Devices to measure magnetic field 2014,emergency response action plan zones,american action full movies to watch on youtube for free - Videos Download

Using a very fast oscilloscope, researchers led by Dan Ralph, the Horace White Professor of Physics, and Robert Buhrman, the J.E. Magnetic tunnel junctions are memory storage devices made of a sandwich of two ferromagnets with a nanometers-thick oxide insulator in between. What has held back magnetic memory technology is that it has required magnetic fields to switch the magnetic states – that is, to write information.
The Cornell researchers are studying a new generation of magnetic devices that can write information without using magnetic fields. To measure these spin torques, the researchers used an oscilloscope in a shared facility operated by Cornell's Center for Nanoscale Systems. The researchers hope such experiments will help industry make better nonvolatile memory devices by understanding exactly how to structure them, and also, what materials would best be used as the oxide insulators and the ferromagnets surrounding them. University of Nebraska-Lincoln physicist Evgeny Tsymbal's groundbreaking identification of an emerging research field in electronic devices earned publication this week in Science magazine.
Researchers from Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB, Germany) and the French research facility CNRS, south of Paris, are using electric fields to manipulate the property of electrons known as "spin" to store data permanently.
Ever since Kepler's observation in the 17th century that sunlight is one of the reasons that the tails of comets to always face away from the sun, it has been understood that light exerts pressure in the direction it propagates.
Martin Thuo likes to look for new, affordable and clean ways to put science and technology to work in the world. Small objects like electrons and atoms behave according to quantum mechanics, with quantum effects like superposition, entanglement and teleportation. Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models.
An example of nonvolatile memory today is flash memory, but that is a silicon-based technology subject to wearing out after repeated writing cycles, unlike magnetic memory. Magnetic Level Indicator(magnetic level meter,magnetic level transmitter)  Magnetic Level Indicator(magnetic level meter,magnetic level transmitter). Datalogging Luminous Flux Meter TES-133 LEDs Testing with Free ShippingDatalogging Luminous Flux Meter TES-133 LEDs Testing with Free Shipping TES-133 Luminous Flux Meter4-digit LCD reading.
TES-133 Luminous Flux Meter for LED Testing with RS-232 InterfaceTES-133 Luminous Flux Meter for LED Testing with RS-232 Interface TES-133 Luminous Flux Meter4-digit LCD reading.
Incoming visible-wavelength light induces both strong electric (E) and magnetic (B) fields in silicon nanospheres.
The researchers fired a high-intensity laser at a silicon wafer, which blasted off spheres of silicon with diameters between 100 and 200 nanometers. In a theoretical analysis, Kuznetsov and co-workers showed that the optical response resulted from incoming light generating a circular electric field, or displacement current, in the sphere. The properties of the dipole were dependent on the size of the particle, so particles of different sizes scattered light of different colors. A team of researchers at the FOM institute AMOLF (The Netherlands) has succeeded for the first time in powering an energy transfer between nano-electromagnets with the magnetic field of light. A novel approach to designing artificial materials could enable magnetic devices with a wider range of properties than those now available. Light can reflect around the interior of the sphere but cannot curve with such a tight radius given the self induced weak magnetic field. This magnetic broom serves to the collection of metal impurities (metal shavings, nails, grinding dust), mostly in extensive areas (e.g. Demagnetize the broom by lifting both of the levers; caught metal particles fall off easily.
Become our fans and get more information about our company as well as news, not only from the professional life!
QSA ToolboxOur online resources enable you to research and obtain valuable information about our NDT products. Compartment syndrome is a major concern in cases of extremity trauma, which occur in over 70% of military combat casualty.
The Electro Physical Agents and Diagnostic Ultrasound (EPADU) group is a Professional Networks of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy based in the UK. In many respects, magnetic field based therapy involves the delivery of a particular form of energy to the tissues, much like ultrasound (which happens to be mechanical energy) or laser (which happens to be light based electromagnetic energy). Ultrasound therapy for example will be most effective when applied to the tissues which strongly absorb (respond to) this (mechanical) energy - which is the dense collagen based tissue - such as ligament, tendon, fascia etc.
An interesting but relatively succinct review of the historical development and uses of magnets in medicine and therapy can be found in Giordano et al (2009). It is suggested that the method of magnetic field production (the device), and various field parameters (such as strength, static or dynamic, continuous or pulsed, power, energy delivery) may all be critical.
It is argued by some that a static magnet, held in proximity to the tissues will bring about bioelectric changes.
Colbert et al (2008) provide a comprehensive argument with regards the complexity of magnetic therapy dose.
The 10 essential parameters that should ideally be recorded (for research purposes) when using static magnetic therapy (from Colbert et al, 2008) are reproduced above.
One of the most commonly reported parameters relating to magnetic therapy devices is the strength of the applied magnetic field. One of the biggest issues with the clinical application of magnetic therapy is that the strength of the magnetic field that is needed to achieve therapeutic benefit has yet to be fully resolved, hence making clinical decision making remarkably problematic. The existence of therapeutic windows is not a new concept, nor is it confined to magnetic field therapy (Watson, 2008, 2010).
Whether there is one broad therapeutic window or in fact several smaller windows has yet to be resolved. Given that the output of the device is simply a measure of the emitted field strength, the important issue is that of field strength at the tissue target (much as it is for ultrasound and laser therapies) as opposed to what comes out of the machine per se.
An electric field is the region of space surrounding electrically charged particles (and time-varying magnetic fields). It is strongly argued that with this type of therapy, it is not possible to entirely separate out the effects of the magnetic and electric components of the applied energy.
Markov provides summary  and review information in several papers including (Markov 2009). There are numerous proposals and theoretical models to explain how the magnetic field is capable of interacting with biological tissue. It would appear that the cell membrane is the primary target of the magnetic energy (Adey 2004). In non-muscle cells MLCK activation of myosin II is implicated in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell spreading, migration and cytokinesis, as well as cell type specific processes such as neurite outgrowth and platelet morphogenesis.
Many references have considered and described the mechanism, or hypothesised about it including the Markov and Funk papers identified previously, plus Rosen, 2010 and Volpe and Eremenko, 2007. It has also been argued that the effects of the applied energy relate solely to heat generated in the tissues - i.e. The strongest evidenced clinical application of magnetic fields appears to be related to bone healing, wound healing and facilitated repair in musculoskeletal lesions, pain management and oedema resolution. Markov (2009) suggests that the overall success rate for these musculoskeletal issues is at around 80% (though there is an effects rage with different clinical problems) and that the literature identifies no side effects or adverse events of significance.
Pickering et al (2002) review this field and identify (as have others) the complexity of dose, application method and mixed reporting of the intervention making dose estimation problematic and replication of the treatment almost impossible in some cases. An example of a currently running clinical trial, in humans, evaluating PEMF application (fresh scaphoid fractures) can be found in Hannemann et al (2011). Sutbeyaz et al (2006) evaluated the effect of PEMF based therapy on pain, movement and functional capacity for a patient group with cervical OA.
Aziz et al (2011) has provided a Cochrane review on electromagnetic therapy for treating venous leg ulcers.
Jing et al (2010), Milgram et al (2004), Glinka et al (2002) are amongst a group of researchers who have evaluated mangnetic based therapy in animal healing models, some providing positive results and some not. Both Reeser et al (2005) and Mikesky and Hayden (2005) failed to demonstrate a beneficial effect for magnetic therapy on DOMS pain - but having looked at all the evidence on DOMS pain, almost nothing makes any real difference to it. There is a lot of anecdotal evidence with regards the efficacy of magnetic based therapies for soft tissue injury, but a dearth of clinical trials in real patients which are (a) meaningful and (b) demonstrate positive outcomes.
Eccles (2005) provides a useful critical review for the use of static magnets in trials, looking at pain relief issues. The pain types reported in the positive studies included in the Eccles review covered OA (mainly knee), dysmenorrhoea and menstrual pain, diabetic polyneuropathy (foot pain), RA joint pain, fibromyalgia, chronic back pain, trigger points, pain post surgery, post polio pain.
Duration : 45 minutes was the shortest beneficial application through to 6 months at the other extreme. Short treatments (<1hour) and infrequent treatments (once only or 2-3 times a week) appear less effective. Hazelwood and Markov (2009) review the use of EMF based therapy for trigger points and various other pain related conditions. Vallbona et al (1997) used a static magnetic field (at between 300 and 500G) in a single 45 minute treatment of trigger points for a group of post polio pain sufferers. Heden and Pilla (2008) used PEMF for post op pain (plastic surgery) demonstrating significant pain relief over sham treatment.


Strauch et al (2009) review the use of PEMF based therapy in various plastic surgery issues including pain, post op oedema, wound healing and enhanced repair. Weintraub and Cole (2008) report the outcome of an RCT evaluating static and dynamic magnetic fields in Carpal Tunnel. Deveraux et al (1995) compared real with placebo PEMF for tennis elbow patients, treating for at least 8 weeks. Lee et al (2006) conducted an RCT, placebo based study with chronic low back pain patients. Lo et al (2011) report the outcome of a pilot clinical study using magnetic therapy for patients with lumbosacral spondylosis. There is a wide mix of research papers covering clinical applications and potential benefits. A wide range of Electrotherapy Courses are delivered throughout the UK, Europe and Worldwide with varying content, aims and duration.
Current books on Electrotherapy with brief descriptions and links to Amazon pages for purchase. Some common answers to the most frequently asked questions on Electrotherapy, particularly in the area of Contraindications. Sweet Professor of Applied and Engineering Physics, have figured out how to quantify the strength of current-induced torques used to write information in memory devices called magnetic tunnel junctions. The electrical resistance of the device is different for parallel and nonparallel orientations of the magnetic electrodes, so that these two states create a nonvolatile memory element that doesn't require electricity for storing information. This limits their size and efficiency because magnetic fields are long-ranged and relatively weak, so that large currents and thick wires are needed to generate a large-enough field to switch the device.
Instead, they use a mechanism called "spin torque," which arises from the idea that electrons have a fundamental spin (like a spinning top).
They applied torque to the magnetic tunnel junctions using an alternating current and measured the amplitude of resistance oscillations that resulted. Some rare atoms can store quantum information, an important phenomenon for scientists in their ongoing quest for a quantum Internet. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The way the electric field component interplays with the atoms in a material largely determines how light interacts with matter.
The separation between the spheres was large enough that the researchers could see them individually under an optical microscope. This, in turn, supported an oscillating magnetic field in the middle of the particlea€”a so-called magnetic dipole (see image).
The team predicts that more sophisticated fabrication techniques will soon enable greater control over a nanoparticle's size and shape, thus enabling selective tuning of its optical properties. The illustration is misleading and fails to show that oscillating dynamic fields were found. Partly this is related to the multiple levels of confusion - the mix up between magnetic, electromagnetic and RF (e.g. The application of energy to the tissues will result in a physiological change or stimulation, which can in turn be used to generate therapeutic effects (Watson, 2008, 2010). Laser light is preferentially absorbed in the superficial, preferably vascular tissue, and thus, this is the site of its dominant effect in the clinical environment. This paper will explore the basic principles, the tissue responses to the applied energy and the clinical uses for which there is clinical evidence of efficacy. As with other energy forms (laser and pulsed shortwave for example) there is not yet absolute agreement with regards the critical parameter(s) when it comes to clinical dose. Whilst this is clearly (as above) not the only significant measure, it remains one of primary importance.
In the systematic reviews (see Colbert et al, 2008 for details) the treatment durations varied from 3 minutes at the lower end of the scale right through to a continuous application for 6 months!
Energy delivery at the target may involve manipulating the machine parameters to get the desired field at the target depth. The electric field depicts the force exerted on other electrically charged objects by the electrically charged particle the field is surrounding. The electric and magnetic fields are not completely separate phenomena - and it is therefore most commonly to explain them as a combined phenomenon - the electromagnetic field - which includes both components. Both exist, both are delivered to the tissues, and both have been shown to have a therapeutic effect.
It is suggested that there are hundreds of cell, animal and clinical studies which have identified the mechanism(s) through which magnetic therapy is capable of having an effect. Whilst none of these have, as yet, achieved full consensus amongst researchers, that would be common to other energy based modalities.
The likely (proposed, most strongly supported and reasonably evidenced) pathway is that the magnetic field affects the signal transduction pathway, ion binding and ion transport. Shen et al (2010) provide some useful insight with regards the role of MLCK outside the muscle contraction effects, relating to pathology, inflammation and microvascular flow. One would certainly not want to restrict the clinical applications to these fields, just that they are the strongest evidenced to date.
More recently (last 20 years or so), systems are applied externally, using a time varying (pulsed) electric signals, driven through a magnetic coil placed around the limb. Most of the work has involved the delivery of PEMF energy using dynamic fields, and it is considered (Bassett 1987) that it is the electric component rather than the magnetic component that has the primary effect.
This type of trial should provide useful clinical data on which to base future intervention. The adverts (web, newspapaer) to which they respond make a variety of interesting claims, some of which are probably supportable from the evidence, others rather less so. The therapy was delivered via a mat which the patient used (laid on) for 30 minutes a session, 2 x daily for 3 weeks.
Ohkubo and Okano (2011) evaluated static magnetic field effects (1-600mT), linking NO and Ca++ mechanisms plus sympathetic nerve responses. Steyn (2000) evaluated a static magnetic field on blood flow in the horse metacarpus using a magnetic wrap for 48 hours. Isahov et al (1996) used static magnetic therapy as a means to influence the healing of stump wounds in diabetic amputee patients.
It would appear that magnetic based therapy has the potential to positively influence wound healing, though the difference in positive and negative outcomes may simply reflect a dose based function which has yet to be resolved. It may transpire that magnetic based therapiees are effective in this clinical domain, but the evidence is not there yet. The real therapy generated significant reduction in pain (over 4 points on a 10 point VAS scale - which is highly clinically significant).
Significant reductions in pain (57% at 1 hour, 300% at 5 hours and a 2.2 fold reduction in pain medication use when treatment and placebo groups were compared.
The demonstrated significant pain relief in the treated group compared with the placebo group. When the electrons interact with the magnets in the tunnel junctions, they transfer some of their angular momentum. Since the resistance depends on the relative orientation of the two magnets in the tunnel junction, the size of the resistance oscillations could be related directly to the amplitude of the magnetic motion, and hence to the size of the torque.
With visible light, however, the influence of the magnetic component is usually much smaller. A more diverse choice, however, would open the door to a whole host of novel optical devices. They could also see that the nanoparticles scattered light of all colors in the rainbow, from red to violet. With visible light, however, the influence of the magnetic component is usually much smallera€¦ This is familiar to us, but what seems to be the problem is that conventionally electromagnetic wave could propagate without using any medium as carrier, how it could be something like that!
It can be easily installed onto the cleaning carrier (into its front or rear part) or, possibly, onto forklift trucks. We are committed to exceeding our customers’ expectations by providing high quality radiation sources, NDT products, digital products, and security X-ray systems. This paper focuses on the development of a handheld sensor that can be used for the noninvasive diagnosis of compartment syndrome.
Each type of energy will have different absorption in the tissues, so that even if their effects have a commonality, where those effects are achieved will be different for the various energies.
Different research programmes, journal publications and manufacturers cite different components of the therapy dose, which makes meta analysis and dose generalisations particularly problematic. The optimal bio and clinical effects are achieved with this combined optimal dose combination.
There are geomagnetic fields (related to the Earth's magnetic core) but we will concentrate on electromagnetic fields generated or applied as a therapy tool or device.
Some devices deliver predominantly electric or magnetic energies, but it is difficult to argue that they are purely one or the other. Probably the most comprehensive recent review (other than in textbooks) is that by Funk et al (2009) who look at electromagnetic effects from a cellular level right through to medical applications.


Markov (2007) has provided a reasonable review of the current state of these models for those with an interest.
Ca ions are the strongest evidenced (as they are with ultrasound, laser, microcurrent and other therapies). There certainly appears to be a strong relationship between MLCK and microvascular permeability. Colbert et al (2009b) write some useful notes with regards running clinical trials with magnetic field therapy - and even if you are not inclined to run a trial, they are useful if you, as a reader, want to evaluate the quality of a trial that is in print.
There are literally hundreds of cell based studies which have reviewed and demonstrated cell level effects from these therapies at these low doses. At the present time, the weight of the evidence falls in favour of PEMF applications, using a dynamic electric current to generate a varying electromagnetic field.
Their review is primarily related to animal studies, though it does provide potentially useful information relating to therapy effects. They were not able to identify any significant difference between treated and control limb blood flow (perfusion). They consider therapy effects together with environmental exposure to EM fields in an insightful review.
They also consider (in a review style) treatment for chronic back pain and soft tissue injury.
There were no major changes in wound cytokines other than a reduced interleukin-1β (27%) in the treated group. The device was small, worn on a wrist strap and delivered both static and varying (20Hz) magnetic fields.
The treatment group demonstrated significant pain relief compared with the placebo group and functional improvements were also significant for the treatment group. It may transpire that this therapy is useful for local vascular and microcirculatory effects and for soft tissue problems (after injury) but the supportive published evidence is not yet available. This can provide a very strong torque per unit current, and has been demonstrated to be at least 500 times more efficient than using magnetic fields to write magnetic information, Ralph said. Arseniy Kuznetsov at the A*STAR Data Storage Institute, Singapore, and coa€?workers have now created tiny spheres of silicon that can strongly interact with the magnetic field of visible-wavelength light.
Negative permeability, for example, could be used to create high-resolution lenses and even invisibility cloaks.
Analytical development of the sensing principle is first presented in which a relation is obtained between the pressure in a fluid compartment and the stiffness experienced by a handheld probe pushing on the compartment. Valbona et al, 1997) achieves significant pain relief when compared with a placebo application and static magnets, embedded in footwear have been shown to achieve pain relief in patients with  peripheral neuropathy (Weintraub, 1998).
In their review, Colbert et al identify 56 clinical studies involving magnetic therapy in which the majority fail to provide sufficient dose information for the actual field being delivered to be evaluated. The further one moves away from this optimal position, the less effective the intervention. A magnetic field is a mathematical description of the magnetic influence of electric currents and magnetic materials - it all starts to get a bit tricky! Even for a simple static magnet, the delivered energy will bring about some induced electric effects based on relative movement between the magnetic field and the underlying tissue.
Be warned - this (unusually) is an 87 page review - just before you hit the print key and then regret it!
Whether this is relevant to therapeutic effects remains to be seen, but it is currently a strong contender. Essentially an electric current in the applicator drives an electromagnetic field, and this in turn brings about small electric field changes in the tissues - induced - not direct - which are responsible for the physiological and therapeutic effects. They include membrane effects (like the Ca ion channel changes) and cytokine mediated effects (e.g. This is sent to the tissues in which local bioelectric currents are induced, and it is these that are believed, and most strongly evidenced to positively influence bone repair. Treatment was for 30 minutes every 4 hours (automatic) for days 1-3, 30 minutes every 8 hours for the next 3 days then 30 minutes every 12 hours thereafter till 8 days.
The electrical power of the device is identified, but not its applied field strength, thus it is difficult to identify the strength of the PEMF therapy received by the patient. The treatment was clinic based (no a small portable device - more like a classic pulsed shortwave in terms of size). The machine Medtronic R30) delivers 2T per pulse with 200 trains of 5 pulses delivered at 10Hz. These engineered 'magnetic materials' enable new ways of controlling light at the nanoscale. As no such materials exist in nature, scientists have started to develop metamaterials, which are artificial structures engineered to interact with light in a desired way.
Then a handheld sensor that can measure stiffness of an object without requiring the use of any inertial reference is presented. If one wants to, one can make the picture sound clear as can be - and some of the manufacturers do just that.
An electrical conductor in a static magnetic field (derived from a static magnet -not pulsed, not moving) will not exhibit any response. In these cases, the static magnet will have moved relative to the tissue by virtue of either blood flow in the case of the trigger point, or by virtue of foot loading and activity in the case of the peripheral neuropathy. Interestingly, in the Al Mandeel and Watson (2006) audit on pulsed shortwave therapy by therapists in the UK, when examining clinical records for the therapy being used, not one of the treatment note records examined included all dose related information that would be necessary for replication of the treatment dose. Sending XX amount of energy into the body in a single 45 minute session can not be expected to have the same effect as delivering it 24 hours a day over say a 1 week period.
There are B and H magnetic fields, but we will leave them to one side for the moment - you can always look them up in a physics text (or good old Wikipedia of course!).
For the sake of this paper, we will assume that both energy fields are in some way responsible for the therapy effect. Myosin light chain kinase (MYLK or MLCK) is an enzyme strongly associated with muscle activity, though its role is not confined to muscle biochemistry.
The mat produced an EM field with a mean strength of 40mT delivered in a pulsed mode at a range of frequencies between 0.1 and 64Hz. The lack of significant effect may therefore simply be a demonstration that sufficient magnetic energy needs to be delivered in order for therapy based effects to be achieved. The results show better improvement in the treatment group compared with the placebo group, though they did not generally reach statistical significance. The pain reduction in the treatment group was at over 60% compared with 6% in the placebo group. Kuznetsov and co-workers have shown that nanoscale engineering provides a way of tuning the magnetic properties of silicon nanoparticles. The handheld sensor consists of an array of three miniature force-sensing spring loaded pistons placed together on a probe.
Conversely, a static electric field will not induce magnetic responses in a material - one or the other has to be moving in order for the effect to be achieved. The point is that this is not confined to magnetic therapy - though of course this does not excuse the problem.
Calmodulin activates this enzyme, so if the magnetic field effect increases Ca++ ion transport, resulting in a change of calmodulin activity, and thus an alteration of enzyme activity, a potential chain reaction linking therapy to biological effect can be recognised. Whatever the final outcome (non-thermal or micro-thermal), there is no significant heating of the tissue with these therapies, even when applied for prolonged periods of time. Funk et al (2009) provide a reasonably succinct summary as do other reviews identified in the ref list. Various nerve conduction tests were included, though no significant changes were identified between treatment and sham groups. This is not a 'gentle' therapy - the power was adjusted such that visible muscle twitching was minimised!
Funk et al identify at least 7 different cell membrane based mechanisms through which magnetic and electric fields can influence activity (see figure 34 page 242). The ratio of forces between the stiff and soft springs is proportional to the stiffness of the soft object against which the probe is pushed. Bassett (1987) provides a simpler, but none the less useful consideration of how pulsing EM fields influence physiological activity.
Small millimeter-sized magnets on the pistons and magnetic field measurement chips are used to measure the forces in the individual pistons.
Experimental results are presented using both an in vitro pneumatic test rig and a compliant agarose gel chamber that replicates a fluid pressure compartment. The developed sensor has the potential to be useful for convenient handheld diagnosis of compartment syndrome in traumatic extremity injuries.




American sniper movie youtube free movie
Electromagnetic pulse on humans 666
Free movie tickets contest
Lion movie national geographic youtube


Comments to “Devices to measure magnetic field 2014”

  1. su6 writes:
    For young young children that the expense of the box and decide the price per.
  2. dfdf writes:
    Most of its oil from the Persian.
  3. Nikotini writes:
    Can develop a post nuclear EMP attack and other.