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A simple experiment to demonstrate the effect of the Suna€™s Polar reversal in 2012 is to attach a string to one side of a rotating gyroscope and spin it around your head.A  After the gyroscope is rotating steadily around your head twist the string between your fingers. The Earth will be particularly susceptible to this torsional force from the gravitational field of the Sun in 2012.A  The strength of the magnetic field around the earth has been waning for several thousand years and the ability of the Earth to sustain its polar orientation has been weakening proportionately.
In the first type of polar reversal that may occur in 2012, the effects on the environment would be serious, but manageable.A  The ocean currents would reverse, ice-caps melt, and winds and precipitation levels alter drastically. The stability of the Eartha€™s rotation is especially vulnerable since it already spins at an angle of over twenty-three degrees off centre, and has a lopsided distribution of weight across its surface.
The Earth is also subjected to gravitational influences from its neighbours the Moon and planets such as Venus, Mercury and Mars.
The mass of the Black Hole at the centre of the Milky Way Galaxy is in the order of 105 and 1010 solar masses.A  These are known as super-massive Black Holes and lie at the centre of most galaxies. As the stars move around their galactic orbit they travel in a sinusoidal motion, crossing the plane of the ecliptic, where the gravitation influence of the super-massive Black Hole is strongest, when the y-axis of sinusoidal curve reaches zero.
The Sun entered into Cycle 24 in 2008.A  It will reach its zenith in 2012 which will signal significant Sun Spot activity and massive solar flares.
The accumulation of all these forces in 2012 will dramatically increase the probability of polar reversal on Earth, which may be accompanied by the complete north-south rotation of the entire planet. Why ancient civilisations understood and were able to predict devastation and its consequences starting in 2012 is unknown.A  Whether it was their mathematical and astronomical knowledge combined with their Remote Visioning ability, Telepathic powers, Clairvoyance, sensitivity to Earth Energies etc. The Egyptian and Mayan pyramids function in this way and so do the Megalithic monuments of the Neolithic period.
Le Menhir de Champ-Dolent, photographed by Gilbert Le Cossec using the Epiphanie technique.A  The 10 meter granite menhir builds up resonant electromagnetic energy then releases it up into the magnetosphere. The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. There were a few typos and referencing mistakes in the original article (some confusion over foot notes and references) so this web version has been corrected.
A simple low cost Infrared LED speedometer is described that can be fitted to a skateboard, longboard or even a bicycle to measure speed. Skateboarding has been around for at least 60 years but in its popular form since the seventies [1]. Recently longboarding has started to become popular with adults as well as with children [1]. The longboard has larger wheels and wider trucks than skateboards making it more stable for adults as well as better equipped for commuting and long trips. As longboards are generally better made and larger than skateboard they are easier structures on which to develop instrumentation and measurement equipment. The wheel has a small reflector fixed to it (see below) and when it rotates into position it reflects a signal back to an IR receiver.
These pulses are too variable to monitor directly but we use them to trigger a timer (555 No. A simple constant calibration (K) allows the voltage data to be converted into mph or kph etc.
A cheap commercially available IR detector (as used in TV remote control systems) is used (Note: we are using this device out-of-spec but its use greatly reduces the components needed). I used two separate 555 for my prototypes, to help in fault finding, but a double 556 timer could be used for compactness. You might even be able to take an old cd or TV and controller apart to use both the IR transmitter LED and detector IC etc. The integrator circuit used to average the pulses from the second timer comprises Ri and Ci.
I found this was a good compromise between reducing the noise generated by the pulses while still responding well to quick changes in board speed. The integrator is fed from the second timer via a diode, so it has a fast response time (τ) but slower decay. The detector receives an IR reflection from the mirror (not visible in this photo) attached to the back of the wheel.
I used a separate circuit board to hold both the IR transmitter LED and IR receiver near to the wheel.
Arrange the IR LED and IR detector module a few cm apart so that they are pointing at each other. When you get this to work, check the electronics is functioning properly by waving a finger or ruler (or other solid object) between the IR LED and the detector. With the electronics set-up on the longboard (or skateboard), rotate the wheel so that mirror will reflect the IR LED beam onto the IR detector. This version uses four mirrors attached to a wheel, as the IR reflectors (see reflector photos, Fig. I made my own printed circuit boards (pcbs) for the prototypes but strip board or perf-board could be used instead.
I used a di-cast metal box for strength, a water proof cover for the ON-OFF toggle switch and also tapped the edge of the lid to try and reduce water getting in. The IR beam from the LED reflects off the mirror attached to the wheel back onto the detector. I then simply tried painting a white spot on the side of the wheel using correction fluid (Tipex) or white paint. Amazingly this reflected the IR very well but the flexing of the wheels resulted in the paint crumbling or peeling off in just a few hours. Despite the longevity issues, correction fluid can still be a quick and convenient way of testing the equipment in the early stages of the project. I then tried a long pin with a hemispherical head which I hoped would reflect back the IR over a wide range of angles as the trucks moved around.
This worked but unfortunately I did find there was some signal dropped-out, particularly on tight bends etc. Note: I used a G clamp to force the nails into the side of the wheel - it's no use trying to hammer them in to polyurethane! However if you still want good resolution at low speeds it will be worth using more mirrors but then reducing the second 555 pulse length by reducing Ct. I have done this for the skateboard version (see example 1 in the results section below) where I used ca.
However longer gaps between measurements make it difficult to reliably measure the relatively quick changes in speed of a skateboard. Modern data loggers seem to have an input resistance of 100k or greater so they do not load the integrator to any great extent. I used a large elastic band (or bungee) to secure the connector to the logger so that it did not come loose with the vibrations while skating around (see Fig. You can then plot out the logged voltage and, by eye, draw a line through the average voltage V. Note: this calibration constant is dependent on the second 555 pulse length, wheel size, number of mirrors etc. The low frequency pulses created at low speeds tend to be produce slightly larger (and more noisy) outputs than expected making the graph slightly non-linear.

Hence the 0-2 mph data is a little larger than expected (although the accuracy of treadmill machine was unknown).
This is not only dangerous but without a human weight on the board every bump and crevice on the road surface leads to all sorts of spurious results. To overcome this problem Varndean College (Brighton) very kindly let me use their gym treadmill (rolling road). The recorded voltages for low speeds are therefore slightly higher (and noisier) than might be expected and so the graph is slightly non-linear at low speeds. Note: the non-linear response of the low speed rolling-road tests shown on the graph may also be due to the inaccuracies of the machine which were unknown. The voltage data can be multiplied by the calibration constant K to give the speed (see examples below). The skateboard speedometer was my first prototype and I wasn't sure how responsive the system would be so I used four mirrors as a starting point. Peak voltages of just over 2 volts were recorded which correspond to a peak speed of about 11 mph. I have reversed the time scale to so you can see the speed progress under the map of the route.
Between 400 and 900 seconds you can see that I was able to develop quite a good speed and slowly accelerate [3]. You can also see how the speed increases during individual pushes of the board as I skated along [3]. I look around for a few seconds and then continued on to the pier [4] and you can see the variations of speed. I decided to use just one mirror reflector for the longboard for simplicity and durability. The following example shows it being used on a short run around a park (The Level, in Brighton). You can see the various speed changes while out-and-about with the corresponding places on the map.
When the data has been loaded on a spreadsheet it's an easy matter to multiply all the data by a calibration constant K to get the speed in mph. From the picture of the park you can clearly see the start point (a) and the main turning points (marked b, c, d, … f).
These points are reflected in the varying speed profiles on the calibrated logged data seen on the right hand side of the figure. In July 2011 I was invited to give talks and workshops at the ChemEd conference in New Zealand. To thoroughly road-test the device I decided to take my speed-logging longboard 'down under' into a West Coast South Island winter. The electronics worked well but I made a few modifications as a result of this quite harsh testing. I soldered the data logger battery into the logger instead of using the internal push-fit battery holder. The Testo 175-S2 data logger (0-10V input) is more professional (better construction and waterproof) but consequently more expensive. Here is an alternative wheel rotation detection system that uses a Hall effect magnetic switch and rotating magnet instead of IR emitter, detector and mirror.
The part I used is now no longer being produced but it is still currently available from suppliers. Eventually though it may be hard to obtain and I cant vouch for the effectiveness of other (similar or replacement) devices. Further to this the IR transmitter is fixed to the board while the reflecting mirror is fitted to the wheel that may well be steering about a bit.
I therefore wanted an alternative method that would not be effected by wheel and truck movement.
The magnetic field sensor (small black device) is mounted on the truck so that it is close to the rotating magnet as it passes by. As we have discussed above; IR light from an IR LED reflects off a mirror that is in position once every rotation. Each technique produces pulses that can be signal processed and averaged to produce a voltage proportional to speed.
As the magnet rotates it triggers a magnetic Hall Effect switch (A3144) to provide the rotational speed pulses. The circuit uses a cheap and effective solid state Hall effect magnetic switch (although a delicate glass read switch might work for low speeds). So this technique has a lower component count and takes less power that the original IR system.
This is useful when out-and-about to highlight special interest parts of the trip, these pulses are helpful to identify this data later on once the data has been downloaded. In this version of the speedometer I have also included a push toggle switch that supplies a 6V marker signal (full battery voltage) to the logger.
The 'marker' switch produces 6V signals which stand out very clearly when you analyse the data.
For example, lets say the logger has been set-up to record 9 hours of data and you have been out and about recording a lot. What you do is press the 'marker' button for a few secnds at the start, and at the end of the special run to 'top and tail' the data. Once the data has been downloaded you will clearly be able to see this 'special' data incorporated within these peaks (e.g.
Photo under the longboard showing the electronics before the protective cover has been fitted. As I had a bit more room due to the smaller component count I decided to use 4 AA batteries for power longevity.
I used the same type and size of box for the electronics as I used in the IR system as I found this worked really well over the last year in all sorts of conditions. I glued a piece of 1cm thick foam to the inside of the lid to keep the batteries in place while we rattle and roll along. I also put a tight elastic band around the logger so that the logger connector was held tight. This looks like a normal toggle switch but is in fact a sprung toggle (it switches back when released) that has to be held down to create a marker on the logged data. I found it was possible to operate this switch with one hand by bending down while skating along.
The Hall effect magnetic detectors come in various forms and part numbers with a range of sensitivities.
I found the A3144 device very cheaply on e-bay but others will no doubt work with some experimentation (e.g. Note: my detector only triggers with the correct face (field strength direction) of the magnet passing by.
At the top of this section is a close-up of the Hall effect device (small black square) near to the magnet(s) fixed to the wheel.

I will up-date this page if I find a better way of attaching this (tape works pretty well even if it does not look very professional). I also used a glue gun to produce a plastic 'corner' to strengthen the bent wires of the device so that it would stay in position. To highlight what the equipment can do I have recoded some data on a relatively straight forward run along a coastal prominade path.
The first thing I noticed was how close the magnetic sensing data was to the IR data results which was gratifying.
On this design I included marker signals when the second button was pressed and these really do help identifying where the data corresponds to in terms of location.
The signal did not go to zero, even though I was not skating because the wheels were spinning freely in their bearings while the board was being carried. From 1600 to about 2000 seconds I follow the pavement around onto the sea front green at Lancing. The route is a corregated concrete path which is harder going than the tarmac paths so far skated. From 2000 seconds the path goes past the lagoons west of Shoreham which I have descibed in detail below. The eight miles of the route took about 40 to 45 mins which means I was travelling at about 10 mph so the data looks about right. Speed data (mph) v time (seconds from start) from Goring-by-sea to Shoreham about 7 to 8 miles. The data between about 2000 and 2400 seconds into the trip is the part from the end of Lancing Green to the start of the road into Shoreham.
The route is so steady that I could crouch down on the board while moving and press the 'marker' button to mark the start of this part of the journey. I then let the board slow down and stopped off for a break and then pressed the marker button to mark the end of this part of the run. The spin speed (mph equivalent) over time (seconds) of a wheel being spun in air (spinning on its bearing fixed to the truck).
A The torsional force of the twisted string will be transmitted along its length and will persuade the gyroscope to twist as well.A  In simple terms this is the same effect that reversing the magnetic Poles of the Sun will have on the polar orientation of the Earth. The concentration of weight lies mostly along the major land masses of the Americas, Europe and Africa. It will cross in the year 2012.A  At this point the gravitational influence of the super-massive Black Hole will be at its maximum. A As the Moon, planets and the Earth orbit around the sun huge amounts of energy is transferred from these stone structures into the magnetosphere. When used with a low cost data logger continuous measurements of speed can be made while out-and-about. This is a good maximum speed but it also means that lower (more realistic) speeds still produce a decent output that can be measured.
I found Google earth useful for working out distance but of course an ordinance survey map would be good too. So if we sum all the 1 second calibrated data then it will give us an estimate of the total distance travelled.
Spreadsheet programmes like Excel have all sorts of data analysis tools that can be used to investigate the data. As the logged data varies quite a bit it is not so easy to estimate the average by looking at the plotted data by eye.
ISBN 1 894020 54 5 also see the 'skateboard' entry on Wikipedia for a good general introduction.
This picture was taken before I covered the device in water proofing gel and shrink wrap (see below). There is a lot of pavement and road crossing going on so its difficult to get up a decent speed. This was where I had to stop and pick up the board to cross the main road onto the prominade. The data between the last two marker signals is the 1 mile run along a smooth long track (see text below). I did this to reduce the noise from the bearings and most importantly to try and minimise water ingress.
On the other side of the Earth is the Pacific Ocean, which is Eartha€™s greatest water mass and much less dense.
A Megalithic monuments found across Europe show surprising awareness of these 2012 phenomena.
To be precise, spiral amplification, as the molecular structure of quartz within the stones is spiral.
Schematic of the IR speedometer showing the IR transmitter, IR detector (receiver), the pulse shaper and average or integrator circuits.
Although these devices are very cheap they have built-in filters and tuned pre-amps to give good stability and sensitivity.
It was helpful to leave a blank period both at the start and the end of each calibration run (i.e.
Looking down on The Level (Brighton, UK) showing a test-run with the corresponding speed plot (mph) against time (seconds from start).
With a gauss meter one can measure how single Menhirs are polarised in relation to the ground around them. We make use of this reliable remote control spin-off technology which provides much better noise immunity than a visible light beam circuit. The idea of filling with grease is to provide protection from water ingress and also to try and make them less noisy when out and about. In stone circles they are polarised in relation to each other, two to three times the normal values. Although the grease filled bearings obviously slow down much more quickly when spun in the air, once we are out on the board with our weight (momentum = mass x velocity) this does not slow us down too much. To augment the amplification, stones were placed at points where two or more underground streams crossed. Water moving through an underground tunnel creates an electric charge and is stronger where two streams cross. So, even though the forces exerted by each stone and stone circle are small, placing many thousands of them across the whole of Europe over thousands of years strengthens the Eartha€™s magnetic field, which has been steadily weakening over thousands of years. Potentially this stabilisation effect can help the Earth weather out periods of instability like the one we will experience in 2012.A  It is important for mankind to not only maintain the stone architecture of the ancients, they must follow in their footsteps, understand their science, then build more structures to further stabilise the world and counter effects such as those that will occur in 2012.

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Comments to “Centre of earths magnetic equator”

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