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Russian President Vladimir Putin has blamed Ukraine for the Malaysian Airlines tragedy that claimed the lives of all 298 people on board, including around 100 children - but didn't deny Russian-backed separatists were to blame for shooting it out of the sky. Flight MH17, a Boeing 777-200 aircraft on its way from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur, exploded into flames at 33,000ft as it was hit by a sophisticated surface-to-air missile over territory near Donetsk held by pro-Russian rebels.
Dutch authorities have said that at least nine Britons, 154 Dutch, 27 Australians were among the dead.
Earlier it was feared that 23 Americans had perished based on a Reuters report, but there has been no confirmation of any U.S. As shocking pictures of bodies and debris emerged, the tragedy sparked a full-blown international crisis last night, increasing tension between Moscow and Washington.
Mr Putin said: 'This tragedy would not have happened if there were peace on this land, if the military actions had not been renewed in south-east Ukraine. But Ukrainian authorities laid the blame for the attack on the rebels - loyal to Russia's claims on Ukrainian territory and who have been locked in battle with Ukrainian forces in the past few months. President Petro Poroshenko called the downing an act of terrorism as he called for an international investigation into the crash.
In the first, Igor Bezler, who the Ukrainians claim is a Russian intelligence officer and leading commander of the self-proclaimed Donetsk People's Republic, tells a commander: 'We have just shot down a plane' about '30 minutes ago'. A real estate agent, a university student, teacher, a Catholic nun and up to 100 passengers heading to an AIDS Conference were among the victims of MH17, it emerged today. Malaysia Airlines has confirmed that 154 Dutch, 43 Malaysian (including 15 crew and two infants), 28 Australians, 12 Indonesian, nine British, four German, three Filipino and one Canadian citizens were on the plane. Glenn Thomas, a British media relations co-ordinator for the World Health Organisation, also died in the crash, according to WHO officials, The Times said. The newspaper said Mr Thomas, 49, was a former BBC journalist from Blackpool and had recently celebrated his birthday. Australian Nick Norris and his grandchildren Mo, 12, Evie, 10, and Otis Maslin, eight, were also on board. Mr Norris, the managing director of management consulting firm Collaborative Systemic Change Pty Ltd, is survived by his son Brack, who is the company's marketing manager, and daughter Kirstin, a marine engineer with the Royal Australian Navy. It has been confirmed that Malaysian student Elaine Teoh, who had been studying at Melbourne University, was also on the flight, Channel Nine reported. Recently retired pathologist Roger Guard and his wife Jill from Toowoomba in Queensland, have also been identified from the MH17 flight. Toowoomba Mayor Paul Antonio said the entire Darling Downs community would be shaken by the tragic news, reported the Brisbane Times.
Dr Guard was well regarded in the medical community, acting as the director within the Pathology Queensland laboratory in Toowoomba Hospital. He also helped perform autopsies on the victims of the Queensland flood and was well known for organising local marathon events in his local community for the Toowoomba Road Runner fitness group.
It is believed that he thought he had brought down an Antonov-26 military plane of the Ukrainian Air Force. Officials for the Obama administration - which had only yesterday stepped up sanctions against Russia for backing the separatists - confirmed the plane was hit by a single missile while at cruising speed and U.S. Biden, who had talked with Ukrainian President Poroshenko on the phone, is the most senior US official to raise the idea that the aircraft was deliberately brought down - but he did not divulge who he thought was responsible.
McCain's suspicions were further backed up by video footage and tweets that emerged in the aftermath of the tragedy.
Meanwhile, reports emerged that the separatists had recovered the plane's black box and had handed it over to Moscow - possibly giving Russia the opportunity to hinder the investigation. According to Russian news agency Interfax, First Deputy Prime Minister Andriy Purgin of the breakaway Donestsk Republic said the box will be transferred to Moscow for examination. Whoever has the black box will be able to control what information is released from on board before the crash. Many were left aghast that MH17 could have been taking a short cut to save fuel over what is effectively a war zone.
As relatives gathered at airports for news of missing loved ones, it emerged that airlines had twice been warned about the risk of flying over an area where two Ukrainian military aircraft had already been shot down this week.
Putin and US President Barack Obama were speaking by telephone in a pre-arranged call when news of the tragedy began to emerge.
Flight MH17 had taken off from Amsterdam at lunchtime and was flying at around 33,000ft on one of the main routes from Europe to Asia when it was struck by the missile. Witnesses claimed to have seen bodies falling out of the stricken plane over the village of Rassypnaya.
Aleks Noit, whose relatives live nearby, said more than a dozen corpses, some naked, were strewn around the village. Others described an entire field covered in debris from the plane and body parts scattered across an area up to nine miles in diameter, suggesting the plane broke up in mid-air. Nurses excluded from PTSD bill ask, 'If we're not first responders, who is?'Earlier this month, Ontario passed a bill that recognizes PTSD as an occupational illness for Ontario first responders, covering police, paramedics, corrections workers, dispatchers and First Nations emergency response teams. There is considerable debate among historians about the necessity of using the bomb to force Japan's surrender; there is perhaps even greater controversy concerning the moral principle involved in subjecting the two Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki to this weapon.
Each side in World War II carried out acts of great brutality in the frustration and necessity of achieving victory.
The Allied victory at Okinawa in April, 1945, achieved after bitter and bloody fighting with heavy losses on both sides, proved that Japan could not win the war. How did the battle over the island of Okinawa influence the decision of the United States to use the atomic bomb?a€?a€?2. In August 1945 American aircraft dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, killing over 100,000 people and injuring many more.
Secretary Stimson explained that the Interim Committee had been appointed by him, with the approval of the President, to make recommendations on temporary war-time controls, public announcement, legislation and post-war organization.
At this point General Marshall discussed at some length the story of charges and counter-charges that have been typical of our relations with the Russians, pointing out that most of these allegations have proven unfounded. The way in which the nuclear weapons, now secretly developed in this country, will first be revealed to the world appears of great, perhaps fateful importance.a€?a€?One possible way--which may particularly appeal to those who consider the nuclear bombs primarily as a secret weapon developed to help win the present war--is to use it without warning on an appropriately selected object in Japan. Proclamation Defining the Terms for the Japanese Surrender July 26, 1945a€?a€?(1) WE--THE PRESIDENT of the United States, the President of the National Government of the Republic of China, and the Prime Minister of Great Britain, representing the hundreds of millions of our countrymen, have conferred and agree that Japan shall be given an opportunity to end this war.a€?a€?(2) The prodigious land, sea and air forces of the United States, the British Empire and of China, many times reinforced by their armies and air fleets from the west, are poised to strike the final blows upon Japan. Thomas Powers is the author of Heisenberga€™s War: The Secret History of the German Bomb and a contributing editor of The Atlantic Monthly, the magazine where the following essay appeared in July, 1995. Most of the debate over the atomic bombing of Japan focuses on the unanswerable question of whether it was necessary. IA imagine that the persistence of that question irritated Harry Truman above all other things. These detailed instructions were the result of careful committee work by Oppenheimer and his colleagues. Till the end of his life Truman insisted that he had suffered no agonies of regret over his decision to bomb Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the pungency of his language suggests that he meant what he said.
Those who say it was necessary argue that a conventional invasion of Japan, scheduled to begin on the southernmost island of Kyushu on November 1, 1945, would have cost the lives of large numbers of Americans and Japanese alike. What Truman did not know, but what has been well established by historians since, is that the peace faction in the Japanese cabinet feared the utter physical destruction of the Japanese homeland, the forced removal of the imperial dynasty, and an end to the Japanese state. The Emperor's presence at a gozen kaigin is intended to encourage participants to put aside all petty considerations, but at such a meeting, according to tradition, the Emperor does not speak or express any opinion whatever.
Are those historians right who say that the Emperor would have submitted if the atomic bomb had merely been demonstrated in Tokyo Bay, or had never been used at all? Fifty years of argument over the crime against Hiroshima and Nagasaki has disguised the fact that the American war against Japan was ended by a larger crime in which the atomic bombings were only a late innovationa€”the killing of so many civilians that the Emperor and his cabinet eventually found the courage to give up. Setting: President Truman's Cabinet (late July, 1945)Question: Should the United States use the bomb to end the war with Japan?
The way in which the nuclear weapons, now secretly developed in this country, will first be revealed to the world appears of great, perhaps fateful importance.One possible way--which may particularly appeal to those who consider the nuclear bombs primarily as a secret weapon developed to help win the present war--is to use it without warning on an appropriately selected object in Japan. Proclamation Defining the Terms for the Japanese Surrender July 26, 1945(1) WE--THE PRESIDENT of the United States, the President of the National Government of the Republic of China, and the Prime Minister of Great Britain, representing the hundreds of millions of our countrymen, have conferred and agree that Japan shall be given an opportunity to end this war.(2) The prodigious land, sea and air forces of the United States, the British Empire and of China, many times reinforced by their armies and air fleets from the west, are poised to strike the final blows upon Japan.
Thomas Powers is the author of Heisenberga€™s War:A  The Secret History of the German Bomb and a contributing editor of The Atlantic Monthly, the magazine where the following essay appeared in July, 1995. Here's a look at what you need to know about the shooting death of 17-year-old Trayvon Martin in February 2012. Maldives, Somalia, finally disasters stuck America and you still You did nothing and others did little. Sister Philomena, a teacher at girls' high school Kincoppal-Rose Bay, was the relative of school students at St Mary’s Catholic Primary School in North Sydney. Vice President Joe Biden said that 'it was not an accident', adding it was 'blown out of the sky'.
Senator John McCain said there 'would be hell to pay' if the plane was shot down by the Russian military or separatists.


Rebels can be heard gleefully bragging about bringing down the plane as a fireball rose from the debris. They are highly qualified experts who will be able to accurately determine the cause of the disaster, even though it is so clear,' he said.
They allow officials to discover if the pilot was aware of any problems before the plane went down. It came down near a poultry farm in the village of Grabovo, an area controlled by pro-Russian rebels about 30 miles from the Ukraine-Russia border.
Clark participated in a First Nations ceremony that included a walk on the Quesnel River bridge. This tangle of debris has been corraled with logs linked together and pushed up to shore so they don't cause damage along the shoreline of Quesnel Lake or Quesnel River.
We are committed to maintaining a lively but civil forum for discussion, so we ask you to avoid personal attacks, and please keep your comments relevant and respectful. Who it doesn't include are the province's nurses, unlike similar legislatio in Manitoba.Alberta teen went to Syria to help the wounded, returned having fought the Islamic StateShaelynn Jabs is like a lot of people. It also proved, however, that invasion of the Japanese homeland would cause massive casualties on both sides. But despite the prime minister's insistence that Japan must accept surrender, the army insisted on total, last-ditch resistance. Some point to the existence of a pro-peace faction in Japan, resisting the army and growing in strength. The seemingly uncooperative attitude of Russia in military matters stemmed from the necessity of maintaining security.
It is doubtful whether the first available bombs, of comparatively low efficiency and small size, will be sufficient to break the will or ability of Japan to resist, especially given the fact that the major cities like Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka and Kobe already will largely be reduced to ashes by the slower process of ordinary aerial bombing. This military power is sustained and inspired by the determination of all the Allied Nations to prosecute the war against Japan until she ceases to resist.a€?a€?(3) The result of the futile and senseless German resistance to the might of the aroused free peoples of the world stands forth in awful clarity as an example to the people of Japan. The atomic bombs that destroyed the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki fifty years ago were followed in a matter of days by the complete surrender of the Japanese empire and military forces, with only the barest fig leaf of a conditiona€”an American promise not to molest the Emperor.
The huge death toll of ordinary Japanese citizens, combined with the horror of so many deaths by fire, eventually cast a moral shadow over the triumph of ending the war with two bombs. Mist or rain would absorb the heat of the bomb blast and thereby limit the conflagration, which experiments with city bombing in both Germany and Japan had shown to be the principal agent of casualties and destruction.
He told an auditorium filled with whistling, cheering, foot-stomping scientists and technicians that he was sorry only that the bomb had not been ready in time for use on Germany. From any conventional military perspective, by the summer of 1945 Japan had already lost the war. American cryptanalysts had been reading high-level Japanese diplomatic ciphers and knew that the government in Tokyo was eagerly pressing the Russians for help in obtaining a negotiated peace. After the war it was also learned that Emperor Hirohito, a shy and unprepossessing man of forty-four whose first love was marine biology, felt pressed to intervene by his horror at the bombing of Japanese cities. What distressed him was the destruction of Japanese cities, and every night of good bombing weather brought the obliteration by fire of another city. But American confidence was soon eroded by daylight disasters, including the mid-1943 raid on ball-bearing factories in Schweinfurt, in which sixty-three of 230 B-17s were destroyed for only paltry results on the ground. On the night of March 9a€“10, 1945, General LeMay made a bold experiment: he stripped his B-29s of armament to increase bomb load and flew at low altitudes. There is an awkward, evasive cast to the internal official documents of the British and American air war of 1939a€“1945 that record the shift in targets from factories and power plants and the like toward people in cities. Americans are still painfully divided over the right words to describe the brutal campaign of terror that ended the war, but it is instructive that those who criticize the atomic bombings most severely have never gone on to condemn all the bombing. The scale of the attacks and the suffering and destruction they caused also broke the warrior spirit of Japan, bringing to a close a century of uncontrolled militarism. When I started to write this article, I thought it would be easy enough to find a few suitable sentences for the final paragraph when the time came, but in fact it is not. One of them is my inability to see any significant distinction between the destruction of Tokyo and the destruction of Hiroshima. Soon after that the people who took part in them are all dead, and the young have their own history to think about, and the old questions become academic.
This military power is sustained and inspired by the determination of all the Allied Nations to prosecute the war against Japan until she ceases to resist.(3) The result of the futile and senseless German resistance to the might of the aroused free peoples of the world stands forth in awful clarity as an example to the people of Japan. Pakistan, Iran, charity, Charities, Red Cross, Christian Children's Fund, United Way, Methodist, Episcopalian, Presbyterian, Orthodox Russian Greek, Catholic Charities, Catholicism, Baptist, Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist, Shinto, Naturalist, Atheist, Agnostic, Agnosticism, Mormon, Mormons, Temple, Church, Cathedral, Bible, Koran, Shinto, Islam, Good Samaritan, Children's Hospital, St. The pond which stores toxic waste from the Mount Polley Mine had its dam break on Monday spilling its contents into the Hazeltine Creek causing a wide water-use ban in the area. Imperial Metals has hired crews to use log booms -- logs chained together -- to contain debris from the mine spill and push it up on shore. If you encounter a comment that is abusive, click the "X" in the upper right corner of the comment box to report spam or abuse. It was preceded by the so-called New Era, a time of low unemployment when general prosperity masked vast disparities in income.
The news, midway through this conference, that the city of Nagasaki had also been destroyed by another atomic bomb, did not sway them from their determination.a€?a€?Finally, the Japanese prime minister and his allies agreed that the only course was to have the emperor break the deadlock by expressing his view.
He said that he had accepted this reason for their attitude in his dealings with the Russians and had acted accordingly.
Certain and perhaps important tactical results undoubtedly can be achieved, but we nevertheless think that the question of the use of the very first available atomic bombs in the Japanese war should be weighed very carefully, not only by military authority, but by the highest political leadership of this country. The might that now converges on Japan is immeasurably greater than that which, when applied to the resisting Nazis, necessarily laid waste to the lands, the industry, and the method of life of the whole German people.
Historians of the war, of the invention of the atomic bomb, and of its use on Japan have almost universally chosen to skirt the question of whether killing civilians can be morally justified. Truman in later life sometimes said that he had used the atomic bomb to save the lives of half a million or even a million American boys who might have died in an island-by-island battle to the bitter end for the conquest of Japan.
But the commander of the invasion force, General Douglas MacArthur, predicted nothing on that scale. The devastation of Tokyo left by a single night of firebomb raids on March 9a€“10, 1945, in which 100,000 civilians died, had been clearly visible from the palace grounds for months thereafter. Hiroshima, Nagasaki, and several other cities had been spared from B-29 raids and therefore offered good atomic-bomb targets. In effect, they give themselves permission to condemn one crime (Hiroshima) while enjoying the benefits of another (the conventional bombing that ended the war). The undisguisable horror of the bombing must also be given credit for the following fifty years in which no atomic bombs were used, and in which there was no major war between great powers.
The news, midway through this conference, that the city of Nagasaki had also been destroyed by another atomic bomb, did not sway them from their determination.Finally, the Japanese prime minister and his allies agreed that the only course was to have the emperor break the deadlock by expressing his view.
This initiative is based on the reality that "One Can Make a Difference." That means you and me!
But the aspiring 19-year-old paramedic from Drayton Valley took a step few would consider. Subjected to gun fire, bombing, and infantry combat by the American advance, they were prevented from surrendering by the Japanese troops. The emperor's statement that Japan's suffering was unbearable to him and that he wished for surrender broke the military's opposition and began the process of ending the war in the Pacific.a€?a€?Assessing the Decision: Was it necessary to use the atomic bomb to force Japan to surrender? The navy and air force were almost totally destroyed by the summer of 1945, and the Japanese islands were completely cut off from the rest of the world.
Truman made the fateful decision to unleash atomic weapons on Japan, contemporaries and historians have debated the morality, necessity, and consequences of the choice.a€?a€?Truman said he authorized the use of the atomic bombs on populated areas because that was the only way to shorten the war and save American lives. As to the post-war situation and in matters other than purely military, he felt that he was in no position to express a view.
If we consider international agreement on total prevention of nuclear warfare as the paramount objective and believe that it can be achieved, this kind of introduction of atomic weapons to the world may easily destroy all our chances of success. Robert Oppenheimer, the scientific director of the secret research project at Los Alamos, New Mexico, that designed and built the first bombs. Oppenheimer, soon offered his resignation and by mid-October had severed his official ties. In a paper prepared for a White House strategy meeting held on June 18, a month before the first atomic bomb was tested, MacArthur estimated that he would suffer about 95,000 casualties in the first ninety daysa€”a third of them deaths. The battleship Yamato, dispatched on a desperate mission to Okinawa in April of 1945, set off without fuel enough to return. The real question is not whether an invasion would have been a ghastly human tragedy, to which the answer is surely yes, but whether Hoover, Leahy, King, and others were right when they said that bombing and blockade would end the war.
It is further known that the intervention of the Emperor at a special meeting, or gozen kaigin, on the night of August 9a€“10 made it possible for the government to surrender. Experiments in 1942 on medieval German cities on the Baltic showed that the right approach was high-explosive bombs first, to smash up houses for kindling and break windows for drafts, followed by incendiaries, to set the whole alight.


By the time of Hiroshima more than sixty of Japan's largest cities had been burned, with a death toll in the hundreds of thousands. The mayor of Nagasaki recently compared the crime of the destruction of his city to the genocide of the Holocaust, but whereas comparisonsa€”and especially this onea€”are invidious, how could the killing of 100,000 civilians in a day for a political purpose ever be considered anything but a crime?
It is this combination of horror and good results that accounts for the American ambivalence about Hiroshima.
It was the horror of Hiroshima and fear of its repetition on a vastly greater scale which alarmed me when I first began to write about nuclear weapons (often in these pages), fifteen years ago. I was scornful once of Truman's refusal to admit fully what he was doing; calling Hiroshima an army base seemed a cruel joke.
The emperor's statement that Japan's suffering was unbearable to him and that he wished for surrender broke the military's opposition and began the process of ending the war in the Pacific.Assessing the Decision: Was it necessary to use the atomic bomb to force Japan to surrender?
Truman made the fateful decision to unleash atomic weapons on Japan, contemporaries and historians have debated the morality, necessity, and consequences of the choice.Truman said he authorized the use of the atomic bombs on populated areas because that was the only way to shorten the war and save American lives.
Okinawa only served to confirm everyone's idea of how the final battle for the main islands of Japan would be fought.a€?a€?The surrender of Okinawa caused the Japanese cabinet to collapse and a new, pro-peace prime minister and foreign minister pressed the army to allow negotiations.
With regard to this field he was inclined to favor the building up of a combination among like minded powers, thereby forcing Russia to fall in line by the very force of this coalition. Russia, and even allied countries which bear less mistrust of our ways and intentions, as well as neutral countries, will be deeply shocked.
Numerous attempts have been made to estimate the death toll, counting not only those who died on the first day and over the following week or two but also the thousands who died later of cancers thought to have been caused by radiation.
Oppenheimer not only had threatened his health with three years of unremitting overwork to build the bombs but also had soberly advised Henry Stimson that no conceivable demonstration of the bomb could have the shattering psychological impact of its actual use. The military director of the bomb project, General Leslie Groves, thought the ancient Japanese imperial capital of Kyoto would be ideal, but Stimson had spent a second honeymoon in Kyoto, and was afraid that the Japanese would never forgive or forget its wanton destruction; he flatly refused to leave the city on the target list.
The conflict of estimates is best explained by the fact that they were being used at the time as weapons in a larger argument. General Curtis LeMay had a firm timetable in mind for the 21st Bomber Command; he had told General H.
If enough planes attacked a small enough area, they could create a fire storma€”a conflagration so intense that it would begin to burn the oxygen in the air, creating hundred-mile-an-hour winds converging on the base of the fire.
It is part of the American national gospel that the end never justifies the means, and yet it is undeniable that the enda€”stopping the war with Japana€”was the immediate result of brutal means. Okinawa only served to confirm everyone's idea of how the final battle for the main islands of Japan would be fought.The surrender of Okinawa caused the Japanese cabinet to collapse and a new, pro-peace prime minister and foreign minister pressed the army to allow negotiations.
The lake's water level is much higher than normal and officials are worried the debris could break apart and send a dangerous wave of untested water down the creek.Imperial Metals Corp. The Japanese military, however, trapped in its own mystique of rigid determination and self-sacrifice in the name of the nation and emperor, insisted on strict terms.a€?a€?Just at this point, the atomic bomb became a reality. But recent scholarship, although not denying the argument that American lives would have been spared, has suggested that other considerations also influenced American leaders: relations with Soviet Russia, emotional revenge, momentum, and perhaps racism. This discovery might be compared to the discoveries of the Copernican theory and of the laws of gravity, but far more important than these in its effect on the lives of men. General Marshall was certain that we need have no fear that the Russians, if they had knowledge of our project, would disclose this information to the Japanese. It will be very difficult to persuade the world that a nation which was capable of secretly preparing and suddenly releasing a weapon, as indiscriminate as the rocket bomb and a thousand times more destructive, is to be trusted in its proclaimed desire of having such weapons abolished by international agreement. Oppenheimer himself gave an Army officer heading for the Hiroshima raid last minute instructions for proper delivery of the bomb.
Hamburg was destroyed in the summer of 1943 in a single night of unspeakable horror that killed perhaps 45,000 Germans. The Japanese military, however, trapped in its own mystique of rigid determination and self-sacrifice in the name of the nation and emperor, insisted on strict terms.Just at this point, the atomic bomb became a reality. Scholars today are also debating why several alternatives to military use of the bomb were not tried.a€?a€?In early May 1945, Secretary of War Henry L. While the advances in the field to date had been fostered by the needs of war, it was important to realize that the implications of the project went far beyond the needs of the present war. He raised the question whether it might be desirable to invite two prominent Russian scientists to witness the test.a€?a€?Mr. We have large accumulations of poison gas, but do not use them, and recent polls have shown that public opinion in this country would disapprove of such a use even if it would accelerate the winning of the Far Eastern war. However many died, the victims were overwhelming civilians, primarily the old, the young, and women; and all the belligerents formally took the position that the killing of civilians violated both the laws of war and common precepts of humanity. King thought that Japan could be forced to surrender by a combination of bombing and naval blockade. He did what he thought was right, and the war ended, the killing stopped, Japan was transformed and redeemed, fifty years followed in which this kind of killing was never repeated.
Scholars today are also debating why several alternatives to military use of the bomb were not tried.In early May 1945, Secretary of War Henry L. He raised the question whether it might be desirable to invite two prominent Russian scientists to witness the test.Mr. We shall brook no delay.(6) There must be eliminated for all time the authority and influence of those who have deceived and misled the people of Japan into embarking on world conquest, for we insist that a new order of peace, security and justice will be impossible until irresponsible militarism is driven from the world.
Stimson appointed an Interim Committee, with himself as chairman, to advise on atomic energy and the uranium bombs the Manhattan Engineering District project was about to produce. Byrnes expressed a fear that if information were given to the Russians, even in general terms, Stalin would ask to be brought into the partnership. In the committee's meeting of May 31, 1945, the decision was made to keep the bomb project a secret from the Russians and to use the atomic bomb against Japan.
He felt this to be particularly likely in view of our commitments and pledges of cooperation with the British. Two weeks before Hiroshima he wrote of the bomb in his diary, "I have told [the Secretary of War] Mr.
MacArthur and other generals, convinced that the war would have to be won on the ground, may have deliberately guessed low to avoid frightening the President. Steady bombing, the disappearance of one city after another in fire storms, the death of another 100,000 Japanese civilians every week or ten days, would sooner or later have forced the cabinet, the army, and the Emperor to bear the unbearable. 6, Tahltan Central Council president Chad Day said the Mount Polley situation “obviously means we have new questions and concerns that we must discuss.”“To date, no IBA has been signed and the mine does not have all of the permits required to open,” Day said in the statement. On June 11, 1945, a group of atomic scientists in Chicago, headed by Jerome Franck, futilely petitioned Stimson for a non-combat demonstration of the bomb in order to improve the chances for postwar international control of atomic weapons.
The best possible atmosphere for the achievement of an international agreement could be achieved if America would be able to say to the world, "You see what weapon we had but did not use.
Stimson to use it so that military objectives and soldiers and sailors are the target and not women and children.
After such a demonstration the weapon could be used against Japan if a sanction of the United Nations (and of the public opinion at home) could be obtained, perhaps after a preliminary ultimatum to Japan to surrender or at least to evacuate a certain region as an alternative to the total destruction of this target.a€?a€?It must be stressed that if one takes a pessimistic point of view and discounts the possibilities of an effective international control of nuclear weapons, then the advisability of an early use of nuclear bombs against Japan becomes even more doubtful--quite independently of any humanitarian considerations. After such a demonstration the weapon could be used against Japan if a sanction of the United Nations (and of the public opinion at home) could be obtained, perhaps after a preliminary ultimatum to Japan to surrender or at least to evacuate a certain region as an alternative to the total destruction of this target.It must be stressed that if one takes a pessimistic point of view and discounts the possibilities of an effective international control of nuclear weapons, then the advisability of an early use of nuclear bombs against Japan becomes even more doubtful--quite independently of any humanitarian considerations. Byrnes expressed the view, which was generally agreed to by all present, that the most desirable program would be to push ahead as fast as possible in production and research to make certain that we stay ahead and at the same time make every effort to better our political relations with Russia.a€?a€?It was pointed out that one atomic bomb on an arsenal would not be much different from the effect caused by any Air Corps strike of present dimensions. If no international agreement is concluded immediately after the first demonstration, this will mean a flying start of an unlimited armaments race. Byrnes expressed the view, which was generally agreed to by all present, that the most desirable program would be to push ahead as fast as possible in production and research to make certain that we stay ahead and at the same time make every effort to better our political relations with Russia.It was pointed out that one atomic bomb on an arsenal would not be much different from the effect caused by any Air Corps strike of present dimensions. If this race is inevitable, we have all reason to delay its beginning as long as possible in order to increase our head start still further. It would be accompanied by a brilliant luminescence which would rise to a height of 10,000 to 20,000 feet.
Conant the Secretary agreed that the most desirable target would be a vital war plant employing a large number of workers and closely surrounded by workers' houses.a€?a€?There was some discussion of the desirability of attempting several strikes at the same time.
Conant the Secretary agreed that the most desirable target would be a vital war plant employing a large number of workers and closely surrounded by workers' houses.There was some discussion of the desirability of attempting several strikes at the same time. The answer to this question was given above--the compelling reason for creating this weapon with such speed was our fear that Germany had the technical skill necessary to develop such a weapon without any moral restraints regarding its use.a€?a€?Another argument which could be quoted in favor of using atomic bombs as soon as they are available is that so much taxpayers money has been invested in those projects that the Congress and the American public will require a return for their money. The answer to this question was given above--the compelling reason for creating this weapon with such speed was our fear that Germany had the technical skill necessary to develop such a weapon without any moral restraints regarding its use.Another argument which could be quoted in favor of using atomic bombs as soon as they are available is that so much taxpayers money has been invested in those projects that the Congress and the American public will require a return for their money.



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