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First Class Disaster recovery and Business Continuity Services focus on the critical aspects of your information systems and what is required to keep your business fully operational in the face of natural or human-induced disasters. The fact is that most companies do not have an adequate business continuation plan in place.
Review existing Disaster Recovery or Business Continuity Plans for completeness and effectiveness. Audit backups to insure data integrity and that documented backup schedules are being followed. You never know when a disaster can ruin your business plans and future, specially when your business data is stored in a Data Center or Colocation Center. Affirmation: If your customers are aware of the fact that their data will be safe in data center they will be happy to do business with you. If Disaster Strikes: You will be extremely happy to know that your data is safe with backup on online computers, when the data center is hit by a natural disaster. Savings: Yes that is true, bucks loosed while registering for a data center disaster recovering plan are much less than what you may loose if your data is destroyed in a natural disaster. Potency: Potency of your work will be boosted with the help of computer backed systems as these systems will quickly restore the damaged and deleted files.
So, next time when you are registering with Data Center services provider, make sure they have Data Center Disaster recovery plan to make sure your data is safe even in a natural disaster.
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According to Open Security Architecture (OSA), Security Architecture may be defined as, "the design artifacts that describe how the security controls (security countermeasures) are positioned, and how they relate to the overall IT Architecture. To the right is an image of how ISSS defines a Security Architecture's relationships and dependencies within the general framework of an IT architecture.
Security is something that is not visible to a business' operations but holds an important purpose of protecting valuable information systems and information assets to a business.
Architecture may be defined as, "a set of design artifacts, that are relevant for describing an object such that it can be produced to requirements (quality) as well as maintained over the period of its useful life (change). Commonly referred to as NIST, the National Institute of Standards and Technology is a federal agency that is a part of the Department of Commerce. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has a long, rich, and well-rooted history. NIST has a wide range of purposes, including providing technology, measurements, and standards for products and services such as “the smart electric power grid and electronic health records to atomic clocks, advanced nanomaterials, and computer chips.”6 NIST is located in both Gaithersburg, MD and Boulder, CO. Embedded to the left is a video where you can learn more about exactly what NIST is all about. The Federal Information Security Management Act, often referred to as FISMA, has an implementation project that aims to protect the Nation's critical information infrastructure. All in all, these suggestions, along with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 and the Information Technology Management Reform Act of 1996, aim to create a cost-effective risk-based policy for security. The goal of this strategy is to keep responsible officials aware of their current security programs.
NIST provides many frameworks to follow in order to ensure safety for an information system. Select baseline security controls; apply tailoring guidance and supplement controls as needed based on risk assessment.
Implement security controls within enterprise architecture using sound systems engineering practices; apply security configuration settings.
Determine risk to organizational operations and assets, individuals, other organizations, and the Nation; if acceptable, authorize operation. Continuously track changes to the information system that may affect security controls and reassess control effectiveness. NIST carries out its mission through many programs and is a vital resource for developing security architectures. Can be used as support by helping administrations ensure that the system or resources have not been harmed by hackers, insiders or technical problems. Users of the systems know that they are being audited, which creates individual accountability.
Audit trails help in clarifying moments when a system may crash by being able to review the activity prior to the situation. Along with Audit Trails, NIST has a collection of documents that relate to audit and accountability of security system controls and to ensure compliance with policies and procedures. Needless to say, it is great that our Nation is finally addressing the need to have a stable and protected cyber infrastructure.
The International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium, often referred to as (ISC)2, is the leading organization in information security education and training. Access Control Systems are defined by the CBK as a “collection of mechanisms that permit managers of a system to exercise a directing or restraining influence over the behavior, use and content of a system”.
There are two major methods of controlling who has access to a system, through Discretionary Access Control (DAC) and Mandatory Access Control (MAC). Relevance: Access Control is important to cybersecurity because it allows the protection of databases and systems by controlling who has access. The Telecommunications and Network Security Domain “encompasses the structures, transmission methods, transport formats and security measures to provide integrity, availability, and confidentiality for transmissions over public and private communication networks and media”. This includes the physical aspects of telecommunication such as hubs, routers and switches as well as the OSI Model, which dictates how networks communicate, an example is shown to the right. Relevance: Management can increase security by using proper telecommunications to build a solid network and then securing it so that it is protected from unwanted, outside communications. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has compiled a list of industry wide standards for information security. Information security governance and risk management “entails the identification of an organization’s information assets and the development, documentation, and implementation of policies, standards, procedures, and guidelines that ensure confidentiality, integrity, and availability.” Information Security Governance is the way in which Information Security is directed and controlled. Risk is a huge part of any business, and in order to be successful a company must be able to properly mitigate their risk.
Relevance: Cybersecurity is achieved by following the acronym CIA, which stands for confidentiality, integrity, and availability. This addresses the principles, means, and methods of disguising information to ensure its integrity, confidentiality, and authenticity. The systems development life cycle outlines the steps necessary to initiate the process of creating new or updating and evolving current systems. In addition to the system development life cycle, there are also many different development methods. Relevance: Through Software Development Security, cybersecurity exists because of the security controls that prevent security risks to a software application.
Cryptography entails the identification of an organization’s information assets and the development, documentation, and implementation of policies, standards, procedures, and guidelines that ensure confidentiality, integrity, and availability.
When it comes to encryption there are two main types of ciphers, substitution and transposition. Relevance: Information is kept protected from hackers by encryption and validation which allows only authorized users to access the pertinent information. Security architecture and design relates to everything an organization does in terms of information security. In addition to these models, there are other guidelines and evaluation criteria to analyze the current or planned infrastructure in an organization.
Something to consider as the design is being developed is whether or not to create an open or closed system. Relevance: The security architectures discussed are used in cybersecurity by focusing on certain attributes of security that ensure information is protected at every level. In terms of security architecture, access control refers to varying exertions of control about one individual’s right of entry into a control room, network, or device. A major part of operational security, is understanding where you are vulnerable and how to compensate for it. A simple way to help avoid the issues above would be to install redundancy into the operational design so that if something were to go wrong it would still be able to function properly while repairs were being made. Relevance: Operations security helps to maintain secure hardware and media devices throughout an organization.
Disaster recovery has become an important part of the business practices of any organization because of the devastating effect that data loss would have on business. It is important to note that a BCP is useful if it remains up to date with the systems and operations it’s meant to aid, and a way to do this is to identify weaknesses in a company’s system and make sure that there is a standard protocol if such a problem were to occur; that being said, there are three aspects of the business that need to be addressed in an organization’s BCP. Due to the risks today involved with not backing up data, one of the best ways to avoid an IT disaster is to not let one happen in the first place.
The field of IT and Security Architecture is full of a multitude of legal policies that stem from a variety of international, federal, and industry wide regulations. These acts work to protect sensitive and private information that can be subject to numerous crimes.
All businesses should have some form of an incident response team whether it’s internal, external or a combination of the two. Just as anything else, ethics is a major part of information security especially due to the severity of the consequences if there were to be a breach in security.
Relevance: Industry spanning standards and legal regulations assist in maintaining fair practices.
Of the many security measures that go into play within a company, one of the most overlooked is the maintenance of data integrity within a company’s departments. In addition to the physical security of hardware and access controls, there is also the more literal sense of physical security through the surrounding environment.
Intellectual property laws seek to protect the rights of creators to their works by giving them property rights to their creations. Signed into law by President Clinton on October 28th, 1998, the formal legislation is divided into five different titles. Title I – WIPO Copyright and Performances and Phonograms Treaties Implementation Act of 1998: Implements the treaty. Title II – Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act: Allows for limitations in liability of online copyright infringement. Title III – Computer Maintenance Competition Assurance Act: Allows the creator and owner of a computer program the eligibility to make reproductions when necessary. Title V – Vessel Hull Design Protection Act: Creates a system that works to protect original designs. This bill aims to eliminate access to different sites that host or contribute to the movement and facilitation of pirated material.
The Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) is a plurilateral agreement for the purpose of establishing international standards for intellectual property rights enforcement.
Open source is a development method for software that harnesses the power of distributed peer review and transparency of process.
The license shall not restrict any party from selling or giving away the software as a component of an aggregate software distribution containing programs from several different sources. The program must include source code, and must allow distribution in source code as well as compiled form. The license must allow modifications and derived works, and must allow them to be distributed under the same terms as the license of the original software. The license must not restrict anyone from making use of the program in a specific field of endeavor. The rights attached to the program must apply to all to whom the program is redistributed without the need for execution of an additional license by those parties.
The rights attached to the program must not depend on the program's being part of a particular software distribution. The license must not place restrictions on other software that is distributed along with the licensed software. No provision of the license may be predicated on any individual technology or style of interface.
NIST defines the term Industrial Control System (ICS) as a “general term that encompasses several types of control systems, including supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, distributed control systems (DCS),and other control system configurations often found in the industrial sectors and critical infrastructures”44. The software architecture of SCADA System is multi-tasking and is based upon a real-time database (RTDB) located in one or more servers. SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) systems emerged at the same time that Industrial Control Systems were being implemented into factories and power generating facilities47. One or more field data interface devices, usually Remote Terminal Units (RTUs), or PLCs, which interface to field sensing devices and local control switchboxes and valve actuators.
A communications system used to transfer data between field data interface devices and control units and the computers in the SCADA central host. Truth be told, Norton, Mcaffee, Kaspersky and others cannot promise Virus and Malware prevention they can only offer a first line of defense. The purpose of my telling you this is not re-inforce to you to not to rely upon your virus protection to save you from data loss due to viruses or malware.
Of course data recovery companies charge an arm and a leg because it can take several hours to days to recover. So what do you guys recommend someone do if they don’t have an image to restore from?
For the sake of the argument, substitute rural wireless mesh networks with bringing the Internet to rural areas, although there are benefits other than simply Internet access, just Internet access itself will build a strong enough case. One can almost hear the echo of the elite literate class in the middle ages asking why rural peasants would possibly ever want to read books or be allowed to vote on the countries future. Well, if every child in the developing world now had a laptop would that be good enough, do we still need to connect them to the Internet? Progress and innovation in any civilization has always hinged on the free flow of information between people and true freedom is achieved when no voices are silenced by governments or powerful individuals. It is clear that users living in the developed world have penetration rates which are far in excess of those in developing nations especially when it comes to Internet and broadband access.
From another angle, when one thinks about inventiveness and progress that result from free information exchange, Lawrence Lessig has this to say about the importance of free resources for innovation in his book, Future of ideas. With this as a backdrop, it is clear that people living in rural areas are being left behind.
A quick search on an agricultural web site mentions that the soil conditions and rainfall patterns in that area would be ideal for sunflower growing (true story here), a nurse at a local clinic emails a digital image of the skin ailment to a specialist at a city hospital receiving instructions on what topical treatment to administer (true story here) , a mathematics teacher at a city school offers to web cast her lesson to the rural school everyday and can interact with students in the school via video conferencing facilities (true story here). From a political point of view, mesh networks create a system which links people together using a decentralized structure which is hard to control.
I have seen it working in a number of projects I have been involved in - The Peebles valley mesh in Mpumalanga, Scarborough mesh in Cape Town and Linknet in Zambia.
From a political point of view it puts control of the network back in the hands of the people, the community owns the network which makes it hard to shut down and prevents exploitation by government or dominant individuals or institutions. It is very robust to failure because it automatically repairs itself when a router in the network goes down.
It is very cheap and getting cheaper - it runs on wireless routers which you can get for about $40 you can even boost the signal with cheap antennas made from tin cans.

Router software and server software to manage the mesh is all available as open source software, so start up costs for someone who wants to run this as a business are very small. I have done a large amount of work trying to understand the key differences between various open-source mesh routing protocols available (See masters thesis and paper on AODV vs DYMO vs OLSR and paper on Batman vs OLSR). When mesh routers are running on renewable energy sources, routing paths need to be chosen to minimize the use of routers which are energy constrained. Once TDMA-like MAC protocols are being utilized in a mesh network, it becomes possible to choose routes which are not only based on least congested paths but also those which have more slots available for real-time media flows.
Traditionally telecommunication networks are highly engineered with careful planning to choose sites where radio towers are installed, what antennas to use, what angle to orientate and tilt the antennas, what power levels to use and how to engineer the IP addresses in the network.
Gateway discovery mechanisms which optimally balance traffic in the mesh between multiple gateways being supplied by a single operator. Optimal power level allocation to radios in the mesh is dependent on minimizing the amount of interference but at the same time maintaining a good level of redundancy in the mesh (some existing solutions). Once the cost of using smart antennas is low enough, these can be employed to improve the spectral efficiency in a mesh and avoid unwanted interference. Developing a comprehensive BCP (Business Continuity Plan) is vital to the ongoing success of any business. Backup systems often go months or even years without a full test of recoverability in the face of disaster.
Viruses and Worms threats act as the biggest threat to these files, not only slowing your business but also affect the output quality.
A Data center disaster recovery plan will not only help you to be loyal to your existing customers but it will also be helpful as a major selling point to new clients looking to expand their business. These backed systems are so quick that they barely five a chance to the customers to notice the change. A growing area of concern for many businesses, Security Architecture, including frameworks and controls, must be implemented in order to ensure proper security and safety for a business. The design artifact describe the structure of components, their inter-relationships, and the principles and guidelines governing their design and evolution over time” (OSA). NIST has been “laying the technical foundation” of the United States since it was chartered by the U.S. This helps the general public and other agencies to understand their purpose, objectives, and strategy. You'll learn about many of the projects and technologies that NIST uses to help improve our nation. One of these frameworks is the Risk Management Framework, which is concerned with the management of organizational risk. This can help prevent these same problems from occurring again and help in the recovery process. To become a certified professional, a CISSP must pass a test on the Common Body of Knowledge, or CBK, which creates a framework for information security terms and principles.
Discretionary Access Control gets its name because who has access to a system is entirely at the owner or system creator’s discretion. This domain deals with telecommunications and the way that communication is conducted over the internet.
This list is known as the 27000 Series, and is applicable to any organization big or small. It is a set of rules that address the security of the internet and create guidelines that help businesses persevere, especially in the face of major disruption to normal business operations or excessive risk.
Another security framework available to companies is the Control Objectives for Information and related Technology or CobiT framework. Before it can mitigate risk, it needs to understand what about their business is actually at risk.
By following these principles, management can achieve a level of security that can protect information assets, manage risk and be applied to all the other domains. These are the controls that are found within systems and applications and also the steps included in developing them. There are three types of controls that can be implemented depending on the incident at hand: Preventive controls (before event), detective controls (during event), and corrective controls (after event). The developer of the security knows the appropriate control method to keep a software protected from any attacks.
Information is encrypted and validated to keep its security, allowing only authorized people to access that information.
The difference being a substitution replaces the original values while a transposition cipher simply rearranges the original values18.
From hardware, to software, to physical security, a strong design and infrastructure can only help a business operate. These were first developed by the US Department of Defense in what is known as the Orange Book21. An open system is one that is able to interact with another system, while a closed system can only interact with similar systems23. According to the National Institute of Standards and Technology, one of the most complicated aspects of managing a large network is securing admission to it. A simple vulnerability test can help an organization realize where their weakest links are and how to go about strengthening them.
It’s also common to see some of these issues arise during times of changes being made to systems.
There are different types of disasters that could come affect organizations, these including natural disasters, such as floods and earthquakes. Hot sites refer to a second location that is ready for use in the case of an emergency where the original business location is not longer operating. This also includes a documented process as to which devices and data will be brought back first and how to bring them back in a safe and controlled manner30. Therefore, the recovery team can respond by restoring the business processes that will still let the business function fairly normal31.
In order to protect ones sensitive information, a possible preventive measure today is through cloud computing.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO), has issued a wide variety of multi-industry spanning policies.
Simply put, no system is 100% safe from any attack, and without an incident response a business may not be able to react quickly enough or even at all. To help understand the ethical behaviors of an information security professional, the Computer Ethics Institute has written a set of “Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics”34. While it is true that not all members of a company have access to crucial information, it must be considered that those who do can deal a major blow to the information security within an organization.
This includes the building and walls, any surrounding fencing and even the locks on the doors to secure rooms.
Copyright legislation is a piece of a larger entity of the law known as intellectual property, defined as creations of the human mind. Provisions include the requesting of court orders to bar advertising networks and payment facilities from conducting business with infringing websites, and search engines from linking to the sites, and court orders requiring Internet service providers to block access to the sites.
The agreement aims to establish an international legal framework for targeting counterfeit goods, generic medicines and copyright infringement on the Internet, and would create a new governing body outside existing forums, such as the World Trade Organization, the World Intellectual Property Organization, or the United Nations. The promise of open source is better quality, higher reliability, more flexibility, lower cost, and an end to predatory vendor lock-in. Where some form of a product is not distributed with source code, there must be a well-publicized means of obtaining the source code for no more than a reasonable reproduction cost preferably, downloading via the Internet without charge. The license must explicitly permit distribution of software built from modified source code. For example, it may not restrict the program from being used in a business, or from being used for genetic research.
If the program is extracted from that distribution and used or distributed within the terms of the program's license, all parties to whom the program is redistributed should have the same rights as those that are granted in conjunction with the original software distribution.
For example, the license must not insist that all other programs distributed on the same medium must be open-source software. ICS are used in industries such as electrical, water treatment, oil and natural gas, chemical, transportation, pharmaceutical, pulp and paper, food and beverage, and manufacturing. SCADA is a type of Industrial Control System which runs as a software package that is interfaced to hardware and operates on the supervisory level. While all of this evolution towards more open-based standards has made it easier for the industry to integrate various diverse systems together, it has also increased the risks of less technical personnel gaining access and control of these industrial networks.”50 Although SCADA Systems run on their own industrial networks and are separated from corporate networks, they are still vulnerable to attack. Most computer users don’t want to think about the potential for data loss as though if they think about it then it becomes more likely to happen. Now having a first line of defense is better than having no defense at all but it still doesnt guarantee you will not get infected. It may catch some things but will eventually fail and if you don’t update it it is even more likely to fail. Once you have a working OS, attached the original hard drive as a slave hard drive and recover your data by pulling the data from the drive.
I'm a firm believer in PhD's that are strongly grounded in real-life problems that are facing the human race. There is a lot to reflect on when thinking about why bringing Internet connectivity to deep rural areas in places like Africa is a good idea. There are many parallels between societies in developing countries moving from an Agrarian to a knowledge based economy using Information Technology and the development of widespread literacy and the enormous social and intellectual changes of the Enlightenment period due to the invention of the printing press.
Perhaps we need to step back a little to reflect on what has happened in the past to help understand the future. Consider countries such as Burma, North Korea, China and recent events in Zimbabwe, the first target of any dictator is preventing the free flow of information and silencing the media. It is possible to modernize without having to urbanize to improve peoples quality of life and access to knowledge. It could enable people in countries where the telecommunications is being controlled to build under-ground networks where authorities have no control over content that is communicated over the network.
But what I have realized is that protocols which become dominant depend little on rigorous scientific comparisons.
For example if one router is running on solar energy and another on wind energy then at night routes should be chosen which use wind powered nodes and in the day routes which use solar powered nodes.
There is increasing interest in building village-telcos which make use of mesh to handle VoIP calls within a village and from a village to the rest of the world and supporting more VoIP calls will become increasingly important.
In a mesh network there is very little control over where nodes are placed and the network needs to autoconfigure itself as close to the optimal as possible. Or gateway discovery which allows users to quickly discover and choose from multiple gateway providers selling services into a mesh (Not enough done in this area yet). Algorithms to control elements of the smart antennas will need to be developed as part of the mesh routing protocols for direction of arrival and direction of departure of packets in the mesh (Very new area). All too often a company will go to what is expected to be a full backup only to find out there is data missing or inadequate to recover in a timely manner. Solution is of you have computer backup in the Data Center you will not have to worry about these problems.
Congress on March 3, 1901.3 NIST became the “first physical science research laboratory of the federal government,” despite its creation at the very beginning of the technology age.
Therefore, users will be less likely to go against security policy if they know their actions are being recorded in the audit log or trail. In order to develop this framework, NIST is involving key stakeholders by issuing a Request for Information to the public to encourage public involvement in developing the Cybersecurity framework.
The Common Body of Knowledge consists of ten domains, at the center of each domain are the core information security and assurance principles, confidentiality, integrity, and, availability. The Access Control System is separate from the Physical Security domain in that Access Control Systems are an electronic part of the system that authenticates who is allowed to use the system as a whole and, more specifically, what parts they have access to. These policies and rules should be driven into the core competencies of the organization, and in order to do so it needs to start with upper-level management.
This framework “defines goals for the controls that should be used to properly manage IT and to ensure that IT maps to business needs”14. Only after a proper and thorough risk analysis can management then determine what security policy and procedures are best suited to protect them. Within the security sector, software development is profoundly related to the architecture of software and keeping the software secure. Another popular development method is prototyping, which involves creating a sample of the final product then having the customers review it and make adjustments. Controls can also be distinguished by their nature, there are four different types of natures of a control: physical, procedural, technical, and legal or regulatory.
The roots of encryption can be traced back to Egypt when hieroglyphics replaced words, but now encryption has evolved into something so much more complex15. Algorithms are another form of encryption, but tend to be more complex due to their mathematical nature.
Luckily there are a few models to help get companies started, and these models are listed below20.
Just as technology is always advancing, it’s necessary to keep the evaluation criteria updated.
An open system is more likeable amongst consumers due to its flexibility, but it also poses as a greater risk because its vulnerability also increases.
The principal model of access control throughout the industry is Role Based Access Control (RBAC), which, in short, is a method of confining access to a network to solely approved users. To combat this, companies should have a clearly outlined process as to how to go about making changes. Unfortunately, there are a variety of man-made disasters such as terrorist attacks and computer viruses that pose a major threat to information. Cold site is not ready for immediate use and therefore might take a few days to get started. It is suggested that through the use of the cloud that companies transport their data to other offices and store it on offsite systems.
It has specific rules for security architecture contained in the “Code of Practice for Information Security Management”; these policies have been condensed into the ISO 27000 series.
Computer-aided crimes are those that require the assistance of a computer or other form of technology, while computer-targeted crimes are those where the computer is the victim32. A trained and qualified incident response is also important because it’s a company’s line of defense if the event were to carryover into court. There has been a growing trend of hackers and insiders manipulating data within a workplace. Security does not always have to be so heavyset on the use of technology; sometimes all you need is a couple of patrolling guards and a lock on the door, or possibly a safe. The agreement was signed on 1 October 2011 by Australia, Canada, Japan, Morocco, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea and the United States.
The license may require derived works to carry a different name or version number from the original software.

SCADA technologies appeared as far as the 1960's with simple input and output devices used to remotely monitor operations in industrial applications. The system can be penetrated at many different points and can be most easily compromised at the host or control room level. The reality of the situation is that there are some very simple things that users can do to reduce or prevent data loss. So before leaping into the actual wireless mesh networking research that I am focusing on, I am going to go on a philosophical journey and try and build a motivation for my specific focus on rural wireless mesh networks. There are many people who would argue that there is no point giving people Internet connectivity when people are dying of malnutrition, TB and Aids. This is the digital chasm that could prevent Africa and other developing nations from being part of the global knowledge economy unless drastic measures are taken.
Thus and especially in the digital age, the central question becomes not whether government or the market should control a resource, but whether a resource should be controlled at all. Shouldn't people who are quite content living off the land on a farm just simply be left to enjoy their simple life on their farm.
Knowledge brings opportunities, which means that instead of someone being trapped in a cycle of poverty, they will have the resources and skills to transform their own life and the community around them.
It isn't owned by one single entity and the entire community owns the infrastructure which makes it hard to shut down.
This is mostly based on strong representation at IETF meetings as well as association with dominant academic or cooperate institutions. The routing decisions also need to be made aware of battery levels at nodes which are powered by batteries in order to choose routes which maximize the life span of the network.
Computer backup system will save your files from worms or viruses attacks and also restore corrupted files. The US had very few standards that were necessary for trade and the industrial age “was being driven by the steam engine, the railroad, and the expanding reach of electricity.” Other nations had developed standards laboratories and there was an outcry by American scientists for the United States to do the same. The auditing techniques are used to make sure frameworks, such as Risk Management Framework from above, are being implemented fairly and correctly.
Since almost everyone in our Nation is an end user of our infrastructure through the Internet, it is very smart of NIST to involve those who interact with the Internet on a daily basis. These systems are concerned with four major principles, identification, authentication, authorization, and accountability. This is referred to as the top down approach, meaning these ideas and beliefs start at the top of the organizational hierarchy and trickle their way down to the rest of the company. After installing proper security policies and procedures, it is important to properly train employees and strategically allocate responsibilities. Developing secure software requires key components that make the software secure: Systems development life cycle, application environment and the effectiveness of the application security. The creators would then take those new adjustments and create a new prototype for the customer to test. This relates back to the risk management that is analyzed before, during, and after any business task to understand if the risk is necessary. In addition to vulnerability testing, a business continuity plan is important to develop and maintain.
This ultimately comes back to access controls, but not only for those trying to make the changes. Businesses also need to prepare themselves for human error, which accounts for 96% of errors in the workplace. Where a hot site might seem more advantageous it is significantly more expensive to upkeep compared to a cold site, something management needs to consider before selecting the “best” option29. With proper investigative procedures, an incident response team can provide the necessary evidence to the proper authorities. These data changes can have a significant effect on the upper tiers of management that make decisions based upon the data, and possible customers of whom the data could be concerning. For those more persistent intruders though, a business might need a more advanced security system that includes a detection system for unauthorized access to parts of the building.
Specific rights that authors may practice include the right to prevent a copy of their work being distorted. SCADA systems are typically used for geographically dispersed assets and can be found in many infrastructure and industrial processes such as power generation (nuclear and conventional), steel production, plants, refineries, factories, water-treatment and nuclear fusion sites. With the advancement of technology, SCADA systems have developed into advanced software, high performance microprocessors and wireless technology. Because of the SCADA system logs data out of numerous databases, they system must have a direct connection to those databases. What virus and malware creators lack in ethics and morals they make up for in persistence and creativity. If the original hard drive is dead (not spinning or has the click of death), there is hard drive recovery companies that you can send your hard drive to and they will recover your data, but ready to pay a pretty hefty price tag though. Surely running water, health care, shelter and food security should be the key focus before something as advanced as broadband access is even considered. As the age of the printed book and the free flow of knowledge between all people, not just a few elite, began with the Gutenberg movable type system in the 1400's, so the age of the Internet in the 1990's has unleashed a new era of information exchange between mankind like nothing seen before.
Well, what happens when a farmer has repeated crop failure of his maize crops with the current soil and rain conditions, or they need to go to a specialist hospital in a far away town to diagnose a strange skin rash or there are no mathematics or science teachers available at the small rural school. If some nodes are shut down, the network will automatically repair itself and find other routes between a source and sink. Most of us who are not aware of the working process of a Data Center think that a data center disaster recovery plan is not at all practical. To help “meet the needs of electrical instruments makers and manufacturers,” lead scientists and industrialists endorsed the concept of having a standards laboratory. Our efforts stimulate innovation, foster industrial competitiveness, and improve the quality of life.” Both the mission and the vision statements of NIST provide for a clear understanding of what they are involved in, however NIST also states their core competencies as being measurement science, rigorous traceability, and the development and use of standards. The combination of all of these programs and partnerships help NIST to achieve their mission and continuously improve the products and services that are offered in our nation. If you would like to be involved in the process, the first workshop for developing the framework will take place on April 3rd at NIST's campus in Gaithersburg, MD.
Identification and authentication require users to supply information to prove that they have access.
The second type of system, Mandatory Access Control, cannot grant access to any user, rather the access has to be earned.
In addition, the network security aspect then adds to the telecommunication layer by including the ways in which Internet communication is kept secure, through confidentiality, integrity, and availability. When management is creating these security policies they often reference the Organizational Security Model, shown to the left.
Companies are most vulnerable from internal risk so it is integral that all employees understand the security policies and procedures. Plaintext is simply readable data, while ciphertext is unreadable data, and decryption is the means of translating ciphertext to plaintext16. Symmetric algorithms require both the sender and receiver have identical keys that allow them to encrypt and decrypt messages, whereas asymmetric algorithms use two unique yet related keys for its messages19. The Rainbow Series was simply a continuation of the Orange Book, just using different colors hence rainbow, and the Common Criteria become the international guideline for information security22. First it is necessary to assign hierarchical roles to users prior to system access, secondly making sure that users are authorized within the company to access the data that may pertain to theirs or other departments, and thirdly access can only be granted if it pertains to the project at hand. This would include items such as a system reboot, emergency restart, and a system cold start, along with understanding the meaning of mean time between failure and mean time of repair.
Controlling who has the authority to allow changes is also important to control and monitor. The best way to combat disasters is to have a strong Business Continuity Plan (BCP) that way a company can remain fairly operational while it recovers. Henceforth from the issuance of this set of codes it was necessary to abide by its standards or risk being shunned for ineffective practices. One of the best forms of this, in terms of internal investigation and monitoring, are activity logs which can prove who was signed in during the time of the event33. One of the easiest ways to combat data deception is to require employees to change passwords regularly and to discourage the sharing of passwords among employees. Other rights that are not particularly entirely author’s rights include licensing rights that publishers may exercise of an author’s work.
SCADA systems monitor and control facility processes such as air conditioning and ventilation.
This connection can be traced back to the SCADA system and eventually through an end device on a corporate network. If you have a weakness for causes, nude celebrities, or current events, they will find and exploit it. It is becoming possible for all people on the globe to have equal access to the same knowledge resources as more books are digitized and more knowledge is captured.
Below are few of the points which will make you to focus on the fact that Data Center Recovery Plans are indeed practical.
It is apparent that NIST has very clearly identified its goals and is consistently making efforts to innovative. Examples of this can be entering a password to view an online account or submitting a pin number at an ATM to gain access to your bank account.
This means that there are given set of rules or criteria that has to be met before a user is granted access. This domain applies to all forms of networking and media, both public and private and is one of the larger and more technical domains in the CBK. There are four properties of encryption that need to be understood when using encryption: Key length, redundancy checks, hash functions, and digital signatures. In addition to access control, management should also divide responsibilities amongst employees so that no one has a significant amount of control over their network.
There has been notable security architecture industry appointed standards, most notably the Standards of Good Practice for Information Security, which covers a variety of bases including networks, consumer technology standards, methods to avert cyber attacks, and new applications of cloud computing.
One of the worst nightmares of any company would be a disgruntled IT or human resources employee taking advantage of their access and stealing customer credit information or manipulation employee records.
Important to take away from copyright is that it only protects the form of expression that ideas take, not the standalone ideas.
The following list provides the various kinds of attacks that can damage a penetrated system.
Easy to upload, easy to find, easy to recover, and ultimately not dependent upon your computer.
Rest assured nothing is sacred to them and they don’t care about the hard they will cause. It is clear that the debate is far from over even though 802.11s has standardized on derivatives of OLSR and AODV. There is also use of biometrics, which utilizes the unique characteristics of individuals as a form of access control. This is true in military or government situations for data that is “top secret or classified”. The telecommunications and network security domain also applies to wireless networks and devices.
Responsibility should also be set up in a way that allows employees to monitor and check each other so that each individual is following the separation of duties. As the field of computer technology has grown, there have been numerous acts of Congress passed in order to regulate the field in the way of securing computer systems. To combat the dangers of data manipulation is expensive because sophisticated data checks and cross checking mechanisms after the database has been built is pricey.
The system gathers and analyzes data flowing from facility processes and alerts a central base if a problem occurs, as well as the location and severity of the error. The user must gain security clearance or reach a level of authority that permits them to have access to the system.
The effectiveness of application security is ensuring that the developer knows how to establish secure, stable, and efficient software, using the given and appropriate controls, that will stay free from any attack methods.
The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1984, made it punishable by federal law to knowingly access the computer of another and exploit that access in a fraudulent manner; it also criminalizes the attempt to do so and conspiring as well. When detection algorithms are applied, small file changes cannot be immediately detected because such programs are meant to detect file size differences. The hardware found in a SCADA system is broken up into two distinct layers – the “client layer” and the “data server layer” which is in charge of the process data control activities.
I will invite authors of the code to provide me with the most up to date source code as well as configurations they believe will be most optimal for the setup.
Authorization is the system acknowledging who the user is, and granting them permission to perform the tasks they are allowed to do. These Access Control methods cover three generic spectrums of controls, administrative, physical, and technical. Keeping software secure is a difficult process and to add on to the difficulty, it is also a costly and time consuming.
Hash functions use a large amount of data to make a small fingerprint based on the same data. Other acts related to information security are HIPAA, GLBA, Federal Privacy Act, Computer Security Act, and the Economic Espionage Act. Interestingly, one of the best controls is education within departments on the identification of deception in the workplace, as humans have shown to be good detectors of deception when issued warnings of deceptive possibilities.
Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are connected to the data servers either directly or via networks that are proprietary or non-proprietary. The system also logs all activities performed as a form of monitoring, which is the accountability factor. Many security problems are discovered during the testing or even worse, by the public after it has been officially introduced. Despite this, human vigilance is likely to wane over time, which would keep the problem from ever fully being resolved. Physical controls are concerned with the actual surrounding environment, and technical controls speak to the hardware and software of the security system. Encryptions are not always 100% secure because the techniques used in the process can be destroyed using certain methods of attack. Encryption involves several components for it to be successful and it is often implemented incorrectly.
The systems that are used for encrypting and decrypting data are referred to as cryptosystems17.

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