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This chart from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory provides a simple clear way to understand how energy is used in the US. Energy sources are on the left side – solar, nuclear, hydro, wind, geothermal, natural gas, coal, biomass, petroleum.
Energy users are broken in to four categories a€“ residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation. The gray boxes on the right sum up the energy that was used and the energy that was lost (rejected).
The width of the lines running from the various energy sources to their destination uses is proportional to the amount of energy used. As can be seen, the lion’s share of US energy consumption comes from fossil fuel sources (oil, coal, natural gas). Zooming in to the transportation sector, we can see that most of that oil is used for personal vehicles (cars, light truck and SUVs). Any attempt to reduce our dependance on oil will require grappling with transportation in general, and personal transportation in particular. Personal transportation is 4 to 10 times less efficient than public transportation (commuter rail, trains and buses). WELCOME!Thank you for visiting 8020 Vision a€“ connecting the dots between global challenges and sustainable solutions. Most people think of black holes as giant vacuum cleaners sucking in everything that gets too close. In this artist’s conception, the black hole at the center of our galaxy is surrounded by a hot disk of accreting material.
This feat was achieved using the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) – a global network of radio telescopes that link together to function as one giant telescope the size of Earth. A delightful comic illustrates how the Event Horizon Telescope can measure magnetic fields at our galaxy’s core.
They also found that the magnetic fields fluctuated on short time scales of only 15 minutes or so.
These observations used astronomical facilities in three geographic locations: the Submillimeter Array and the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (both on Mauna Kea in Hawaii), the Submillimeter Telescope on Mt.
The world is rapidly changing and all businesses have to prepare themselves for the future.
If you were to describe Dawson PPD’s electric system, you might say, “poles, wires and gray cans.” Those gray cans – or transformers – are pieces of equipment crucial in converting electricity to a safe voltage for homes, farms and businesses. Transformers are used to step electric voltage up or down before it makes its way to its final destination. At a power plant, the generators produce very high voltage electricity and use transformers to step up this voltage.
Dawson PPD’s transmission lines carry the high voltage to substations brimming with transformers and control equipment.
The voltage then travels through Dawson PPD’s distribution lines, takes one step down, and arrives at your home, farm or business. Transformers have two sides, a high-voltage side and a low-voltage side and all have an iron core. The use of electricity touches nearly every aspect of our modern lives and we have transformers to thank for bringing it safely into our homes. About UsDawson Public Power District serves 22,642 electric meters and maintains 5,756 miles of power lines in south central Nebraska. Magnetism - a physical phenomenon associated with magnetic field, generated by electric current, motion of electric charges, properties of elementary particles (e.g. The term electromagnetism refers to mutual relationship between magnetic field and electric field, which can be mathematically described with Maxwell's equations. Depending on chemical composition, physical state and ambient conditions all materials respond to the magnetic field in some way. And from theoretical physics point of view these can be further subdivided to over twenty other types, depending on the involved atomic structure, spin ordering, etc.
Also, there are multiple other terms which are commonly used in relation to other branches of science.
The study of magnetic phenomena extends from subatomic particles12) to cosmic scales.13) Electrons (which are responsible for ferromagnetism) have estimated radius of 10-22 m 14) and magnetic-like effects are observed also for structures as large as galaxies with dimensions 1021 m. On the macroscopic level magnetic field can be analysed as being generated by electric current. If this space in front of my eyes contains a magnetic field what is in there sustaining it? From practical point of view magnetism is widely used in electricity generation, transformation and consumption.
However, the plethora of applications can be classified into a few basic magnetic and electromagnetic effects. Most of the life forms on Earth are supported by the energy delivered from the Sun in a form of light or electromagnetic radiation. Life on the Earth would not be possible to the same extent without the electromagnetic energy. This is one of the reasons why the distinction is made between classical magnetism (static magnetic fields) and electromagnetism (inseparable combination of changing electric and magnetic fields).


Permanent magnets are used commonly used for generation or conversion of mechanical forces. Electromagnetism is used for electromagnetic coupling of energy between the source and the load. There are also other physical phenomena, which can transfer electromagnetic energy into different type of energy (e.g.
Another inherent feature of electromagnetic conversion is that it allows galvanic separation between the circuits, which is a very important factor from the viewpoint of safety of electric circuits. Other magneto-thermal effects rely on some intermediate physical phenomena to generate heat. A whole important sub-class of magnetic phenomena is transmission of signals through electromagnetic waves. At much higher frequencies the electromagnetic waves constitute visible spectrum, so that all optical devices in effect employ electromagnetic waves in the form of invisible (infra-red, ultraviolet) and visible light (see next section).
All other physical phenomena related to optical effects by include electromagnetic waves, but with specific range of wavelengths.
Visible light can be generated in a number of ways: from thermal heating (burning flame, incandescent light bulb), through electroluminescence (light-emitting diode), ionised gasses (compact fluorescent light bulb), chemical reactions, bioluminescence, etc. Visible and near-visible spectrum is suitable for a whole range of applications: energy transfer (photovoltaic cells), heat generation (infrared halogen heaters), signal and information transmission (traffic lights, fibre optic computer networks), sensing (all optical sensors), lasers, and many many more.
Optics itself its a very wide scientific and technological field and is a separate branch of physics, but because of its diversity in its own right it overlaps with almost every aspect of science and technology. Interestingly, there are also direct phenomena occurring between light (electromagnetic wave) and magnetic or electromagnetic fields. A multiplicity of other physical quantities can be measured by employing phenomena related to magnetics.
Magnetism and electromagnetism are widely used for such applications, because they offer inexpensive way of manufacturing such products. Roman Boca, Theoretical Foundations of Molecular Magnetism, Current Methods in Inorganic Chemistry, Elsevier, 1999, ISBN 9780080542713, p. Hans Dehmelt, A Single Atomic Particle Forever Floating at Rest in Free Space: New Value for Electron Radius, Physica Scripta, T22, s.
Lindley, J., The use of magnetic techniques in the development of a hydrogenation process, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. Of the fossil fuels, oil is the source most in demand, the bulk of which is used by the transportation sector. When oil prices rise quickly, as they did in 2008 (to over $140 per barrel), consumer behavior shifts rapidly.
But the supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies are more like cosmic engines, converting energy from infalling matter into intense radiation that can outshine the combined light from all surrounding stars. Nobody has been able to resolve magnetic fields near the event horizon until now,” says lead author Michael Johnson of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). Since larger telescopes can provide greater detail, the EHT ultimately will resolve features as small as 15 micro-arcseconds.
The team found that magnetic fields in some regions near the black hole are disorderly, with jumbled loops and whorls resembling intertwined spaghetti.
Graham in Arizona, and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) near Bishop, California.
Electricity flows into the transformer on the high-voltage side where it goes into a coil of wire wound around an iron core. Electricity loses voltage as it is transmitted due to the resistance in wires and other components. Because these plants are so far away, this is necessary to survive the trip over the system to where it is needed.
Power feeds into your home’s electrical outlets and lights at 120 volts while water heaters, ranges and HVAC systems receive 240 volts, both considerably lower than the original voltage.
With nearly 90 employees, Dawson is one of the largest rural systems in the state of Nebraska. Also movement or properties (like spin) of subatomic particles are sources or magnetic field. This is also true for those materials which are commonly referred to as “non-magnetic” (the response can be of much lower magnitude). For instance ferromagnetism16) continues to have a major impact on the evolution of various technologies, mainly through its involvement in energy generation and conversion.
However, it was shown that in some materials the magnetic field can be also attributed to a property known as “spin” of subatomic particles, a phenomenon which cannot be fully explained yet by the the current state of knowledge.
Only few of these exhibit a direct link between magnetic field and thermal phenomena, rather than having an intermediate electromagnetic-electromagnetic coupling.
In theory it should be possible to build efficient magnetic refrigerators, without any moving parts.
For instance, electric current is induced in any conducting medium which is exposed to a varying magnetic field.
Such electromagnetic radiation is referred to as electromagnetism and for instance can be analysed as the so-called near field or far field phenomena. For efficient transmission tuned circuits are used, and are ubiquitously employed in terrestrial and outer space telecommunication.


The same principles can be used for transmission of energy, for instance in some types of wireless charging.
In sensors and transducers the amount of processed energy is usually small, and focus is given to such aspects as accuracy and linearity of signal transformation.
A layer of ferromagnetic substance can be magnetised, and the direction of local magnetisation can store information in an analogue or digital way. Importantly, it is possible to have completely contactless interaction, for instance in anti-theft protection systems.
Georgilakis, Spotlight on Modern Transformer Design, Power Systems, Springer, 2009, ISBN 9781848826670, p. But if your list is long and you have too many other things to mind about, Man Crates prepared a special package with the most needed essentials. He loves cool stuff, gadgets, gear for guys and writes about his lifestyle discoveries on daily basis. Understanding the energy trends shaping our world is essential to managing risk and innovating solutions for business, government and community. If the black hole is spinning, it can generate strong jets that blast across thousands of light-years and shape entire galaxies. The Event Horizon Telescope has measured those magnetic fields for the first time with a resolution six times the size of the event horizon (6 Schwarzschild radii). And since it’s located 25,000 light-years away, this size corresponds to an incredibly small 10 micro-arcseconds across. On Earth, sunlight becomes linearly polarized by reflections, which is why sunglasses are polarized to block light and reduce glare.
In contrast, other regions showed a much more organized pattern, possibly in the region where jets would be generated.
As the EHT adds more radio dishes around the world and gathers more data, it will achieve greater resolution with the goal of directly imaging a black hole’s event horizon for the first time. As the electricity flows through this coil, it creates a magnetic field that “induces” a voltage in the other, low-voltage coil. The voltage continues on these wires and reaches a second substation, called the distribution substation.
Most of the electricity generated worldwide is converted, transmitted and consumed with the use of ferromagnetic and electromagnetic phenomena. This is possible because the transformers can increase the voltage to very high level for more efficient transmission of electricity.
These so-called eddy currents are capable of heating up the medium in which they flow, and it is a basis for all induction heating devices. In electric and electronic circuits there can be transmission line effects, which are caused by the link between the wave length and physical circuit dimensions. This way you can focus on getting work done AND be prepared for the zombies will attack – also check the Hyundai Walking Dead Veloster Zombie Survival Machine for a cool anti-zombie equipped ride! It found the fields in the disk to be disorderly, with jumbled loops and whorls resembling intertwined spaghetti.
Fortunately, the intense gravity of the black hole warps light and magnifies the event horizon so that it appears larger on the sky – about 50 micro-arcseconds, a region that the EHT can easily resolve. In the case of Sgr A*, polarized light is emitted by electrons spiraling around magnetic field lines. The voltage is reduced to a lower 7,200 to 12,470 volts to safely carry the electricity on its distribution lines. At the same time the transformers are very efficient devices, with figures up 99% for high-power devices. However, it is the eddy currents which are ultimately the source of heat - so electromagnetism is used only to transfer the energy and induce the currents. Wright, The Science & Engineering of Materials, Cengage Learning, 2011, ISBN 9780495296027, p.
Commuters embraced public transportation, with many metropolitan areas seeing 30 to 45 percent increases in use of public transportation in just one quarter. For the first time, astronomers have detected magnetic fields just outside the event horizon of the black hole at the center of our Milky Way galaxy. In contrast, other regions showed a much more organized pattern, possibly in the region where jets (shown by the narrow yellow streamer) would be generated.
On the other side, the coil is wrapped around fewer times receiving or producing lower voltage. Instead, the charger converts the voltage to a more tolerable five volts or so to safely charge the cell phone’s battery.
As the electricity flows through the high voltage coil, it creates a magnetic field that induces a lower voltage in the other coil. This layperson classification does not follow the same classes as the theoretical - for instance a magnet does not attract antiferromagnetic material, but it is a magnetically ordered structure. Jiles, Permanent magnet array for the magnetic refrigerator, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol.



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