their risks and their emergency management plans and programs. 7.30 The Emergency Management Act stipulates that Public Safety Canada is responsible for reviewing departmental emergency management plans, which includes departmental business continuity plans. 7.33 InA 2004, Public Safety Canada established the Government Operations Centre as the core of its federal coordination efforts forA events of national significance. 7.34 The Government Operations Centre has coordinated information and analysis among federal departments and provinces forA numerous events since its inception.
7.35 Public Safety Canada has made considerable progress in federal emergency coordination through its Government Operations Centre, as the centre operates on a continual basis and can track many potential or evolving events.
7.36 In order for response plans to be reliable during an emergency, they must be regularly exercised, especially the plans for coordination between departments and agencies and between different levels of government. 7.40 We examined the status of efforts made to improve CBRNE response capability, where a coordinated and integrated approach among federal departments, as well as provincial and local jurisdictions, is essential to success.
7.42 Public Safety Canada is responsible for setting the overall federal policy on CBRNE issues.
7.43 While the current strategy states that the government is to take all possible measures to pre-empt, prevent, mitigate, and respond effectively to a potential CBRNE incident, it has not identified the desired capability, mandate, roles, or priorities for crisis or consequence management for the responsible federal organizations.
7.45 TheA 2004 National Security Policy called for equipment and communications to be interoperable or compatible so that first responders could work together better.
7.46 First responders have identified voice communications as the main constraint to their interoperability.
7.47 As noted in ourA 2005A audit, while the federal government could use directed funding to promote standardized equipment, officials told us that it has not done more due to a lack of resources. 7.48 Public Safety Canada is the lead federal department for coordinating the protection of Canadaa€™s critical infrastructure. 7.49 We examined whether Public Safety Canada was providing a leadership role in developing and implementing a national strategy for critical infrastructure protection. 7.51 While not meeting its target date inA 2005, Public Safety Canada started to work with provinces, territories, and the private sector to develop a plan to implement a proposed National Strategy for Critical Infrastructure. 7.52 At the time of our audit, Public Safety Canada had started to develop guidance to promote a consistent approach to critical infrastructure risk assessments and protection efforts.
7.53 With the proposed critical infrastructure strategy, Public Safety Canada has taken the first step toward getting a complete picture of the infrastructure considered important at the federal, provincial, and municipal levels. 7.55 While Public Safety Canada can move forward to develop policies and programs without resolving these issues, the unresolved issues will remain an impediment to achieving full success if they are not addressed. 7.56 Public Safety Canada has provided no guidance to departments to ensure that they determine what critical infrastructure needs to be protected.
7.57 We examined the energy and utilities sector in more detail as it was seen to have made considerable progress in efforts to identify and protect critical infrastructure. 7.58 Natural Resources Canada is in the process of adding infrastructure information to maps, including not only pipelines and transmission lines, but also railways, telecommunications, and strategic buildings and structures.
7.59 Threats to computer-based critical infrastructure, including federal information systems, are evolving and growing. 7.60 Public Safety Canada is in the process of developing a cyber security strategya€”a commitment first made in theA 2004 National Security Policy. 7.62 We found that Public Safety Canada has not exercised the leadership necessary to coordinate emergency management activities, including protection of critical infrastructure in Canada. 7.63 Public Safety Canada has drafted a strategy to protect Canadaa€™s critical infrastructure, but it has not been formally approved. 7.64 We found that Public Safety Canada had made slow progress until this past year on its 2004A commitment to develop a cyber security strategy, although threats to computer-based critical infrastructure, including federal information systems, are evolving and growing. 7.65 Over the period of our audit, Public Safety Canada, along with other federal departments and agencies, had made limited progress in enhancing the response to and recovery from emergencies in a coordinated manner.
7.66 Public Safety Canada is making progress in promoting standards for personal protective equipment used in responding to emergencies. All of the audit work in this chapter was conducted in accordance with the standards for assurance engagements set by The Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants. This audit examined federal efforts to improve the nationa€™s readiness and resiliency to respond to incidents or attacks, through improved coordination of emergency management activities at the federal level, and through work with provinces and territories to achieve unified and integrated response and recovery operations. The audit did not examine emergency management activities of the provinces and territories; it focused on Public Safety Canadaa€™s coordination of emergency management among federal departments along with the provinces and territories.
We expected that Public Safety Canada would exercise leadership by coordinating federal emergency management activities, as described in legislation and policies. We expected that Public Safety Canada would coordinate federal emergency management activities with those of the provinces and territories to provide timely and coordinated support to communities in an emergency.
We expected that Public Safety Canada would regularly test and exercise federal emergency management plans. We expected that Public Safety Canada and selected federal entities would use a risk-based approach to identify the resources needed and to coordinate the response to and recovery from emergencies.
We expected that Public Safety Canada would promote a common approach to emergency management, including the adoption of standards and best practices. We expected that Public Safety Canada, together with its federal partners, would provide emergency management training, based on a needs assessment and risk-based plan.
This audit covers the performance of federal departments and agencies and events taking place since our last audit of this subject reported in AprilA 2005. For information, please contact Communications at 613-995-3708 orA 1-888-761-5953 (toll-free).
7.26 The Privy Council Office and Public Safety Canada should ensure that all components of the Federal Emergency Response Plan are completed and should obtain government approval for the plan. 7.31 As stipulated in the Emergency Management Act, Public Safety Canada should establish policies and programs and provide advice for departments to follow when identifying risks and developing their emergency management plans. 7.32 As stipulated in the Emergency Management Act, Public Safety Canada should analyze and evaluate the emergency management plans prepared by departments to ensure that they are prepared according to the policies, programs, and advice provided, and it should identify potential gaps or risks to a coordinated emergency management response.
7.44 As stipulated in the Emergency Management Act, Public Safety Canada should ensure that its coordination role for the federal response to an emergency is well-defined and that the operational policies and plans that departments will follow are updated and consistent.
Capability gapa€”The gap between available resources and the desired result, which in this case is a timely and effective response to an emergency. First respondersa€”The police officers, firefighters, and emergency medical service workers who are the first to respond to an emergency. I am pleased to present this Strategy, Building Resilience Against Terrorism, which sets out Canada's approach to tackling this global and domestic threat. The Strategy enshrines the Government of Canada's existing approach to countering terrorism.
The first priority of the Government of Canada is to protect Canada and the safety and security of Canadians at home and abroad. The Strategy operates through four mutually reinforcing elements: Prevent, Detect, Deny and Respond.
Activities in this area focus on the motivations of individuals who engage in, or have the potential to engage in, terrorist activity at home and abroad. This element focuses on identifying terrorists, terrorist organizations and their supporters, their capabilities and the nature of their plans. Intelligence and law enforcement actions can deny terrorists the means and opportunities to pursue terrorist activities. For the first time, Building Resilience Against Terrorism clearly sets out Canada's integrated approach to dealing with terrorist threats, both at home and abroad. The aim of the Strategy is: to counter domestic and international terrorism in order to protect Canada, Canadians and Canadian interests.
Reflected throughout the Strategy is the fundamental belief that countering terrorism requires partnerships. The terrorist threat has evolved over the years, and Canada now faces ever more decentralized and diverse threats. To succeed, the Government's counter-terrorism efforts cannot be limited to operations directed at groups or individuals already involved in terrorist activities. In Canada, the definition of terrorist activity includes an act or omission undertaken, inside or outside Canada, for a political, religious or ideological purpose that is intended to intimidate the public with respect to its security, including its economic security, or to compel a person, government or organization (whether inside or outside Canada) from doing or refraining from doing any act, and that intentionally causes one of a number of specified forms of serious harm. Terrorism continues to pose a significant threat to Canada, Canadians and Canadian interests abroad. Recurring instances of violence linked to Sunni Islamist extremism have punctuated the development of the terrorist threat since at least the 1970s. Al Qaida, led by Ayman al Zawahiri since the death of Usama bin Laden in May 2011, remains at the forefront of Sunni Islamist extremism and continues to serve as an ideology and inspiration for potential terrorists worldwide. Two of these groups in particular, al Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula and al Shabaab, illustrate the diffusion of the Sunni Islamist terrorist threat. In 2006, 18 individuals were arrested in Ontario for participating in a terrorist group whose intent was to bomb a number of symbolic Canadian institutions.
Since some international terrorists are completely focused on conducting violence abroad, Canadian concerns are not solely limited to preventing attacks in Canada, but include the prevention of violent global extremism.
Ongoing struggles in the Middle East present another example where foreign conflicts pose a threat of international terrorism. Other groups pose a threat to international and Canadian efforts to support the Middle East peace process. Although not of the same scope and scale faced by other countries, low-level violence by domestic issue-based groups remains a reality in Canada.
Although very small in number, some groups in Canada have moved beyond lawful protest to encourage, threaten and support acts of violence.
The nature of the terrorist threat facing Canada continues to diversify and become more widespread. Strategic drivers, such as globalization, rapid technological change, an increasingly networked society and fragile states, create new and different vulnerabilities that terrorists may seek to exploit.
Within Canada, terrorists may also continue exploring means to acquire financial and logistical support using both legal and illegal enterprises. Canada's success in remaining resilient to the terrorist threat will depend on the adoption of a flexible and forward-looking approach that effectively adapts to the changing threat environment. The first priority of the Government of Canada is to protect Canada and the safety of Canadians at home and abroad. The Strategy is necessarily comprehensive because the terrorist threat is multidimensional.
These principles are based on fundamental Canadian values, as well as Canada's practical experience in dealing with terrorism. Canadian society is built on the rule of law as a cornerstone of peace, order and good government.
This principle includes respect for human rights, both those enshrined in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (the Charter) and in international legal obligations, such as international human rights and humanitarian law.
The Strategy is based on the knowledge that the terrorist threat can most effectively be countered through the extensive use of cooperation and partnerships. Domestically, counter-terrorism involves many federal departments and agencies (see Annex A for a full listing). Canada is also an active participant in the work of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), the international organization that sets standards with respect to combating money laundering and terrorist financing, and the Egmont Group, a forum for financial intelligence units around the world to facilitate and improve cooperation, especially in the area of information exchange, in the fight against money laundering and terrorist financing.
A proportionate and measured response to terrorism is the best way to act consistently with Canadian values and to preserve community support for counter-terrorism efforts.
Canada's approach to terrorism will be proportionate to the threat, neither an overreaction nor an underreaction. To maximize results under the Strategy, it must also address the factors that contribute to terrorism.
This chapter describes how the Government is seeking to achieve the aim of: countering domestic and international terrorism in order to protect Canada, Canadians and Canadian interests. For each of the elements of the Strategy, a clear understanding of what is required to achieve success and how Canada's efforts are coordinated and contribute to the delivery of the Strategy, is necessary. For an issue as complex and cross cutting as counter-terrorism, many programs and activities contribute to the attainment of more than one strategic outcome, and in some cases, support more than one element of the Strategy.
Resilience is illustrated as a ring surrounding the sphere to demonstrate that all four elements contribute to building a Canada resilient to terrorism.
This element focuses on the motivations of individuals who engage in, or have the potential to engage in, terrorist activities at home and abroad. Violent extremist ideology is effectively challenged by producing effective narratives to counter it.
The Strategy articulates Canada's commitment to addressing the factors contributing to terrorism, including radicalization leading to violence. The threat of violent extremism does not originate from a single source, but a diverse range of groups and individuals who either actively participate in or who support violent extremist activities.
To effectively counter violent extremism, a culture of openness must exist between citizens and government.
In this way, the Prevent element requires law enforcement and CSIS to develop strong capabilities in community engagement, including the enhanced language and cultural awareness skills needed to engage with diverse Canadian communities. Other Government departments, such as Public Safety Canada, Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC), CSC and the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT) also have supporting programs that directly or indirectly help mitigate the threat of violent extremism in Canada and abroad. Some terrorist organizations have developed sophisticated propaganda and outreach strategies. The Prevent element would focus on providing positive alternative narratives that emphasize the open, diverse and inclusive nature of Canadian society and seek to foster a greater sense of Canadian identity and belonging for all. Under the Prevent element, Canada will continue to coordinate its efforts with like-minded countries to stabilize fragile states and limit the conditions conducive to the development of violent extremism globally. Under the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy (2006), member states are to address the conditions conducive to the spread of terrorism by strengthening existing programs on conflict prevention, negotiation, mediation, conciliation, peacekeeping and peace building. Purpose: to detect the activities of individuals and organizations who may pose a terrorist threat. To counter the terrorist threat, knowledge is required on the terrorists themselves, their capabilities and the nature of their plans. Robust and comprehensive detection of terrorist activity and effective alerting systems are in place. Information is shared effectively, appropriately and proactively within Canada, with key allies and non-traditional partners.
For effective detection, Canada must have strong capabilities for the collection, analysis and dissemination of usable intelligence. The primary Government of Canada collection organizations are CSIS, the Communications Security Establishment Canada (CSEC) and the RCMP. The Department of Finance is currently developing options to enhance the exchange of intelligence between FINTRAC and its federal partners.
In order to detect and address risks to the charitable sector, the Charities Directorate of the CRA reviews applications and conducts audits, as well as collects and analyzes multisource intelligence. Achieving the desired results under Detect requires cooperation between security intelligence agencies, and federal, provincial, territorial and municipal law enforcement.
The Privy Council Office International Assessment Staff (PCO IAS) plays a leading role in coordinating the efforts of the Canadian assessment community and provides PCO and other senior government clients with policy-neutral assessments of foreign developments and trends that may affect Canadian interests. CSIS combines the information they collect themselves with information from other sources to provide intelligence assessments on terrorist threats.
FINTRAC provides strategic financial intelligence and tactical disclosures to the security and intelligence community. The RCMP also prepares tactical and strategic assessments in support of RCMP operations and planning, and contributes to overall Government of Canada assessment efforts through participation in PCO IAS and the Integrated Terrorism Assessment Centre (ITAC). ITAC provides comprehensive and timely assessments of the terrorist threat to Canadian interests at home and abroad that integrate intelligence from across departments and agencies and from external partners. An effective approach to counter-terrorism requires that the intelligence resulting from collection and analysis activities be shared promptly with those who need it. DFAIT's Operations Centre monitors world events, alerts senior governmental officials to items of national interest and supports interdepartmental task force groups. Internationally, Canada has well-established practices for sharing counter-terrorism information with allies, multilateral agencies like NATO and other key partners. The Government must leverage new technologies to ensure that information required for national security purposes is available to decision makers in a timely manner.
Purpose: to deny terrorists the means and opportunity to carry out their activities in order to protect Canadians and Canadian interests. Intelligence and law enforcement actions, prosecutions, and domestic and international cooperation are important to mitigate vulnerabilities and aggressively intervene in terrorist planning. DFAIT has the primary responsibility for coordinating Canada's international efforts on counter-terrorism.
Canada is a signatory to thirteen UN sponsored terrorism related international conventions that address threats like hostage taking, hijacking, terrorist bombings and terrorist financing, and has implemented UN Security Council Resolutions relevant to combating the financing of terrorism. Canada also partners with the international community to promote security in other states, including fragile states, under its whole-of-government approach, which involves defence, development and diplomacy. This element also aims to deny terrorists access to weapons, including the CBRNE materials needed to build weapons of mass destruction.
The CBSA maintains 62 Liaison Officers in 46 locations abroad to interdict inadmissible individuals from boarding flights to Canada.
Managing risk away from the border through partnerships with other border administrations and industry stakeholders is a key component of Canada's modern border management strategy. CIC is leading the Temporary Resident Biometrics Project in partnership with the CBSA and the RCMP which will introduce the use of biometric data, such as fingerprints and photographs, in the visa issuing process to accurately verify the identity and travel documents of foreign nationals who enter Canada. Enforcement actions by law enforcement agencies deny terrorists the means and opportunity to carry out terrorist attacks. For example, the RCMP-led INSETs in Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia and, in all other provinces, the RCMP's National Security Enforcement Sections (NSES), are responsible for criminal investigations involving terrorist activity. As a result of these prosecutions, PPSC has developed a body of specialized expertise in terrorism prosecutions. Prosecuting terrorist activities may engage the relationship between intelligence and evidence, which can represent significant disclosure challenges.
The Government is also committed to supporting victims of terrorism through legislation that would allow them to sue perpetrators and supporters of terrorism, in Canadian courts.
Other judicial measures include, for example, the security certificate process under IRPA, which allows for the use of classified information in immigration proceedings before the Federal Court. A powerful means of denying terrorists the ability to improve their capabilities is the process of listing individuals or organizations as terrorist entities. Listing an entity is a very public means of labeling a group or individual as being associated with terrorism. The Charities Directorate of the CRA undertakes significant compliance measures, including denial and revocation of registered charity status, to deal with applicants and registered charities that do not comply with the Income Tax Act by directly or indirectly making their resources available to support terrorist entities. DFAIT manages the implementation of relevant UN Security Council resolutions, such as those that permit the freezing of assets. When an entity is listed in Canada under the UN regulations, the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions immediately informs Canadian financial institutions to freeze any of its assets.
The Department of Finance leads Canada's representation in the negotiation and implementation of international standards to combat terrorist financing through bodies such as the FATF, the G7 and G20, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. The Canadian business community and other levels of government own or operate a large proportion of Canada's critical infrastructure, which face threats from terrorists, criminals, hackers and other malicious actors. The Government of Canada, in partnership with the provinces, territories and critical infrastructure sectors has developed a National Strategy and Action Plan for Critical Infrastructure, which will help enhance resilience of vital assets and systems against terrorist attacks. Terrorist groups have expressed interest in developing the capabilities for computer based attacks against critical infrastructure. Security in other transportation modes such as rail and urban transit has also been enhanced in collaboration with industry and other federal and provincial government departments. As the threat is dynamic and terrorists continually seek ways to exploit vulnerabilities or circumvent existing transportation security measures, the Government is committed to ensuring that Canada's national transportation systems are secure, resilient and adaptable to mitigate emerging and potential threats.
Physical security at government and public institutions, including training in terrorist identification and intervention, reduces the capacity of terrorists to strike these targets. The Prime Minister's Advisory Council on National Security provides confidential advice to the Government through the National Security Advisor (NSA) to the Prime Minister on issues related to national security. The Advisory Council is supported by PCO and meets several times a year to provide expert advice on a wide range of topics, including intelligence, law and policy, human rights and civil liberties, emergency planning and management, public health emergencies, public safety, border security, cyber security, transportation security, critical infrastructure protection and international security.
Purpose: to respond proportionately, rapidly and in an organized manner to terrorist activities and to mitigate their effects. Building resilience involves strengthening Canada's ability to manage crises, so that should a terrorist attack occur, Canada can quickly return to the routines of ordinary life. Respond programs and activities provide the capability for immediate coordinated response that will mitigate the damage of an incident, as well as longer term recovery. The immediate response to an incident will often involve strong coordination of effort between federal departments and agencies and could also include provincial, territorial and municipal authorities, as well as private businesses, critical infrastructure owners and operators and the general public, depending on where the incident occurs and the extent of the impacts.
INSETs or NSES will lead the post-incident criminal investigation to apprehend perpetrators, prevent further related terrorist attacks and support prosecutions in the criminal courts. Longer term recovery relies on the existence of resilient social institutions and partnerships between governments, businesses, individuals and NGOs to rebuild communities and bring those responsible to justice.
In practice, the immediate response to terrorist incidents, as in other emergencies, will be led by local law enforcement and emergency management authorities. For a terrorist incident within Canada, or for incidents overseas with a domestic impact, the Government has adopted an all hazards approach to emergency management. The FERP outlines circumstances, such as the need for federal support to deal with an emergency, where an integrated Government of Canada response is required. It is not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards and has not been altered or updated since it was archived. Consultation and cooperation between federal, provincial and territorial governments has informed the establishment and direction of training programs.
At the Dominion-Provincial Conference in August 1950 it was agreed that the federal government would be responsible for setting up central schools to train instructors and leaders, prepare instructional manuals and provide training materials. Each province was assigned an agreed upon number of spaces and determined who would attend.
In 1962, the government transferred the responsibility for civil emergency training to the EMO.
Consequently, in 1972, the College started to offer courses to municipal officials and employees that focused on dealing with peacetime disasters. Due to the lessened interest in civil defence as well as budget cuts, the College facilities were handed over to the Department of Public Works and renamed the Federal Study Centre. The government established the Joint Emergency Planning Program (JEPP) to fund emergency preparedness programs and to arrange for provinces to receive financial assistance to meet the costs of major disasters.
As a result, the training and administrative responsibilities of the Arnprior site were transferred to Emergency Planning Canada while Public Works retained custody of the site and its buildings. The mid eighties also saw the formalization of relationships with the provinces and territories (except Alberta and Quebec). In addition, a number of related projects were completed, including alternate forums of learning.


The strategy provided a framework to provide a sustainable emergency management training program. The Ottawa location includes classrooms, discussion rooms and simulation rooms, all of which are equipped with a full range of audio-visual equipment.
The year 2004 also saw the College produce, in collaboration with its provincial and territorial partners, a new Training Strategy Action Plan for 2005-2010 and begin an ongoing review of its mandate and programs.
Canada was among the first countries in the western world to develop peacetime emergency and response training programs. AAFC is committed to working with our industry partners to increase public awareness of the importance of the agri-food industry to Canada.
The Province of Ontario Emergency Response Plan, also referred to as the Provincial Emergency Response Plan (PERP), fulfils the above provision of the Act. It sets out the basic mechanisms, organizational structures, responsibilities, and procedures to guide Ministers and their staff when involved in a coordinated provincial response to emergencies in Ontario. EMO was also charged with the responsibility for writing the PERP, and it is an avenue through which to fulfil its mandate for emergency management across the province. These situations could threaten public safety, public health, the environment, property, critical infrastructure and economic stability.
It can also greatly diminish the response and recovery activities required for certain emergencies and may result in a long-term, cost-effective reduction of risk. Preparedness measures include plans, training, exercises, public education, alerting and notification systems, procedures, organization, infrastructure protection, and standards. The aim of these measures is to ensure that a controlled, coordinated, and effective response is quickly undertaken at the outset of the emergency to minimize its impact on public safety.
The aim of these measures is to assist individuals, businesses and communities to return to a state of normalcy.
In most instances, for emergencies outside the capability of the individual, families or businesses, communities1 manage emergencies.
On these occasions, direct provincial government assistance may be necessary to support emergency response activities. In the event of a national emergency, the federal government will implement its emergency response plans and, under the following legislation, will consult with the Province of Ontario. The federal Governor in Council can declare a public welfare emergency, which includes an emergency caused by a real or imminent accident or pollution resulting in danger to life or property, social disruption or breakdown in the flow of essential goods and services, so serious as to be a national emergency. While a declaration of a public welfare emergency is in effect, the Governor in Council may make necessary orders or regulations that are necessary to deal with the emergency. The Governor in Council must consult the provinces that are affected by the emergency before issuing a declaration of public welfare emergency. This assistance is provided on request from Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) or a First Nations community. The following sections outline the legislative and regulatory framework associated with this responsibility.
1990, ChapterE.9, (hereafter referred to as the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act or the Act).
In that respect, this plan may be used for all types of emergencies other than those arising in connection with nuclear facilities. Such emergency declaration is subject to the criteria set out in the legislation governing emergency declarations. The current Order in Council (OIC) assigning responsibilities to ministers is included as Annex A.
The Act also defines the relationship between the Province and municipalities during actual emergencies.
Pursuant to section 3 of the Act, municipalities shall formulate plans to respond to emergencies and adopt these plans by by-law.
Municipal plans should reflect the coordination of services provided by all levels of local government in a given community. Pursuant to section 5 of the Act, the plans of lower-tier municipalities in an upper-tier municipality, excluding a county, shall conform to the plan of their upper-tier municipality. Municipal emergency plans shall authorize municipal employees to take action under emergency plans where an emergency exists but has not yet been declared to exist (subsection 9.
Members of council and municipal employees are protected from personal liability for doing any act or neglecting to do any act in good faith in the implementation or intended implementation of emergency plans such as the PERP (subsection 11 (1) of the Act). Counties, with the consent of their municipalities, may coordinate the emergency plans for their municipalities under subsection 3. Pursuant to section 14 of the Act, municipal emergency response plans shall conform to the standards set by the Minister, MCSCS. MNDM is only responsible for abandoned mine emergencies and for providing support to the primary ministries for all other types of incidents.
These provisions also apply generally to agencies, boards and commissions (ABCs) designated by the Lieutenant Governor in Council5. It is accepted that a nuclear emergency may nevertheless require the simultaneous implementation of the PERP to address many non-nuclear outcomes of such an emergency. Such emergency management programs include emergency plans, and to that end the PERP outlines general coordination requirements that all provincial ministries and municipalities should incorporate, as appropriate, into their emergency plans. In such a case, all other ministries would be expected to act in a supporting role, within their competencies.
This would include, for example, provision for participation in emergency training and exercises.
EMO will monitor, coordinate and assist with the development and maintenance of such plans.
It describes both Ontario’s structure and processes for managing emergency responses, as well as the structure to be used by EMO in coordinating a provincial emergency response. These MERPs will be expected to support provincial emergency response, and be supporting and complementary to the PERP. Pursuant to section 8 of the EMCPA, the approval authority for the Provincial Emergency Response Plan (PERP) is the Minister, MCSCS. The PERP shall be fully reviewed, amended and brought forward for Ministerial approval at least once every four years. Regulations mandate that the members of each Ministry Action Group (MAG) and Municipal Emergency Control Group (MECG) complete the annual training that is required by the Chief, EMO.
The Chief, EMO may also provide advice and assistance to ministers and municipalities for the development of their emergency management training programs. It will be risk-based and include a range of exercise activities of varying degrees of complexity and interaction. An Interim Plan is considered a working document and would be used to respond to an actual emergency.
Depending on how plan development and approvals proceed, it may not always be necessary to have an Interim Plan. The Provincial Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (HIRA) Report, which provides a methodology for analyzing hazards and assesses the province’s vulnerability to potential hazards, forms the basis for the PERP. A disaster can occur with little or no warning and can cause an extreme emergency condition in any area of the province.
Emergencies vary in scope and intensity, from small, localized incidents, with minimal damage, to multi-jurisdictional disasters with extensive devastation and loss of life. Communities have capabilities, plans and procedures to provide for the safety of their citizens in a time of emergency. The Province of Ontario has emergency resources and expertise that may be used to satisfy emergency response needs that are beyond the capabilities of communities. The province may provide emergency response assistance that is supplemental to, and not a substitute for, community resources. Provincial assistance to communities is not dependent on a formal declaration of emergency by a community, except where prior agreements are in place.
Should the emergency exceed community capabilities, the LGIC or the Premier may declare a provincial emergency and the premier or a designated minister may coordinate all emergency responses. Should the situation exceed the provincial capability the Premier or a designated minister may request emergency response assistance from the federal government.
Mitigating hazards that pose further threat to life, property, the economy and the environment. Resources from the province or even the federal government may also be required, depending upon the nature and severity of the incident.
Should an emergency require a coordinated provincial response or should a ministry require assistance in responding to the emergency, the necessary provisions of the PERP will be implemented.
All affected levels of government should remain fully engaged in the emergency response despite the involvement or declaration by other levels of government. Accordingly, it should seldom be necessary to declare a provincial or federal emergency even though resources from these jurisdictions will frequently be provided in support of an emergency declared by a municipality or a First Nation. In some cases, prior warning may come from outside organizations that have access to scientific methods of predicting floods, forest fires, and severe weather.
In these situations, each community would be expected to respond using its resources in accordance with its own plan.
If they are well coordinated, the plans of a regional municipality and its area municipalities should be mutually supporting.
Counties may also, with the consent of their constituent municipalities, coordinate planning and response activities with those lower-tiers. However, the provision of resources alone from the provincial or federal government would not in itself necessitate any change in jurisdictional arrangements. These plans, governing the provision of necessary services, together with the procedures by which Crown employees and other persons are to respond, constitute the initial provincial emergency response. These MERPs should identify the resources and the procedures that are necessary to recognize, contain and then resolve the cause of any emergency that falls within their assigned type of emergency. Management of the emergency in accordance with the provincial Incident Management System (IMS). When appropriate, actions to be taken upon the declaration of an emergency by the LGIC or the Premier. This does not imply that ministries should not deal with municipalities, First Nations communities or the federal government within their ministries’ emergency response plans, but that the overall coordinating authority for plans is the Chief, EMO.
This plan may also be implemented in conjunction with other emergency response plans that address specific hazards.
Providing a copy of their most current emergency plans to the Chief, EMO under subsection 6.2 of the Act. Requesting assistance if necessary, in accordance with this PERP and established guidelines.
Supporting a coordinated provincial emergency response in accordance with this plan and the ministry emergency response plan for the types of emergencies assigned to other ministers. Supporting emergency response operations of First Nations communities, the Nishnawbe-Aski Nation, or in other federal jurisdictions, if requested. EMO is available to assist in the development of such plans for First Nations, and to assist in emergency response operations pursuant to agreement with Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC). Communities should advise the PEOC when an emergency occurs or if an emergency seems imminent. This sharing of emergency information will facilitate a more rapid emergency response and will reduce planning time.
The emergency requires immediate action to prevent, reduce or mitigate the dangers posed by the emergency.
The declaration notification is passed to the PEOC, which will in turn inform the Regional Director, PS, of the emergency declaration. This declaration can be renewed for one further period of 14 days given that it meets the test of the declared emergency. The orders must only apply to the areas where it is necessary and should be effective for only as long as is necessary. For example, if the matter could be addressed by an order under the Health Protection and Promotion Act (HPPA), the availability of the HPPA order should be considered to determine whether an emergency order is a reasonable alternative to address the emergency. In other words, it does not require that an emergency order is the only alternative available. If the Assembly is not in session, the Premier is required to submit the report within 7 days of the Assembly reconvening. Organizational structures for incident management, including the provision for common response functions - Command, Operations, Planning, Logistics, and Finance and Administration.
Develop the overall provincial emergency management response strategy of the Government of Ontario. Conduct high-level briefings and discussions of strategic issues with appropriate ministries. In this role, the Deputy Minister will ensure information and decisions are relayed between the CCEM and the PEOC, and vice versa in a timely and effective manner. The PEOC is responsible for implementing and monitoring the operational strategy decided on by the Cabinet Committee on Emergency Management. While the primary ministry executes its ministry emergency response plan for the type of emergency assigned to it based on the existing emergency, the PEOC will operate as the provincial coordinator, with a focus on coordination issues outside of the scope of the primary ministry.
While some emergencies in Canada can be handled locally by municipalities or provinces, the federal government will assist when requested, when the emergency transcends jurisdictional boundaries, or when its assistance is in the national interest. This includes establishing policies and programs for the preparation, testing and exercising, and implementing emergency management plans; it also includes monitoring and coordinating a common federal approach to emergency response along with the provincesa€”an a€?all-hazardsa€? approach incorporating prevention and mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. In addition, we looked at its efforts to enhance emergency response and recovery in coordination with sixA other departments that have specific roles in emergency management.
Today, many emergencies can be difficult to contain by a single government department or jurisdiction.
For example, it has yet to develop the policies and programs that would help clarify its leadership and coordination role for an a€?all-hazardsa€? approach to the emergency management activities of departments. It keeps other departments informed of the status of events on a real-time basis and also produces regular situation awareness reports for such issues as the H1N1 virus, which allows decisions to be based on a common set of facts. At the time of our audit, the critical infrastructure that needs to be protected had not yet been determined. To date, it has identified the key elements of a cyber strategy and initiated action on a list of current cyber security initiatives along with other federal government departments. This limits the ability of fire, police, and ambulance services to work together and with other jurisdictions in an emergency.
The Department and the Privy Council Office agree with all of the recommendations that are addressed to them. Emergencies such as fires and floods may remain local in nature and, if so, may be effectively managed within the local resources of the municipality and province or territory.
At that time, there was a highly decentralized division of responsibilities among federal departments, provinces, and territories. In the past, federal departments had organized their emergency response actions as situations arose. It stipulates that the Minister of Public Safety is to exercise a€?leadership at the national level relating to public safety and emergency preparedness.a€? When she appeared before the Standing Committee on Justice, Human Rights, Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness, the Minister explained that she would be responsible for coordinating the federal response to emergencies, while respecting the Prime Ministera€™s prerogative in matters relating to national security and to the statutory authorities of other ministers. This approach would incorporate the fourA functions of emergency management: prevention and mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. ItA assigns to the Minister of Public Safety the responsibility to a€?exercise leadership relating to emergency management by coordinating federal emergency management activitiesa€? (ExhibitA 7.1). Public Safety Canada is to ensure that the federal government is ready to respond to any future emergencies through the development of policies, standards, and plans that define roles and responsibilities. However, if emergencies escalate and spread, other federal departments may be required to play a role to manage the impact within their area of expertise. Many of Public Safety Canadaa€™s emergency management programs are delivered through 11A regional offices. Critical infrastructure consists of physical and information technology facilities, networks, services, and assets essential to the health and safety or economic well-being of Canadians, and the effective functioning of government. We focused mainly on the Departmenta€™s preparedness efforts, including its coordination of the provision of critical infrastructure protection. It is responsible for coordinating the emergency management activities of various federal departments and agencies and fostering a cooperative approach to responding to emergencies. However, Public Safety Canada does not assume control over other departments or tell them how to do their jobs. Defining a leadership role when each department responds to its own ministerial direction, and coordinating that direction with other departments can be a challenge. Another challenge we noted was that the Department has had difficulty attracting and retaining senior managers to provide the direction needed in its emergency management. In the 2008a€“09A fiscal year, Public Safety Canada had an annual budget of $58.5A million for emergency management. Department officials told us that details on how the federal plan supports provincial and territorial plans and capabilities are being drafted.
InA 2007, the Deputy Ministersa€™ Committee directed Public Safety Canada to assess the federal governmenta€™s state of readiness for a national emergency.
Under the Emergency Management Act, federal departments are to identify risks that are within their area of responsibility, and prepare emergency plans in respect of those risks according to the policies established by Public Safety Canada. A comprehensive risk and vulnerability assessment to guide the development of plans and response capabilities under an all-hazards approach has not been conducted in Canada.
These plans are needed so that federal organizations can continue operating during an emergency. The role of the Government Operations Centre is not to act as a decision-making body in an emergency response, but toA assemble and communicate information to decision makers.
It keeps other departments informed of the status of events on a real-time basis and alerts them if the events escalate into a more serious situation. The National Security Policy and the Emergency Management Act call for regular exercises to assess the adequacy of emergency response plans in various scenarios.
However, over half of the budget allocated to national exercises was not spent in each of the last threeA fiscal years. To enhance the capacity of local emergency workers to respond to a CBRNE event, Public Safety Canada leads a training program for first responders from municipal, provincial, and territorial governments, with a combined annual federal budget of $12A million.
We expected that Public Safety Canada would lead the efforts of these departments, and we looked for evidence of joint planning and execution to develop the capabilities needed for a coordinated response and recovery. InA 2005, it issued a federal strategy, identifying the roles and responsibilities of federal departments and agencies for an effective response to these types of emergencies. The role of the federal CBRNE team is to manage the crisis phase of an emergency; however, the team does not have the resources to manage the after effects of a CBRNE incident, including assisting in mass casualty evacuation, medical aid, or decontamination. In response to ourA 2005A audit chapter, Public Safety Canada agreed to collaborate with a research group to develop standards for equipment for use in chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear emergencies.
Capability gaps remain in communications interoperability that limit the ability of fire, police, and ambulance services to talk to one another and to communicate across jurisdictions during an emergency. Critical infrastructure consists of those physical and information technology facilities, networks, services, and assets that, if disrupted or destroyed, would have a serious impact on the health, safety, and security or economic well-being of Canadians or the effective functioning of governments in Canada. Namely, we examined its initiatives to provide advice and promote standards to other federal and provincial or territorial authorities. In the strategy, 10A key sectors involved in critical infrastructure were identified, and federal departments were designated to head each sector.
However, this guidance had not been finalized or distributed to departments designated to head the sectors. However, to get this picture requires input from many different partners in government and the private sector. The proposed national strategy includes information sharing and protection as a key strategic objective, and the Access to Information Act has been amended to protect critical infrastructure information supplied by third parties.
Furthermore, there is little guidance to departments responsible for sectors to determine what assets or facilities are critical to the federal government. Led by Natural Resources Canada, the sector is organized and has regular meetings and classified briefings to industry and government officials. While these efforts are expected to complement the proposed national strategy, we note that this project was developed separately from Public Safety Canada, which has since initiated its own separate mapping of critical infrastructure. While it has been working on a draft strategy, at the time of our audit, it had no date scheduled for its formal approval. Based on the responsibilities outlined in the Emergency Management Act, Public Safety Canada should provide policies and guidance for departmental sector heads to determine their infrastructure and assess its criticality, based on risk and its significance to the safety and security of Canadians; it should establish policies and programs to prepare plans to protect the infrastructure. While it has a challenging role, Public Safety Canada still needs to develop the policies and programs that would help clarify its leadership and coordination role for the emergency management activities of operational departments.
However, at the time of our audit, the critical infrastructure that needs to be protected had not yet been determined. However, key interoperability gaps remain for voice communications, limiting the ability of various fire, police, and ambulance services to work together in an emergency. While the Office adopts these standards as the minimum requirement for our audits, we also draw upon the standards and practices of other disciplines. While the focus of the audit was Public Safety Canada, audit work was also conducted at the Privy Council Office, National Defence, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the Public Health Agency of Canada, Health Canada, Natural Resources Canada, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, and the Canada Border Services Agency. Public Safety Canada has the lead responsibility for addressing the majority of these recommendations.
TheA number in front of the recommendation indicates the paragraph where it appears in the chapter. Canada played a leading role in the international community's efforts to assist Afghanistan to counter the terrorist threat, to promote global peace and security, and to ensure terrorism does not threaten Canadian interests.
The Strategy reflects the ongoing and multifaceted activities of government departments and agencies that are involved in counter-terrorism.
In conjunction with commitments made in the December 2010 Government of Canada Response to the Commission of Inquiry into the Investigation of the Bombing of Air India Flight 182, it will help to organize and prioritize counter-terrorism initiatives and investments and ensure that Government activities address the risks we face. Building Resilience Against Terrorism, Canada's first Counter-terrorism Strategy, assesses the nature and scale of the threat, and sets out basic principles and elements that underpin the Government's counter-terrorism activities. Several Islamist extremist groups have identified Canada as a legitimate target or have directly threatened our interests.
The ultimate goal is a Canada where individuals and communities are able to withstand violent extremist ideologies, and where society is resilient to a terrorist attack, if one occurs. The emphasis will be on addressing the factors that may motivate individuals to engage in terrorist activities.
This is done through investigation, intelligence operations and analysis, which can also lead to criminal prosecutions.
This involves mitigating vulnerabilities and aggressively intervening in terrorist planning, including prosecuting individuals involved in terrorist related criminal activities, and making Canada and Canadian interests a more difficult target for would-be terrorists.
Developing Canada's capacities to respond proportionately, rapidly and in an organized manner to terrorist activities and to mitigate their effects is another aspect of the Strategy.
Built into the Strategy are mechanisms for monitoring the Government's efforts and for reporting to Canadians on the Strategy's progress, including an annual report to Canadians on the evolving threat environment. A number of international and domestic extremist groups are present in Canada—some engage in terrorist activity here, or support terrorism beyond Canada's borders. It explains how Canada's local, national and international efforts support each other to protect Canadians and Canadian interests. Citizens need to be informed of the threat in an honest, straightforward manner to foster a deeper understanding of why particular actions are needed in response to the threat. That means Canada's Strategy must be adaptable and forward-looking—not just to react to emerging threats but to identify and understand emerging trends. They must also be reinforced by preventive measures, aimed at keeping vulnerable individuals from being drawn into terrorism. Nevertheless, Canadians can expect that their Government will take every reasonable step to prevent individuals from turning to terrorism, to detect terrorists and their activities, to deny terrorists the means and opportunities to attack and, when attacks do occur, to respond expertly, rapidly and proportionately. In the past few decades, several hundred Canadian civilians have been killed or injured in terrorist incidents. Today, violence driven by Sunni Islamist extremism is the leading threat to Canada's national security. These groups and others like them may share some common cause with al Qaida, but largely remain operationally independent. Homegrown extremists are those individuals who have become radicalized by extremist ideology and who support the use of violence against their countries of residence, and sometimes birth, in order to further their goals. In particular, the increased availability of Internet propaganda and sophisticated networking tools connect Sunni Islamist extremists with supporters around the world. The threat posed by violent Sunni Islamist extremists may be Canada's most pressing concern, but Canada faces a broad range of international terrorist threats. Threats are also posed by Canadians who support violent conflicts abroad, or by foreigners in Canada interested in using this country for refuge, financing, recruitment or other forms of support.
Canada has listed under the Criminal Code more than 40 terrorist entities that are considered a threat, having either knowingly engaged in or facilitated international terrorism. Although the civil war in Sri Lanka has ended, it is important that any surviving elements of the LTTE are not allowed to rebuild in Canada in order to engage in terrorist activities. Lebanon-based Hizballah, a listed terrorist entity under the Criminal Code, has been implicated in international terrorist attacks and soliciting support from expatriate Lebanese communities around the world. Hamas, for example, uses political and violent means to pursue the establishment of an Islamic Palestinian state in Israel. As such, governments must keep pace with a changing cyber environment, the proliferation of more sophisticated weaponry—including weapons of mass destruction, emerging telecommunication trends, and the accelerated flow of people, resources and ideas around the world. A risk also remains that terrorists and their supporters will seek to take advantage of Canada's open, democratic society, its generous legal and social networks, or exploit its advanced financial and technology sectors to redirect resources in support of their causes. That means protecting the physical security of Canadians, and their values and institutions.
The Strategy ensures that Canada remains a capable and reliable partner in countering international terrorism and in defending Canada, Canadians and Canadian interests. The Canadian experience has been shaped by a deep attachment to democracy, the rule of law, respect for human rights and pluralism.
Building a resilient Canada involves fostering a society in which individuals and communities are able to withstand violent extremist ideologies and challenge those who espouse them. The Government will always aim to support the prosecution of those responsible for terrorist activities in Canada and abroad whenever possible, taking into account any competing national security interests that may compromise the safety and security of Canadians. Terrorism is an attack against those very rights that are fundamental to Canadian society, such as freedom of thought, expression and association, and the right to life, liberty and security of the person. This includes partnerships between federal departments and agencies as well as with provincial, territorial and municipal governments. Cooperation and seamless information sharing within and between security intelligence agencies and law enforcement is essential to effectively address the terrorist threat. As security is a fundamental human right, the Government of Canada will uphold this right in a manner consistent with other Canadian rights and freedoms.
Equally, Canada's efforts will focus on prevention and address factors that make individuals susceptible to violent extremist ideologies. They use new technologies, respond to international and domestic events, and create new organizational structures and capabilities in response to domestic and international counter-terrorism efforts. For this reason, the Strategy seeks to address conditions that are conducive to terrorism through efforts, such as countering violent extremism and Canada's Counter-terrorism Capacity Building Program.
The programs and activities identified here are discussed in relation to the element of the Strategy to which they make their primary contribution. Canada aims to target and diminish the factors contributing to terrorism by actively engaging with individuals, communities and international partners, and through research to better understand these factors and how to counter them.
Radicalization, which is the precursor to violent extremism, is a process by which individuals are introduced to an overtly ideological message and belief system that encourages movement from moderate, mainstream beliefs towards extremist views. For this reason, the Prevent element of the Strategy focuses primarily on building partnerships with groups and individuals in Canadian communities. This will require the Government to share knowledge with Canadians about the nature of the terrorist threat in order to foster a deeper understanding of the need for particular actions. Terrorist groups communicate with people who are potentially susceptible to violent extremist ideology through various media, especially the Internet, which has evolved as a significant forum for violent extremist communication and coordination. Programs would be aimed at raising the public's awareness of the threat and at empowering individuals and communities to develop and deliver messages and viewpoints that resonate more strongly than terrorist propaganda.
They also emphasize initiatives that promote inter-religious and inter-cultural tolerance, reduce marginalization and promote social inclusion.
For these organizations the exchange of information with domestic and international partners is crucial.
FINTRAC contributes to the prevention and deterrence of terrorist financing by ensuring compliance with the Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Act (PCMLTFA). It also exchanges information with Canadian intelligence and law enforcement partners in compliance with the Income Tax Act, the Charities Registration (Security Information) Act, and the PCMLTFA. Through its Immigration Security Screening program, CBSA, in collaboration with CSIS, can detect the movement of potential subjects of interest as they apply for temporary or permanent residence, or refugee status. For example, CSEC produces and disseminates foreign SIGINT to support government decision making in several areas, such as national security. Government departments and the security intelligence agencies have their own analysis and assessment units reflecting their particular responsibilities. Financial intelligence includes analysis of trends, patterns and typologies, and provides a detailed picture of suspicious monetary movements, establishing complex links between individuals, businesses and accounts, in support of law enforcement investigations and prosecutions of terrorism related offences. ITAC is a government resource staffed by federal representatives from a wide range of federal government institutions.
It may also become the focal point for communication with affected missions and other government departments and agencies in incidents abroad. Over time, Canada will strengthen relationships with current partners while seeking and developing new partnerships. Public Safety Canada and the Department of Justice continue to lead the development of legislative proposals to improve information sharing among departments and agencies for national security purposes that are consistent with the Charter and the Privacy Act.
The Government is working to upgrade this infrastructure, which provides the tools required by front line personnel and others to share classified information.
The end goal is to make Canada and Canadian interests a more difficult target for would-be terrorists. It begins with programs and activities abroad aimed at denying terrorists the means and opportunities to carry out their attacks abroad and in Canada.
Domestic efforts to deny terrorists the means and opportunity to prepare for, and carry out, their activities must be matched by similar efforts around the world. This includes, for example, leading bilateral security consultations on counter-terrorism issues with a range of security partners. Canada is involved in the development of specific legal instruments, best practices and international standards to combat terrorism, including terrorist financing, in fora that include the UN, the G7, the G8, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization of American States, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Regional Forum, NATO, the Organization for Security Cooperation in Europe, the International Civil Aviation Organization, the International Maritime Organization, the World Customs Organization, the FATF, and the Egmont Group. Counter-terrorism capacity building assists other states with training, funding, equipment, technical and legal assistance to deny terrorists the means and opportunity to carry out attacks at home, and to deny them the ability to attack targets elsewhere.
Continual adaptation of domestic policy to maintain compliance with international non-proliferation measures, such as the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is necessary.
Admissibility screening occurs prior to the arrival of an individual in Canada, or immediately after arrival, to ensure that those who are inadmissible do not enter or cannot remain in Canada.
The CBSA Liaison Officer network, through training, alerts and physical presence at international airports, supports transporters in the identification of improperly documented travelers. In an effort to enhance border and supply chain security to combat terrorism in the commercial stream, the CBSA has adopted several approaches including the harmonization of advanced electronic information and the enhancement of risk management systems. It is responsible for screening refugees, and admitting immigrants, foreign students, visitors and temporary workers to Canada, as well as managing the citizenship process. This will enhance the integrity of existing immigration programs by preventing criminals from entering Canada and facilitating the processing of legitimate applicants.
In achieving this, cooperation among federal, provincial and municipal law enforcement agencies is critical. Cases are carefully assigned to qualified prosecutors and are monitored by a National Terrorism Prosecutions Coordinator, as well as regional coordinators.
Individual rights, such as the right to due process, need to be balanced with the need to protect national security sources and methods. This would complement existing counter-terrorism measures by deterring terrorist acts and responding to the needs of victims of terrorism. The objective of this process is the removal from Canada of a non-citizen who is deemed inadmissible on security grounds. An entity can be listed under the Criminal Code or the United Nations al Qaida and Taliban Regulations (UNAQTR) and the Regulations Implementing the United Nations Resolutions on the Suppression of Terrorism (RIUNRST).
Listing under the Criminal Code carries legal consequences such as making the entity's property subject to seizure, restraint or forfeiture and includes entities not necessarily covered by the first two mechanisms.
Money provides terrorists with the weapons, training and support networks needed to facilitate their activities. When entities (organizations and individuals) are designated under the Canadian regulations that implement UN resolutions or the Criminal Code, their assets are frozen and financial transactions with these entities are prohibited. As part of this Strategy, the Government works closely with the owners and operators of critical infrastructure to identify risks and to understand what in practice can and should be done to reduce security vulnerabilities. It can be difficult to determine the motives behind cyber attacks that perpetrate espionage or theft.
Even unsuccessful attacks can provide publicity sought by terrorists and inflict significant economic damage.
The Passenger Protect Program (PPP), a shared responsibility between Public Safety Canada and Transport Canada, identifies individuals who may pose a threat to aviation security and reduces their ability to cause harm or threaten aviation by taking action, such as preventing them from boarding an aircraft. Canada continues to work with international partners and organizations to establish appropriate aviation, surface and marine transportation security standards and best practices. The Advisory Council's contributions are one important way in which the Government understands how better to deny terrorists the means and opportunity to attack Canada, Canadians and Canadian interests.
This includes supporting Canadians in need, protecting Canadian interests and minimizing the impact of terrorist activity.
This will often involve the RCMP as the first police responder in those provinces and territories where it provides local police services.
This is articulated in the Federal Emergency Response Plan (FERP), managed by the Minister of Public Safety. It sets out departmental roles in an emergency, governance and coordination structures and practical arrangements for providing information to government decision makers. As with the previous embodiments of the College, the programs of the Canadian Emergency Management College continue to evolve to address the current emergency management and preparedness needs in Canada. The provinces were to ensure the formation of local civil defence organizations and coordinate civil defence plans and training within the provinces. At this time, the responsibility for civil defence, including the College, was under the Department of National Health and Welfare. These included courses for all phases of civil defence orientation, planning and operations, indoctrination for medical personnel and training techniques, among others. The capacity and continuing practice of delivering training in French as well as English was established.
Other government departments would be the major users of the facilities, with one or two courses a month being delivered by Emergency Planning Canada staff. Training activities at the College increased from 10 courses in 1977 to 116 courses and related seminars in 1985. Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs) were signed which included the agreement that the federal government would maintain a central training facility, consult with provinces and territories regarding training requirements and provide financial support to provincial nominees attending training at the College.
The Training Strategy was a five-year program during which the provinces and territories assumed greater responsibility for their own training. The College also reviewed its course offerings and focused on Incident Site Management and various emergency operations centre courses. Correspondence from former students who have been actively involved in major disasters testifies to the fact that training can and has made a difference. Opinions expressed on this site are those of the Canadian Pork Council and not necessarily the Department’s. It is an umbrella emergency response plan for the coordination of provincial response to any emergency.
It also serves as the foundation for the development and coordination of provincial plans with those of municipalities, First Nations, and the Government of Canada and its agencies.
Prevention measures are broadly classified as either structural or non-structural and include capital improvements, regulations, building codes and public education programs.
Similar to prevention, mitigation measures are broadly classified as either structural or non-structural and include capital improvements, regulations, building codes and public education programs. When an emergency occurs, the immediate focus of operations is on meeting the emergency needs of people, saving lives, and protecting property and the environment.
Recovery measures include environmental clean-up, return of evacuees, emergency financial assistance, and critical incident stress counseling. They do this either as a matter of routine by emergency responders (including police, fire and Emergency Medical Service (EMS)), or by implementing their emergency response plan, with or without declaring an emergency.
The orders or regulations made by the Governor in Council should not unduly impair the ability of the province to take measures, under provincial legislation, for dealing with the emergency. However, where the effects of a public welfare emergency are confined to one province, the federal government will not issue a declaration of a public welfare emergency or take other steps unless the Lieutenant Governor of the province has indicated to the federal Governor in Council that the emergency exceeds the capacity of the province to deal with it. Services provided by both upper and lower tiers, as well as municipal boards, should be included. 0.3(2) (b) of the Act, during a declared emergency the Premier, by order, may require any municipality to provide necessary assistance to an emergency area outside the jurisdiction of said municipality, and may also direct and control the provision of such assistance.
If an emergency that has not been identified within the OIC occurs, MCSCS will be the primary ministry. The concepts and procedures for use by provincial and municipal officials in their respective emergency response plans are outlined in this plan. Those that have been assigned, under the OIC, the responsibility for a type of emergency, are expected to ensure that their emergency response plans are consistent with the PERP and coordinated in so far as possible with the emergency plans of other ministries. In addition, all Agencies, Boards and Commissions (ABCs) and any other branch of government would also be expected to provide a supporting role within their competencies. It is designed to integrate the efforts and resources of the Province of Ontario, municipalities, the private sector, and other nongovernmental organizations. Additionally, MAGs and MECGs must conduct an annual practice exercise for a simulated emergency incident in order to evaluate the respective ministry and municipal emergency response plan and their own procedures. A copy of the Provincial Glossary of Terms is included as Annex D, with a list of Acronyms at Appendix 1.
Duplication and confusion can be kept to a minimum and the ability to conduct comprehensive, coordinated operations may be enhanced through the implementation of multi-disciplined actions that may be carried out irrespective of the hazard involved.
They can escalate more rapidly than individuals or community response organizations are able to handle. In responding to an emergency, a ministry may implement provisions from its ministry emergency response plan formulated for the type of emergency assigned to it. Where reliable prediction is possible, action can be taken before the onset of an emergency. Figure 3.1 depicts the normal two-way flow of emergency information between communities, ministries, other organizations and the PEOC. Therefore, an emergency could be declared if operational information indicates that immediate action is needed because of danger to individuals or property. Rather, it merely requires that the decision-maker give consideration to the reasonableness of an emergency order in relation to other options that may be available.
The CCEM is the only Cabinet Committee for which membership has been specified by portfolio.
As emergency events today can escalate quickly, this federal capability has become increasingly necessary.


The Departmenta€™s responsibility for emergency management includes coordinating the protection of critical infrastructurea€”from planning for emergencies to recovering from them. Our audit included assessing the governmenta€™s progress on some of the commitments it made to Parliament. A federal response is needed for emergencies that are beyond the capacities of other playersa€”emergencies that may have a low probability of occurrence but a high potential impact.
Public Safety Canada has taken the first step by developing the interim Federal Emergency Response Plan, which it considers to be final although it has not been formally approved by the government. Public Safety has moved forward in promoting a consistent approach to protection efforts across government.
However, at the time of our audit, no dateA was planned for obtaining formal approval of the strategy. Urban density, international travel, and global trade have increased the speed at which emergencies can escalate and spread. TheA aim is to eliminate the potential for confusion when responding inA a crisis and provide a federal point for coordination. For example, for an incident involving a terrorist or criminal act, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) would be the primary federal response agency in its law enforcement role.
It also manages the federal Government Operations Centre that monitors emerging threats and provides round-the-clock coordination and support to government entities in the event of a national emergency. As well, we examined progress by Public Safety Canada in enhancing emergency response and recovery in coordination with government departments and agencies. Each department remains responsible to its own minister and for acting as required under its own legislation. Nevertheless, Public Safety Canada was established to address these concerns and determine how to coordinate and harmonize the activities of the different departments needed to deal with todaya€™s complicated and broad-reaching situations. However, it had not spent oneA third of its budget for emergency management in each of the past twoA years. Depending on the severity of a situation, this committee may make decisions, or may refer the issue to the Federal Coordinating Officer (usually the Deputy Minister of Public Safety), who may refer the issue to a committee of deputy ministers. In each of these cases, the Government Operations Centre was used to varying degrees to share information and analysis among entities. The Privy Council Office and Public Safety Canada will seek approval for the completed Federal Emergency Response Plan (FERP) at the earliest possible date and the supporting Emergency Support Functions (ESFs) prior to the end of theA 2009a€“10A fiscal year. Through this review process, a number of capability gaps were identified; however, Public Safety Canada did not have a framework upon which to prioritize or rank the severity of the gaps and, as a result, has not moved forward with an action plan to address these gaps. Under its leadership role for emergency management activities, Public Safety Canada is to coordinate risk assessments in collaboration with other federal departments and to ensure that they have proper emergency management plans and preparedness measures in place.
A Public Safety Canada study conducted inA 2008 of 36A federal departments found wide variation in the risk assessment processes used by departments to guide the development of plans and capabilities. Under the Emergency Management Act, Public Safety Canada is responsible for ensuring that business continuity plans are complementary and meet the overall needs of the federal government.
In keeping with the all-hazards approach to emergency management, Public Safety Canada is leading the development of an Emergency Management Planning Framework that will provide departments and agencies with guidance, tools, and best practices for developing emergency management plans.
Public Safety Canada is developing the Emergency Management Planning Framework, which will include performance measurements that will allow Public Safety Canada toA analyze and evaluate emergency management plans produced byA departments and agencies.
It is connected with the operations centres of 20A federal departments and agencies, as well as with those of the provinces and territories, and other countries, including the United States. However, it has not clearly defined when or why its level of activation changes in response to the severity of events and what this means for participating departments.
InA 2004, the National Exercise Division was established within Public Safety Canada, with resources dedicated to staging regular national exercises at the federal, provincial, and municipal levels and consolidating lessons learned to improve future performance.
Public Safety Canada maintains a calendar that lists exercises planned among federal departments and has developed a framework for federal departments and agencies to coordinate their national exercise efforts.
However, it did not address how federal departments and agencies would coordinate their resources with those of the provinces, territories, and municipalities to assist them in a national emergency, nor has it expanded the strategy to include explosives. Public Safety Canada will maintain the Federal Emergency Response Plan and its components as an evergreen document.
The equipment is used in a variety of emergency response situations, and it includes fire and heavy urban search and rescue vehicles, personal suits, gear worn by first responders to protect against hazardous materials, and communications systems.
Public Safety Canada officials told us that its role is not to establish standards but to assist first responder groups that purchase and use the equipment to develop their own standards. The Emergency Management Act stipulates that the Minister of Public Safety is to provide advice and to analyze and evaluate federal departmental emergency management plans, which include critical infrastructure plans.
InA 2004, the National Security Policy directed the federal departments to work with provinces, territories, and the private sector on initiatives to improve national capabilities to protect critical infrastructure. We found that Public Safety Canada has consulted with representatives of government and private sector organizations in order to draft the National Strategy for Critical Infrastructure. We found that, in the absence of guidance from Public Safety Canada, departments have been developing their own approaches, without the assurance that they will result in plans that are coordinated and consistent across government. However, department officials at Public Safety Canada told us that, while they can provide advice and coordination to departments, it is the responsibility of operational departments to identify Canadaa€™s critical infrastructure and determine how it should be protected before a national, coordinated approach can be implemented. This information is essential for a coordinated approach to critical infrastructure protection. These cyber attacks may be initiated by individuals or groups and may be unintentional, amateur, or foreign state-sponsored espionage and information warfare, and present an ever-changing and evolving threat.
Based on the responsibilities outlined in the Emergency Management Act, Public Safety Canada will provide tools and guidance for sectors to determine their processes, systems, facilities, technologies, networks, assets, and services.A Public Safety Canada will also provide tools and guidance for departmental sector heads to assess the infrastructurea€™s criticality based on risks and its significance to the safety and security of Canadians, and will establish policies and programs to prepare plans for their protection.
Public Safety Canada has taken the first step by developing the interim Federal Emergency Response Plan. It has categorized critical infrastructure into 10A sectors, each headed by a federal department. Public Safety Canada has identified the key elements of a cyber security strategy and has initiated action on a list of current cyber security initiatives along withA other federal departments and agencies. Public Safety Canada has established a Government Operations Centre, which is connected to other federal departments and agencies.
We also followed up on selected recommendations from the JuneA 2005 House of Commons Standing Committee on Public Accounts report that supported our audit chapter with several recommendations to federal departments.
Public Safety Canada is developing the Emergency Management Planning Framework, which will include performance measurements that will allow Public Safety Canada to analyze and evaluate emergency management plans produced by departments and agencies. But even before that, Canada witnessed the devastating tragedy of the Air India bombing that killed 329 people, most of them Canadians. For the first time it sets out, in a coherent and unified format, how these activities contribute to the Government's Strategy for countering terrorism.
Together, these principles and elements serve as a means of prioritizing and evaluating the Government's efforts against terrorism. Counter-terrorism activities are also guided by the principles of respect for human rights and the rule of law, the treatment of terrorism as a crime, proportionality and adaptability. Strong intelligence capabilities and a solid understanding of the changing threat environment is key. This element also speaks to the importance of ensuring a rapid return to ordinary life and reducing the impact and severity of terrorist activity. Some have worked to manipulate or coerce members of Canadian society into advancing extremist causes hostile to Canada's peace, order and good government. Citizens also have a responsibility to act—a responsibility to work with Government and security personnel, and a responsibility to build strong and supportive local communities. These measures call for a focus on individual motivations, and other factors contributing to recruitment into terrorist activities. The current iteration of al Qaida inspired terrorism is only one example of the terrorist threats facing Canada. Despite having been under intense pressure for the past decade, foreign-based Sunni Islamist extremism has proven to be both adaptable and resilient. The single narrative that Islam is under attack by the West survives, nothwithstanding the death of Usama bin Laden, and is shared widely by al Qaida affiliated groups. The Yemen-based al Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula have pursued efforts to destabilize the Arabian Peninsula, but they have also pursued international attacks that may have affected Canada, such as their failed December 2009 bombing of Northwest Airlines Flight 253 in Canadian airspace. A number of individual extremists from Western countries have attempted terrorist attacks, inspired by, but not directly connected to, Sunni Islamist extremists abroad.
Another Canadian, Mohammed Momin Khawaja, was found guilty in 2008 as a result of his involvement in a failed terrorist plot in the United Kingdom. These threats can be further complicated when foreign states sponsor certain terrorist groups as a means of furthering their own violent objectives.
These entities include the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam LTTE?, the Euskadi ta Askatasuna (ETA), the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC), Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LeT), Hamas and Hizballah.
In May 2010, for example, Prapaharan Thambithurai, an LTTE fundraiser, was convicted of terrorist financing in Canada. Hamas has been responsible for several hundred terrorist attacks and continues to present an obstacle to regional peace, despite its position as the elected government of the Gaza Strip. It remains to be seen, for instance, how events occurring across the Middle East and North Africa affect the terrorist threat. Second, Canadian citizens and permanent residents are known to have been involved in terrorist activities or associated with international terrorist groups. It is based on openness to ideas and innovations, and to people from every part of the world.
They support and participate in efforts that seek to protect Canada and Canadian interests from terrorist threats. Criminal investigations into terrorist activity will continue to be led by the police, supported by the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) and other agencies with security intelligence roles.
Partnerships with provincial and municipal law enforcement agencies are particularly crucial.
These institutions in turn work with their provincial, territorial and municipal counterparts. Citizens need to be informed of the threat in an honest, straightforward manner to foster a deeper understanding of why particular actions are needed to respond to the threat. The global environment is more interdependent than ever before, and what happens abroad can have a significant impact domestically. Accordingly, the measures taken must be carefully designed to reasonably manage the actual threat while minimizing interference with the public as people go about daily activities. Canada's approach to counter-terrorism will be flexible and forward-looking to anticipate and adapt to these changes by adjusting counter-terrorism activities and priorities.
The Detect and Deny elements ensure Canada is able to identify terrorist activities early, and that it is a difficult target for would-be terrorists.
This becomes a threat to national security when individuals or groups espouse or engage in violence as a means of promoting political, ideological or religious objectives.
Working closely with local-level partners will help foster a better understanding of preventative and intervention methods to stop the process of radicalization leading to violence. DFAIT has developed projects to work with communities to counter violent extremism in regions of concern, and to promote democratic values.
Canada does this through investigation, intelligence operations and analysis, which can also lead to criminal prosecutions. CSEC acquires and provides foreign signals intelligence (SIGINT) in accordance with the Government's intelligence priorities and provides technical and operational support to law enforcement and security intelligence agencies. Millions of financial transaction reports are sent to FINTRAC each year by banks, credit unions and other financial intermediaries, resulting in financial intelligence that assists in the investigation and prosecution of money laundering, terrorist activity financing and other threats to the security of Canada. Information provided by CSIS facilitates CIC and CBSA in their efforts to assess the admissibility of these individuals under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA).
CSIS conducts security intelligence collection and operations abroad in support of its mandate, and maintains strong relationships with foreign agencies with which it regularly exchanges information on potential threats to the security of Canada.
This includes Canada's traditional allies, such as NATO, INTERPOL and EUROPOL, but will also involve increasing interaction with non-traditional partners Canada has less history in dealing with. Wide department and agency representation provides ITAC with strong institutional expertise, as well as access to the information holdings of their home organizations.
It also includes activities at and within Canada's borders to deny terrorists the means and opportunities to act in Canada. As part of its enforcement mandate, CBSA officers carry out removal orders, with security and admissibility cases given top priority. Additionally, Liaison Officers make recommendations to transporters not to carry passengers in possession of fraudulent documents or those who do not have the required travel documents to be admitted into Canada.
The CBSA also performs intelligence-based screening of commercial shipments destined for Canada. CIC also refuses entry to Canada to those deemed a threat to national security or public safety. An extensive review of the disclosure process and the role of security intelligence agencies in this process is currently underway. Financial institutions are subject to reporting requirements with respect to the entity's property. In May 2010, Prapaharan Thambithurai, a Canadian citizen, was convicted of providing financial services to the LTTE, a listed terrorist entity, contrary to the Criminal Code. Private companies and other levels of government are also targets for cyber terrorists, who seek to disrupt significant financial and business markets. Extensive networks exist for communication between the Government and sectors to protect critical infrastructure. The same modus operandi can be used by opportunistic criminals, corporate competitors, or foreign nation states.
As such, the security of aviation, marine, rail, road and intermodal transportation security systems have each been improved to protect them against terrorist attacks and prevent their use as a means to attack Canada or its allies. The Government remains committed to protecting the air traveling public and will continue to explore enhancements to the PPP.
The FERP is designed to integrate with other plans across all levels of government, the private sector and the community as a whole. Other initiatives included conferences for municipal leaders and forums in communication and engineering. In 1963, the EMO was placed under the responsibility of the Minister of Defence Production within the Department of National Defence. The College continued its function as a national focal point for emergency preparedness training, reduced its number of general offerings and concentrated primarily on advanced and specialist level courses as well as performing more development work to help trainers delivering instruction within their regions.
This effort may last from a few hours to several days or longer, depending on the situation.
Recovery activities usually begin almost as soon as the response begins and continue after the response activities cease. Provincial resources deployed to deal with a significant hazardous materials incident could fall under the Provincial Counter-Terrorism Plan (PCTP)7 and the Supporting Plan for Terrorism Consequence Management (SPTCM)8, should there be a subsequent determination that the incident is terrorist related.
This plan includes planning assumptions, roles and responsibilities, concept of operations, and plan maintenance instructions. Ministry plans generally require their Minister’s approval whereas municipal non-nuclear plans require passage of a by-law by council.
In many cases, these multi-disciplined actions parallel the normal day-to-day responsibilities and functions of provincial ministries and communities. Assistance may expand to the provision of personnel, equipment and other resources to assist a community in dealing with the cause of an emergency. Critical infrastructure includes physical and information technology facilities, networks, services, and assets essential to the health and safety or economic well-being of Canadians. Nor does the Plan include updated or completed definitions of the roles, responsibilities, and capabilities needed for an integrated, coordinated approach to emergency response. For example, it has categorized critical infrastructure into 10A sectors, each headed by a federal department. Today, many emergencies can be difficult to contain, and the impact is likely to be greater.
At the request of a province or territory or where the type of emergency falls within federal jurisdiction or occurs on federal lands, the federal government provides help to manage and coordinate the response to an emergency.
This restructuring was intended to better integrate public safety efforts and link various federal programs more closely. For a natural disaster involving an earthquake or a power outage, Natural Resources Canada would be the primary subject matter expert.
As well, it oversees the conduct of exercises on emergency management at the national level and an inter-jurisdictional training program for local frontline emergency workers at its Canadian Emergency Management College.
Events such as theA 1998 ice storm in Eastern Canada and theA 2003 power blackout across the eastern seaboard highlight the impact of the failure of the electrical grid.
Public Safety Canada, under the Emergency Management Act, is responsible for establishing policies and programs that other ministers must follow in carrying out their emergency management responsibilities and determining how they will be coordinated. In this context, it is evident that Public Safety Canada has been unable to develop its capacity for emergency management.
While we recognize that the Federal Emergency Response Plan will always need to be updated to reflect changes in policies and practices, it is a significant policy document that, with formal government approval, would provide proper authority and clear support to Public Safety Canada.
As well, the review found that Public Safety Canada lacked an all-hazards risk assessment that identified potential hazards to public safety or securitya€”whether malicious, natural, or accidental. It had provided a self-assessment toolA for departments to review their own business continuity plans. It is also working with federal departments to develop an all-hazards risk assessment framework. We noted that the Government Operations Centre reviewed how well it performed after events, but this was a verbal process. The initiative is currently being expanded to include the possibility of a threat due to explosives (CBRNE). While Public Safety Canada has administered participant questionnaires and consulted experts and other government departments, it has not conducted a formal needs analysis for its first responder training. At the time of our audit, Public Safety Canada was consulting with the provinces and territories to develop a national CBRNE strategy that included their responsibilities.
While the responsibilities of each team member were clear, there were no defined operational protocols or agreements on how the team would work together in a coordinated manner. This includes ensuring the development of policies and event-specific plans that outline operational protocols and departmental roles and responsibilities, and reviewing these plans to ensure a coordinated approach as necessary.
Public Safety Canada completed a draft document on a national approach for communications interoperability but has yet to present the draft to provincial officials for approval. In itsA 2004a€“05 Report on Plans and Priorities, Public Safety Canada committed to the development and release of a National Strategy for Critical Infrastructure by springA 2005. It expects that implementation will take threeA years once the strategy is formally approved. Public Safety Canada has identified the key elements of a cyber strategy and has initiated action on a list of current cyber security initiatives along with other federal government departments.
In our opinion, to make further progress, the plan would benefit from formalA government approval and a better definition of roles and responsibilities of all players, as well as the capabilities needed for anA integrated, coordinated approach to emergency response.
The centre has enabled Public Safety Canada to make considerable progress in coordinating response activities in times of crisis, as it keeps other departments informed of the status of events on a real-time basis. Only through working with our international allies, and through effective cooperation with all levels of government and civil society, can we achieve these goals. The overarching goal of the Strategy is: to counter domestic and international terrorism in order to protect Canada, Canadians and Canadian interests. As the 1985 Air India bombing demonstrates, terrorist threats to Canada can also come from other sources.
This involves extensive collaboration and information sharing with domestic and international partners. Other nationalist, politico-religious, or multi-issue groups continue to employ terrorist tactics in support of their aims.
Several extremist groups have explicitly identified Canada as a legitimate target for attacks or have taken actions that threaten Canada's international interests. Al Shabaab is predominantly a threat in Somalia, but they have conducted attacks elsewhere in East Africa. Canadians and other individuals suspected of a variety of activities related to Islamist extremism remain active across the country. Radicalized Canadians have also travelled to global hot spots like Pakistan, Somalia and Yemen, training or fighting with Sunni Islamist extremist groups. Canadian interests are threatened be it a direct attack against Canada or its allies, or the use of Canada to support terrorism elsewhere in the world. Third, terrorists may try to use Canada as a base to finance, support or conduct attacks against other countries. They explain to others around the world what Canada stands for, and what they can expect from Canada in countering the terrorist threat. A resilient Canada is one that is able to mitigate the impacts of a terrorist attack, ensuring a rapid return to ordinary life. Canada will work with foreign partners to build their legal capacity to investigate and prosecute terrorist activities and assist them in foreign prosecutions. Authorities for counter-terrorism efforts are defined by laws consistent with Canada's Constitution, and that include mechanisms for accountability, oversight and review that protect Canadian society from the inadvertent erosion of the very liberties that Canada is determined to uphold.
Canadian officials will often be called upon to exercise careful judgment on these matters, but understanding the place of human rights at the core of Canada's strategic approach provides guidance when making these decisions. It also means engaging with industry stakeholders, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), citizens and foreign governments. One notable mechanism for doing so is through the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police Counter-terrorism and National Security Committee.
Working in local communities, citizens will also provide the most effective avenue to strengthen society so as to maximize resistance to violent extremism. The dividing lines between security policy and foreign and defence policy have blurred significantly.
The Respond element engenders a resilient society able to bounce back quickly when terrorist incidents do occur. They can offer knowledge and analysis of the threat, which can assist governments and communities to develop more effective responses. Detection requires strong intelligence capacity and capabilities, as well as a solid understanding of the strategic drivers of the threat environment, and extensive collaboration and information sharing with domestic and international partners. These measures strengthen Canada's financial system by deterring individuals from using it to carry out terrorist financing or other criminal activity. CBSA also plays a role in the monitoring of cross-border currency flows, and can seize unreported currency flows suspected of being the proceeds of crime or related to terrorist financing.
It includes such activities as the role of the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) in regulating the importation and use of human pathogens and toxins to prevent their importation and use as biological agents by terrorists. Lookouts help overseas, port of entry and inland CBSA and CIC officers identify and interdict individuals, businesses, commodities and conveyances that can harm Canada's national security.
Working with other federal departments and agencies, such as CSIS, RCMP and CBSA, CIC processes and screens applications, which include visa decisions, findings of inadmissibility, fraud detection, and the issuance of deportation orders.
Prosecution policies and specialized resource tools relating to terrorism offences are continually being refined within PPSC. It is also an offence to knowingly participate in, or contribute to, any activity of a terrorist group for the purpose of enhancing any terrorist group's ability to carry out a terrorist activity. The Canadian Air Transport Security Authority (CATSA) also plays a role in ensuring air travel remains secure by providing passenger and baggage screening that is effective, efficient, and consistent. Federal departments and agencies are responsible for developing emergency management plans for risks in their areas of accountability, consistent with guidance from Public Safety Canada. As response activities begin to taper off, the operational focus begins to shift from response to recovery. The plan description should include the term Approved Plan and the date approved for implementation, e.g. However, it has not provided those departments with guidance for determining what assets or facilities are critical and require protection.
A federal response is needed for those emergencies that are beyond the capacity of municipalities or individual provinces or territoriesa€”emergencies that may have a low probability of occurrence but can have a high potential impact. The Emergency Management ActA (2007) established that the Department of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness (Public Safety Canada) is responsible for responding to requests for assistance made by provinces and territories and for coordinating the assistance provided by other federal departments and agencies to the provinces and territories.
TheA 2004 policy outlined a number of initiatives to enhance the safety and security of Canadians.
The Public Health Agency of Canada would be the subject matter expert for public health, including infectious diseases, in concert with Health Canada. The vast majority of Canadaa€™s critical infrastructure is owned by the private sector or managed through another level of government. Given different mandates and accountabilities, it is important that Public Safety Canada know who it should communicate with and ensure that the various departments know how coordination will proceed and what the expected operating procedures will be. The Plan has been presented to an interdepartmental committee of assistant deputy ministers.
According to after-action reports prepared by participating departments for these emergencies, there were problems in coordinating the federal response among departments and agencies in all cases.
Public Safety Canada will organize information sessions with departmental executive committees to brief departments on the FERP and their associated roles and responsibilities. However, at the time of our audit, Public Safety Canada had not formally analyzed or evaluated departmental business continuity plans, nor did it have plans to do so.
Under the Emergency Management Act, it is theA responsibility of each minister accountable to Parliament for a government institution to identify the risks that are within or related to his or her area of responsibility. Furthermore, officials at Public Safety Canada told us that the Government Operations Centre did not have the physical facilities to support the number of staff needed to keep the operations centre fully functional for a major emergency lasting an extended period of time. Results from these reviews are not normally tracked or monitored to ensure that corrective action is implemented. However, we found that exercises were designed to meet the training objectives of individual departments, rather than to test the governmenta€™s overall coordination or readiness for a national emergency against identified risks. Team members felt that it was the responsibility of Public Safety Canada to define protocols and formalize agreements among members. For other types of equipment, Public Safety Canada is currently assisting groups to establish standards for personal protective equipment. Department officials told us that they are continuing to work on implementation while they await formal approval. However, none of this information had been validated for its significance at the federal level.
For example, computer and communications networks are used to control such things as our electrical grid, with varying vulnerabilities. It also produces regular situation awareness reports for such issues as the H1N1A virus, which allow decisions to be based on a common set of facts. Under the Emergency Management Act, it is the responsibility of each minister accountable to Parliament for a government institution to identify the risks that are within or related to his or her area of responsibility. The threat persists, however, and recent events in Norway remind us that threats can come from different directions, and that we cannot afford complacency in the face of a complex and evolving threat.
I firmly believe that it is therefore in our shared interest to understand the terrorist threat—and to understand the Strategy for confronting it. Other international terrorist groups like Hizballah or the remnants of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam continue to pose a threat, whether it is a direct attack against Canada and its allies, or the use of our territory to support terrorism globally. It would include collaboration with Canada's international partners, security intelligence and federal, provincial and municipal law enforcement agencies, all levels of government and civil society.
Canadians expect their government to respond to threats in a manner that preserves their freedom and security. As a result, terrorism can be seen as a tactic whose use is connected to the drivers of political violence that exist at a given time, and the existence of individuals and groups who are willing to use violence to achieve specific goals. Some of these individuals are spreading violent propaganda, raising money to support terrorism, helping individuals travel to foreign conflict zones, and establishing connections with likeminded extremists in Canada and abroad.
These individuals could participate in terrorism abroad, return to Canada and push others to violence, or return to Canada to carry out terrorist activities on Canadian soil.
Support for the prosecution of terrorists demonstrates the Government's commitment to protecting the public and to countering terrorism.
Current membership includes senior officials from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), from the provincial and municipal police forces across Canada and from CSIS, as well as the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) and the Canadian Forces Provost Marshal. To further strengthen Canada's anti-terrorist financing regime, an Illicit Financing Advisory Committee comprised of several federal partners has been developed to identify illicit financing threats from abroad and to develop targeted measures to safeguard Canada's financial and national security interests. Through the broad range of contacts in its overseas network, DFAIT assesses social, economic, security and political developments that help define a global threat environment. The CBSA also plays a role in managing the movement of exports by seizing goods that are non-compliant with export laws and regulations and destined for countries that pose a threat to Canada and its allies, and by working with the RCMP to investigate and support the prosecution of individuals behind such movements. The UNAQTR allows for the freezing of assets of terrorist entities belonging to, or associated with, the Taliban and al Qaida. Other plans and protocols, which are annexed to the FERP, provide for responses to specific situations.
To be able to respond effectively to large-scale emergencies and reduce the potential loss of life and property damage, there needs to be extensive planning and coordination. It identified the need for an a€?all-hazardsa€? approach, meaning that whether or not the cause of an emergency is malicious, accidental, or natural, the federal government would be prepared to respond. Other departments or agencies, such as the Canada Border Services Agency, would play a supporting role. This creates a challenge for the federal government to establish its role with owners and operators and thereby ensure the protection and resiliency of the nationa€™s critical infrastructure. Nevertheless, each department determines whether it will assist during an emergency, what its role will be, and how it will operate with other federal, provincial, or territorial partners. Although it has not been formally approved by Public Safety Canada or endorsed by other departments, officials told us that it is, nevertheless, being considered final. The ADM-EMC is co-chaired by Public Safety Canada and the Privy Council Office to facilitate the sharing of information should decisions need to be taken to a higher level. Roles and responsibilities needed to achieve a coordinated approach were not well understood and some established practices were not followed. Public Safety Canada was in the process of determining what corrective actions were needed as we completed our audit work.
Public Safety Canada recognizes the need to increase the number of federal and multi-jurisdictional exercises. From its monitoring, Public Safety Canada found that progress was more advanced in some sectors than in others toward completion of the 37A milestones necessary for their emergency management to be fully operational (ExhibitA 7.3). While certain assets may be deemed critical to an industry, municipality, province, or territory, those assets may not be critical at the federal or national level. However, improvements can be made in identifying and implementing lessons learned from real emergencies and exercises.
Building Resilience Against Terrorism is an important contribution to this partnership between citizens and Government.
At home, issue-based domestic extremists may move beyond lawful protest to threaten acts of terrorism. In particular, the relationship between security intelligence and law enforcement communities has strengthened over time. These examples highlight that efforts to counter the terrorist threat to Canada must consider both al Qaida itself and the threat posed by several other different groups within the spectrum of Sunni Islamist extremism. Only a small number of individuals may have the intent to engage in terrorism, but homegrown extremists will pose a terrorist threat within Canada for the foreseeable future. Governments partner extensively with the private sector and NGOs to protect the nation's critical infrastructure and bolster the resilience of communities.
In this way, Government stands shoulder to shoulder with citizens in standing up to violent extremist ideology. This means continuing collaboration with longstanding allies and well established international organizations, such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The RCMP carries out extraterritorial investigations of terrorist activity when committed against a Canadian citizen or by a Canadian citizen abroad. The RIUNRST involves the application of Security Council measures and allows for individual Member States to determine the listed entities.
To facilitate this, the policy called for an updated emergency response system in which federal entities would work together in a coordinated manner.
In each of these examples, Public Safety Canada plays a coordinating role in helping to receive information and communicate the current situation to other departments and agencies, and to senior officials in the federal government and other jurisdictions.
At the time of our audit, the ADM-EMC intended to clarify roles and responsibilities in its decision-making process. Public Safety Canada officials told us that the role it could play in this type of emergency is unclear, as the threeA departments on the federal CBRNE team have the expertise, resources, and responsibility, while Public Safety Canada has none of these. This information is key for industry and all levels of government to allocate resources and develop their own protection plans.
In its responsibility as the lead federal department for emergency management policies and plans, including chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosives, Public Safety Canada has not clarified the decision-making processes and operational protocolsA for emergency response activities.
Canadian interests around the world will continue to remain at risk of being targeted by terrorist attacks for the foreseeable future. As well, it identified the need for federal departments and agencies to be more strongly linked with emergency operations at the provincial, territorial, and local levels.
THESE VERY SAME ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES, WHO HAVE SWORN TO PROTECT AND SERVE, OUR COUNTRY, AND CITIZENS ,ARE BUT SOME, OF THE CORRUPT,GREEDY TRAITORS .ENGAGED IN THE TYRANNY AND TORTURE. At other times they will require working through multilateral fora, such as the United Nations (UN), the G8 and the Global Counter-terrorism Forum. The school district has moved to a biometric identification program, saying students will no longer have to use an ID card to buy lunch.A  BIOMETRICS TO TRACK YOUR KIDS!!!!!i»?i»?A TARGETED INDIVIDUALS, THE GREEDY CRIMINALS ARE NOW CONDONING THEIR TECH! Paul Weindling, history of medicine professor at Oxford Brookes University, describes his search for the lost victims of Nazi experiments.
The chairman of the board at ESL a€” then proprietor of the desert wasteland in Nevada known as a€?Area 51a€? a€” was William Perry, who would be appointed secretary of defense several years later.
EUCACH.ORG PanelIn a 2-hour wide-ranging Panel with Alfred Lambremont Webre on the Transhumanist Agenda, Magnus Olsson, Dr. Henning Witte, and Melanie Vritschan, three experts from the European Coalition Against Covert Harassment, revealed recent technological advances in human robotization and nano implant technologies, and an acceleration of what Melanie Vritschan characterized as a a€?global enslavement programa€?.Shift from electromagnetic to scalar wavesThese technologies have now shifted from electromagnetic wave to scalar waves and use super quantum computers in the quantum cloud to control a€?pipesa€? a reference to the brains of humans that have been taken over via DNA, via implants that can be breathed can breach the blood-brain barrier and then controlled via scalar waved on a super-grid. Eventually, such 'subvocal speech' systems could be used in spacesuits, in noisy places like airport towers to capture air-traffic controller commands, or even in traditional voice-recognition programs to increase accuracy, according to NASA scientists."What is analyzed is silent, or sub auditory, speech, such as when a person silently reads or talks to himself," said Chuck Jorgensen, a scientist whose team is developing silent, subvocal speech recognition at NASA Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley. We numbered the columns and rows, and we could identify each letter with a pair of single-digit numbers," Jorgensen said. People in noisy conditions could use the system when privacy is needed, such as during telephone conversations on buses or trains, according to scientists."An expanded muscle-control system could help injured astronauts control machines.
If an astronaut is suffering from muscle weakness due to a long stint in microgravity, the astronaut could send signals to software that would assist with landings on Mars or the Earth, for example," Jorgensen explained.
These are processed to remove noise, and then we process them to see useful parts of the signals to show one word from another," Jorgensen said.After the signals are amplified, computer software 'reads' the signals to recognize each word and sound. Our Research and Development Division has been in contact with the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the California Department of Corrections, the Texas Department of Public Safety, and the Massachusetts Department of Correction to run limited trials of the 2020 neural chip implant. We have established representatives of our interests in both management and institutional level positions within these departments. Federal regulations do not yet permit testing of implants on prisoners, but we have entered nto contractual agreements with privatized health care professionals and specified correctional personnel to do limited testing of our products. We need, however, to expand our testing to research how effective the 2020 neural chip implant performs in those identified as the most aggressive in our society. In California, several prisoners were identified as members of the security threat group, EME, or Mexican Mafia.
They were brought to the health services unit at Pelican Bay and tranquilized with advanced sedatives developed by our Cambridge,Massachussetts laboratories. The results of implants on 8 prisoners yielded the following results: a€?Implants served as surveillance monitoring device for threat group activity. However, during that period substantial data was gathered by our research and development team which suggests that the implants exceed expected results.
One of the major concerns of Security and the R & D team was that the test subject would discover the chemial imbalance during the initial adjustment period and the test would have to be scurbbed. However, due to advanced technological developments in the sedatives administered, the 48 hour adjustment period can be attributed t prescription medication given to the test subjects after the implant procedure. One of the concerns raised by R & D was the cause of the bleeding and how to eliminate that problem. Unexplained bleeding might cause the subject to inquire further about his "routine" visit to the infirmary or health care facility. Security officials now know several strategies employed by the EME that facilitate the transmission of illegal drugs and weapons into their correctional facilities. One intelligence officier remarked that while they cannot use the informaiton that have in a court of law that they now know who to watch and what outside "connections" they have. The prison at Soledad is now considering transferring three subjects to Vacaville wher we have ongoing implant reserach. Our technicians have promised that they can do three 2020 neural chip implants in less than an hour. Soledad officials hope to collect information from the trio to bring a 14 month investigation into drug trafficking by correctional officers to a close.
Essentially, the implants make the unsuspecting prisoner a walking-talking recorder of every event he comes into contact with. There are only five intelligence officers and the Commisoner of Corrections who actually know the full scope of the implant testing.
In Massachusetts, the Department of Corrections has already entered into high level discussion about releasing certain offenders to the community with the 2020 neural chip implants. Our people are not altogether against the idea, however, attorneys for Intelli-Connection have advised against implant technology outside strick control settings.
While we have a strong lobby in the Congress and various state legislatures favoring our product, we must proceed with the utmost caution on uncontrolled use of the 2020 neural chip. If the chip were discovered in use not authorized by law and the procedure traced to us we could not endure for long the resulting publicity and liability payments.
Massachusetts officials have developed an intelligence branch from their Fugitive Task Force Squad that would do limited test runs under tight controls with the pre-release subjects. Correctons officials have dubbed these poetnetial test subjects "the insurance group." (the name derives from the concept that the 2020 implant insures compliance with the law and allows officials to detect misconduct or violations without question) A retired police detective from Charlestown, Massachusetts, now with the intelligence unit has asked us to consider using the 2020 neural chip on hard core felons suspected of bank and armored car robbery. He stated, "Charlestown would never be the same, we'd finally know what was happening before they knew what was happening." We will continue to explore community uses of the 2020 chip, but our company rep will be attached to all law enforcement operations with an extraction crrew that can be on-site in 2 hours from anywhere at anytime. We have an Intelli-Connection discussion group who is meeting with the Director of Security at Florence, Colorado's federal super maximum security unit.
The initial discussions with the Director have been promising and we hope to have an R & D unit at this important facilitly within the next six months. Napolitano insisted that the department was not planning on engaging in any form of ideological profiling. I will tell him face-to-face that we honor veterans at DHS and employ thousands across the department, up to and including the Deputy Secretary," Ms.
Steve Buyer of Indiana, the ranking Republican on the House Committee on Veterans' Affairs, called it "inconceivable" that the Obama administration would categorize veterans as a potential threat.



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