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On Tuesday morning, Manhattan District Attorney Cyrus Vance discussed “intelligence, or data-driven prosecution,” which has “remade Manhattan, I believe, into a national model for innovative, proactive, 21st century crime-fighting.” Vance spoke at an ABNY breakfast at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice to a crowd about about 75.
Image: An Andy Warhol portrait of Marilyn Monroe called ‘Lemon Marilyn’, 1962 is hung at Christie’s auction rooms in London.
After the last glacial period ended some 12,500 years back, a wide variety of prehistoric cultures developed across the continent, north to south. In the far-southern reaches of the continent important cultural advances were made by the Maya civilization. Arctic regions while large groups inhabited the Subarctic parts of Alaska and western Canada. As large groups gained additional knowledge, they began to farm some familiar crops now used around the world, such as tomatoes and squash.
Spain on an epic journey, financed by Isabella I and Ferdinand II, Queen and King of Spain. Europe and explorers and settlers by the thousands would eventually step ashore along the Atlantic Ocean coastline of North America. As a result of European exploration the Native American population declined substantially, primarily due to the introduction of European diseases to which the Native Americans lacked immunity, as well as from violent conflicts where they were no match for European fire power.
Britain and France (as well as Spain) were beginning to establish extensive territories in the northern reaches of the continent. Near the end of the 17th century the colonialism of North America was at full speed, and inevitable disagreements and greed were the genesis for a series of regional wars, and some of the European territories changed hands multiple times. In the middle of the 18th century, independence movements were on the front-burner across the continent.
By the end of the century, a handful of independence movements came to fruition across the North America continent. 13 original British Colonies declared independence in 1776, and after the American Revolutionary War ended in 1783, they became the United States of America.
With space too limited here to detail, we highlight a series of important land agreements and compromises that occurred in North America through the end of the 19th century. Arguably, the two most devastating events on the North America continent were the American Civil War (from 1861 to 1865), a conflict that led to the end of slavery in the United States, but it brought destruction to most of the South, and a tremendous loss of life. At the end of World War I (fought from 1914 to 1918 in Europe) the early 20th century brought an age of great prosperity to the United States, and to a lesser degree Canada.
In Mexico, from 1936 to 1949, there was a popular uprising against the anti-Catholic government. Mexico also experienced an era of huge economic growth after World War II, a heavy industrialization process and a growth of its middle class, a period known in Mexican history as the "El Milagro Mexicano" (Mexican miracle). Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua banded together to find a common economic bond. Mexico experienced a strong economic recession in the 1980s, the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement was reached in January 1989, and on January 1, 1994, Canada, Mexico and the United States of America signed the North American Free Trade Agreement, creating the world's largest free trade area.
Two of North America's most interesting geographical features are the Great Plains and the Mississippi River System; both impressive in so many ways.
The Great Plains of North America slope east from the Rockies and extend to the edge of the Canadian Shield and the western edges of the Appalachians. Mississippi River System: It is the major river of North America and the United States at (2,339 miles) (3,765 km) in length. Geographic Center: The United States Geographical Survey states that the geographic center of North America is "6 miles west of Balta, Pierce County, North Dakota" at approximately 48° 10? N 100° 10? W.
Note: Lengths and widths are point-to-point, straight-line measurements and will vary some using other map projections. Note: For additional geography details please use the yellow navigation bar at the top of this page. This list does not include the island dependencies and overseas territories in the Caribbean.
North America, the planet's 3rd largest continent, includes (23) countries and dozens of possessions and territories. Positioned in the planet's northern and western hemispheres, it's bordered in the north by the Arctic Ocean, in the east by the Atlantic Ocean, in the southeast by the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. A typical topographic-type map highlights hills, mountains and valleys of a specific land area by exaggerated shading rather than by using contour lines. This is a slice of the large topographical (or relief) map shown here, one that highlights the Rocky Mountains, arguably the most dramatic landform is all of North America. This NASA satellite view of North America can be useful in many applications, including agriculture, geology, forestry, meteorology, intelligence and warfare.
Political maps are designed to show governmental boundaries of countries, states, and counties, the location of major cities, and they usually include significant bodies of water. When the Ottomans began their meteoric rise in the early 1300s, they were a small band of warriors at the edge of the Muslim world. Sultan Suleyman’s father, Selim I, had greatly changed the landscape of the Ottoman Empire.
The main land-based threat was the fortress of Belgrade, which belonged to the Kingdom of Hungary. Suleyman assembled over 100,000 troops and the massive navy he inherited from Sultan Selim for the task. After the removal of the Hungarian threat from the north, the Hapsburg Dynasty of Austria decided to push its claim to the crown of Hungary. The European tradition since the Middle Ages had been that armies set out in the spring, fight throughout the summer, and then retire back to their capitals before the winter begins. Following in this practical tradition, Sultan Suleyman set out from Istanbul in May of 1529, aiming for Vienna. As a result of the weather, the Ottomans arrived at the walls of Vienna in late September, near the end of the fighting season.
Perhaps Suleyman’s greatest accomplishment and the one he is most remembered for is his reform of the legal code.

During the reigns of the previous nine sultans, from Osman to Selim, hundreds of Kanuns had accumulated, and the legal code was getting to be almost impossible to use. Enter your email address to subscribe to Lost Islamic History and receive notifications of new articles by email! He said that in the 1980s, when he was a young prosecutor, the office “essentially viewed our job as building the case that the police gave us, going to court, doing your level best to get conviction, and then moving on to the next case. Some experts feel that by using primitive boats, early man also migrated down the Pacific coast to South America; that debate continues. Indigenous peoples of the Americas have been linked to North Asian populations by linguistic dialects and blood types. The development of stone tools was one of the factors instrumental in that successful expansion. Across the Great Plains hunter-gatherers existed on wild plants and animals, but they were eventually replaced by more sophisticated bands that farmed the land, raised some animals and improved their hunting skills. They developed written language, as well as far-reaching advances in art, architecture, astronomical systems and mathematics. Across regions of what is now the United States, social organization were building mound complexes, with some supporting sizable communities year-round. From the Northeast to the Southeast, and from the Plains to the Southwest, the expansion continued unabated. Perhaps most importantly they developed farming techniques for one of the planet's major foods, maize (corn).
Using sturdy wooden longships they traveled as far west as Iceland, Greenland, and Newfoundland. Within a few months he reached land in the Bahamas, and North America would change forever.
Giovanni da Verrazzano explored the East Coast of North America from Florida to eastern Canada in 1524, and Jacques Cartier made a series of voyages on behalf of the French crown in 1534 and penetrated the St. In 1510 they established Santa Maria la Antigua del Darien near the border of Colombia and Panama: these were the first European settlements in the Americas. In 1513, Vasco Nunez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama to find gold, but instead led the first European expedition to the Pacific Ocean and the west coast of the New World. Hernan Cortes and his conquistadors came ashore at present day Veracruz, Mexico on April 22, 1519, and it marked the beginning of 300 years of dominate Spanish influence over most of Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean. In 1607, the first successful English settlement was built at Jamestown, Virgina, followed by the Plymouth, Massachusetts colony in 1620.
Canada was formed from the unification of northern territories once controlled by Britain and France.
This massive transfer of land included all of present-day Arkansas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska and Iowa; most of Colorado, South Dakota, Montana and Wyoming, as well as significant parts of North Dakota, Minnesota, Texas and Louisiana. Guatemala, then part of that Mexican Empire, became the first independent state in Central America. The 32-month military conflict (fought on many fronts) resulted in no territorial change between the British Empire and the USA, but a resolution of many issues which remained from the American War of Independence. It was followed by the United States government fighting numerous Indian Wars against the Native Americans for land acquisition; tens of thousands died as a result. The 1867 Alaska Purchase was the acquisition of what is now the US State of Alaska from the Russian Empire.
But the Stock Market Crash of 1929 was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, and that crash affected all Western industrialized countries and did not end in the United States until the onset of American mobilization for World War II in 1941. In the Caribbean, many islands witnessed the beginnings of decolonization, while on the island of Cuba, the Cuban Revolution introduced the Soviet Union (now Russia) into Latin America.
It involved the vast majority of the world's nations—including all of the great powers, including Canada and the US. At home, the United States witnessed violent change especially in the area of race relations. That war would later prove to be highly divisive in American society, and American troops were withdrawn.
In 2006, the violent drug war spread from Central America to Canada, and that human tragedy reached a deadly peak in Mexico in the last few years. Today the diverse and massive continent of North America present a bright potential future for all of its people, and for that matter, much of the modern world. It flows from northwestern Minnesota south to the Gulf of Mexico, just below the city of New Orleans. It contains all Caribbean and Central America countries, Bermuda, Canada, Mexico, the United States of America, as well as Greenland - the world's largest island.
Additional features clearly visible include some of the larger rivers on the continent and one of the most interesting geography features of the United States. In addition, it's a great education tool as it provides an overview of the snow covered lands of the far north, and the Great Plains that slope east from the Rockies and extend to the edge of the Canadian Shield and the western edges of the Appalachians. From humble beginnings under Ghazi Osman, the founder of the state named after him, they expanded throughout the region that serves as the border between Europe and Asia. During his reign (from 1520 to 1566), the Ottomans were clearly the most powerful and influential power in Europe and the Middle East. Under his direction in the 1510s, the Ottomans expanded to include most of the Arab world, encompassing lands from North Africa in the West to the Arabian Peninsula, to the border of Persia in the East.
Since the Mongol destruction of Baghdad in 1258, the Abbasid caliphs had lived in Cairo, under the protection of the Mamluk Sultanate, although the title itself had no power, and the caliphate was just a ceremonial position. His first order of business as sultan of the Ottoman Empire and caliph of the Muslim world was the removal of several threats that still plagued the Ottoman realm. The Hungarians had been the main northern opponent of the Ottomans since the early 1400s, and Belgrade remained a threat to Ottoman possessions in the area. Since the early 1300s, it had been occupied by the Knights Hospitaller, a remnant of the Crusades. The Hapsburgs then expanded out from Vienna towards Hungary and took Buda from the Ottomans, along with control of most of the Hungarian lands Suleyman had fought so hard to get in 1521 in Belgrade.

This meant they wouldn’t have to fight in the bitter European winters, and risk losing soldiers to the low temperatures.
Unfortunately for the Ottoman army, it was an unusually rainy summer, and their march was constantly bogged down as the roads got muddier as the summer went on.
However, the major military campaigns of Suleyman’s reign all occurred within his first ten years in power.
In the Kanun-i Osmani, he made sure to relieve taxes on many of his subjects, particularly Christian peasants. His reign was marked by the maximum territorial size of the empire, just and orderly laws, and a cultural and educational golden age. When Police Commissioner Bratton implemented CompStat in 1994, the police reset their entire operational focus,” Vance said. At that same time natives on the continent lived without fear as they were ignorant of the outside world. During the Spanish–American War of 1898, the US seized several colonies from Spain including Cuba and Puerto Rico.
Since 1962, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago were joined by Antigua, the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, St. In Canada this was mirrored by the Quiet Revolution and the emergence of Quebec nationalism. In 2008, a financial crisis that began the United States eventually triggered a worldwide recession, an economic slowdown that has now wained some. Minor hills and mountains are found in the Ozark Plateau of Missouri, and in the Boston Mountains and Ouachita Mountains of northwestern Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma. It is a significant transportation artery and when combined with its major tributaries (the Missouri and Ohio rivers) it becomes the third largest river system in the world at (3,877 miles) (6,236 km) in length. Christian as well as Muslim populated lands came under their control as they brought stability to formerly Byzantine and Seljuk regions.
Doing so would ensure the might of the Ottoman Empire was recognized by all, and that no one thought to take advantage of a new, young sultan. Almost immediately after taking the throne, Suleyman assembled an army and set out for Belgrade in 1521. Because of its vital position in the heart of the Ottoman-controlled Mediterranean Sea, the Knights of Rhodes were capable of regularly disrupting trade within the empire. Eventually, the Knights were unable to hold on, despite their extensive fortifications and surrendered.
Numerous artillery pieces had to be abandoned along the road because of the bad conditions. The Ottomans got very close to conquering the city, but two weeks after the beginning of the siege, the Janissaries demanded they abandon Vienna and retire to Istanbul before the cold Austrian winter could set in. After this, the focus of his reign was administrative reforms and working to strengthen the internal affairs of the empire.
The first was the Shari’ah, the unchanging divinely ordained laws according to Islamic tradition, which is derived from the Quran and the actions of Prophet Muhammad ?. Much of the population of the Ottoman Empire at this time was Christian, and keeping their loyalty and happiness was a priority for Suleyman.
His own office applied “what we learned from CompStat” in 2011 by assembling “what we call the Crime Strategies Unit, to be the functioning arm of our intelligence and data-driven prosecution strategy.” “Like CompStat, the Crime Strategies Unit identifies the crime-drivers and crime hotspots,” he said. Soon their innocence disappeared, as Europeans began to stake their claims, frequently in brutal ways. This is both the San Joaquin Valley (south), and the Sacramento Valley (north), one of the most fertile farming areas in the country. Under sultans such as Bayezid I, Mehmed II, and Selim I, the Ottoman Empire grew to be one of the major world powers.
After a brief bombardment, the city came under Ottoman control and the Hungarian challenge to northern Ottoman lands was greatly diminished.
Having removed the threat from Rhodes, Suleyman let the Knights relocate to Italy and added Rhodes to the Ottoman Empire. By relieving them of some taxes, the financial status of Christian peasants in the empire greatly improved. The Sehzade Mosque and Suleymaniye Mosques were built by Mimar Sinan at the request of Sultan Suleyman in Istanbul. The company opened shop in October of last year, is owned by Carlyle Private Equity and Pictet Private Equity in Geneva (Danese is also among the investors) and fully capitalized, with $280 million in capital allocated.
Although after his time, the long demise of the Ottoman Empire began, the strength and power of the Ottomans in the mid-1500s meant that it would take over 300 years of decline before the empire ended, in 1922. This harassment led to Suleyman’s decision to dislodge the Knights Hospitaller from Rhodes in 1522.
These sultanate laws covered aspect of life not explicitly covered by the Shari’ah, such as taxes, police regulation, and other day to day affairs of the empire. In fact, since the taxes on Christians in the Muslim Ottoman Empire were lower than the taxes on Christians in Christian Europe, many Christian Europeans migrated into the Ottoman Empire during Sultan Suleyman’s reign, preferring to live under a Muslim leader than Christian ones. Today they stand as lasting legacies of his golden age reign over the largest and most powerful Muslim empire of the 16th century. Vienna ended up marking the maximum extent of the Ottoman Empire, as they were never able to expand past that.
And we do that now based on sound data analysis.” “We see time and time again that removing these crime-drivers—people who cause a disproportionate amount of crime in a neighborhood—can lead to an immediate, positive impact on public safety and economic development in those neighborhoods.
This is especially true, I believe, when we form new and innovative partnerships with the NYPD, as we have,” he said.

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