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I beheld the earth, and, lo, it was without form, and void; and the heavens, and they had no light.
Over the past several decades, there have been a steadily increasing number of archaeological discoveries, which, because of their mysterious and highly controversial nature, have been classified as a€?out-of-placea€™ artifacts, artifacts we call Ooparts. As ancient artifacts arise which baffle orthodox science we can systematically look for clues in these anomalies or Ooparts, a pattern, which indicates that ancient civilizations had a highly advanced technology. This disk is made of black stone and measures about 22 cm in diameter, and weighs 2-kilo grams. Furthermore, population studies have further revealed that the population was approximately nine billion, which is by far larger than our population today.
It should nto come as a surprise that science is unable to firnd direct, solid evidence of antediluvian culture. Follow the pure doctrine of Lucifer, and end your suffering over the wealth that you so desire.
As a messenger, who was given the opportunity to return for a short while, I can, through the power of Jesus Christ, I can tell you right here and now that you, Mr. Did you realize that some amazing Info has been obtained by several Remote Viewers who have viewed aliens! But now, using the same procedures used by the military to spy on enemy targets, with a very high success rate, some of these military remote viewers have actually spied on aliens! And what I find interesting is that some of these aliens have even been able to communicate back with these remote viewers! Lyn, you now exceeded … I thought you were smart, but with this kind of matter and the allegations made by you, I realize that my impression was wrong about you. Instead of trying to provide some evidence, you just repeat yourself like a trained parrot.
Very Clear Image of Multiple GREYS 2 Standing on a Rock and a few on ground in back, and several others scattered around area. I had an open mind about the age of the earth and tended to lean towards the Gap Theory, which allows for a time gap between the first two verses in Genesis. Such places as Gobekli Tepi in Turkey seem to have no real explanation unless they are part of this preadamite culture.
The Epic of Beowulf from Anglo-Saxon times ( ie before 1050 ) gives a very clear description of the juvenile creature called Grendel which Beowulf killed by wrenching one of its tiny front legs off.
Dont you think CATTLE would have been obliterated & DEVOURED off the face of the earth with DINOSAURS present?
Because I am posotive “CATTLE” wasnt the word meant to be there , so how many other words have been changed that many of us billions of believers have been completely oblivious to? So wake up to your PRIDE and start doing some soul searching about how YOU are persecuting YOUR OWN BROTHERS AND SISTERS!
At the Annual General Meeting, Monday, April , 2010 a slate of officers and directors will be elected to manage the affairs of the club for the coming year. A number of organizations and like-minded people are gathering to launch a new endeavor that will bring students of the Grey and Bruce area and parts of Wellington and Huron counties, together to learn, appreciate and celebrate our local forest heritage. The Bruce Grey Forest Festival will involve many different local environmental groups and associations, ministries, stewardship councils, conservation authorities, local industry and volunteers from the community as well as the appropriate school boards. Only one other forest festival of this kind exists in Ontario - in October 2008, the Carolinian Forest Festival was held at Jaffa Environmental Education Centre and Springwater Conservation Area near St. The Bruce Grey Forest Festival will take place at Allan Park Management Unit October 19, 20 & 21, 2010. This old-fashioned event features plenty of pancakes and real maple syrup in addition to countless activities for the entire family.A  This year, the event will feature a unique and rare collection of insects from around the world (hosted by Orkin)! Recently placed on the endangered species list Butternut trees are in great danger of becoming extinct. If you think you have Butternut trees on your property please consider attending this free workshop. Youa€™ll Learn About: The tree, the disease and how you can get involved with its recovery. On the morning of September 26 a dozen SFN members set out in a light drizzle to explore the section of the Bruce Trail that passes through the upper portion of the proposed Malcolm Bluff Shores Nature Reserve north of Wiarton in the Bruce Peninsula.
Eleven-year-old Luke in his bright red ball cap was the trailbreaker and leader most of the way. Dave, Jerry and Joan kept watch for birds which were rather scarce but they pointed out small groups of chickadees and kinglets gleaning insects from the shrubs and trees along the cliff edge.
Clarke drew attention to some of the geological features, including terraces of the Amabel, Fossil Hill and Manitoulin formations, the beginnings of crevice caves and a dramatic unspoiled alvar area. Photographers John, Gerard and Doug were busy documenting the outing in the soft autumn light. All of us, including Janice and Herb, enjoyed the exercise, fresh moist air, scenic views and natural richness of the property. We may plan a spring birding and wildflower outing along the logging road on the lower level of the nature reserve. Since Kinghurst became a nature reserve and SFN became the stewards Ontario Nature and the SFN have faced a dilemma regarding what to about the cabin on the Harrison tract. Various groups doing inventories, research or stewardship projects have used it as a as a shelter, a€?research stationa€? and storage area. Porcupines chewed through the fascia, soffit and a portion of the roof during the years of indecision. The first step was to replace the deteriorating asphalt shingles with excellent quality metal roofing. Jerry and I attended the North American Bluebird Convention at the Burlington Botanical Gardens Sept 8-11th There were 105 people registered from all areas of the U.S. On May 5th the Saugeen Field Naturalists had an evening wild flower walk through the southeast side of Kinghurst.
We have had a very early spring this year so the flowers we saw were different than you would normally see on an early May walk at Kinghurst. Here is our species list: Wild leek leaves were up and the Trout lily flowers were fading, Common blue violet, Wild strawberry, Marsh Marigolds, common blue eyed grass, Hairy Solomon Seal, white Trilliums False Solomon Seal, Canada Mayflower, Downy yellow violet, Bloodroot, Toothwort, Maidenhair Fern, Ginger, Long spurred Violet, Ostrich fern, Royal Fern, Sensitive Fern, Jack in the Pulpit, Large Flowered Bellwort, Harts tongue Fern, hooked Crowfoot, Showy Orchids in bud, Meadow Rue, Foam flower, Canada violet, Gooseberry, Squirrel corn, Glaucous Honeysuckle, Dwarf Canada Primrose, and White Baneberry. On June 12, 2010 Joan and Walter Crowe led our group of 9 eager participants on a wildflower tour of Grey and Bruce Counties. We headed for the Sauble Beach area just in time to meet up with one of our sister clubs (Stratford Field Naturalists) who led us to our first orchid of the day a€“ Hookera€™s Orchid (a a€?lifea€? orchid for many in the group). All in all we came up with (at least the ones I could remember to record) 48 species of flower of which 9 were orchids. We also had several feeder watchers who called and sent their numbers in via email they were Louise, Barb Doerr, and the Kaufman brothers. A special thank you to Charlene who prepared a great meal for everyone at the wrap up and tally at the end of the day. Two additional species were recorded as count week birds but will not appear on final totals.
Fifteen years ago, Nancy Griffin, Educational coordinator for Saugeen Valley Conservation Authority (SVCA), had an idea to educate children about forests in a natural setting.
In the spring of 2009, 25 people from 15 organizations met as a committee to discuss the feasibility and structure of the project and composed a Project Business plan and a budget for $55,000. On November 13, 2010 our club made our first outing (following in the footsteps of our Junior Naturalists) to the Wings of Paradise now known as the Cambridge Butterfly Conservatory. We began our tour by listening to a presentation as part of the Butterflies and Blossoms Program.
The presentation was followed by a lovely lunch and then a personal guided tour of the facility. At the Annual General Meeting, Monday, April , 2010 a slate of officers and directors will be elected to manage the affairs of the club for the coming year.A  There will be two vacancies to be filled this year. Youa€™ll Learn About:A  The tree, the disease and how you can get involved with its recovery.
Longtime member Clarke Birchard was the recipientA  of the SFN Conservation Award for 2010.A  Clarke was presented with a beautiful Scarlet Tanager image created by John Reaume in recognition of his many years of dedicated conservation efforts. On May 5th the Saugeen Field Naturalists had an eveningA  wild flower walk through the southeast side of Kinghurst.A  There were 10 people out to enjoy the evening. Here is our species list:A  Wild leek leaves were up and the Trout lily flowers were fading, Common blue violet, Wild strawberry, Marsh Marigolds, common blue eyed grass, Hairy Solomon Seal, white Trilliums False Solomon Seal,A  Canada Mayflower, Downy yellow violet, Bloodroot, Toothwort, Maidenhair Fern, Ginger, Long spurred Violet, Ostrich fern, Royal Fern, Sensitive Fern, Jack in the Pulpit, Large Flowered Bellwort, Harts tongue Fern, hooked Crowfoot, Showy Orchids in bud, Meadow Rue, Foam flower, Canada violet, Gooseberry, Squirrel corn, Glaucous Honeysuckle, Dwarf Canada Primrose, and White Baneberry. In the spring of 2009, 25 people from 15 organizations met as a committee to discuss the feasibility and structure of the project and composed a Project Business plan and a budget for $55,000.A  October 2010 would be the first of annual events to take place at Allan Park. DESCRIPTION: During the Middle Ages the Greek tradition of disinterested research was stifled in Western Europe by a theological dictatorship which bade fair, for a time, to destroy all hope of a genuine intellectual revival.
Most Arab cartographers also used Ptolemya€™s instructions in the construction of their own maps. Over the years, these enlightened Arabs injected new life and a storehouse of knowledge into the relatively backward science of Western Europe, and, for centuries, Arab culture actually dominated the Iberian Peninsula and Sicily.
In the year 1138, the royal palace at Palermo, Sicily was the scene of a long-awaited meeting between an unusual Christian king and a distinguished Muslim scholar. The monarch was Roger II, King of Sicily; his distinguished guest the Arab geographer Abu Abdullah Mohammed Ibn al-Sharif al-Idrisi [Edrisi].
Al-Idrisia€™s writings tell us less about his own character and personality than about those of the man who became his host and patron.
Sicily in particular was an ideal meeting ground for the two civilizations a€“ Christian Europe and the Muslim Middle East. Early in the 11th century a band of Norman adventurers, the Hautevilles, had ridden into southern Italy to wrest it from the Byzantine Greeks and the Muslims, and in 1101 Count Roger da€™Hauteville capped his career by conquering Sicily.
Tall, dark-haired, bearded and corpulent, Roger, from a magnificent palace in Palermo, ruled his kingdom with a balanced mixture of diplomacy, ruthlessness, wisdom and skill that has led many historians to term his kingdom the best-governed European state of the Middle Ages. Rogera€™s interest in geography was the expression of a scientific curiosity just awakening in Europe, but inevitably he turned to a Muslim for help.
A few practical maps did exista€”marinersa€™ charts showing coastlines, capes, bays, shallows, ports of call and watering and provisioning placesa€”but in a typical medieval divorce of science and technology, these remained in the hands of navigators. To carry out the project, Roger established an academy of geographers, with himself as director and al-Idrisi as permanent secretary, to gather and analyze information. The academy began by studying and comparing the works of previous geographersa€”principal among them 12 scholars, 10 of them from the Muslim world. Al-Idrisia€™s two geographers from the pre-Islamic era were Paulus Orosius, a Spaniard whose popular History, written in the fifth century, included a volume of descriptive geography; and Ptolemy, the greatest of the classical geographers, whose Geography, written in the second century, had been entirely lost to Europe, but preserved in the Muslim world in an Arabic translation. After examining at length the geographical works they had collected, the king and the geographer observed that they were full of discrepancies and omissions, and decided to embark on original research. During this research, al-Idrisi and Roger compared data, keeping the facts on which travelers agreed and eliminating conflicting information. Finally, however, the long 15-year geographical study was finished and the task of map making began. Al-Idrisi explained that the disk merely symbolized the shape of the world: The earth is round like a sphere, and the waters adhere to it and are maintained on it through natural equilibrium which suffers no variation.
By al-Idrisia€™s time, Muslim astronomers had made great strides in methods of reckoning latitude. Al-Idrisi himself gave three figures for the eartha€™s circumference, without deciding among them: Eratosthenesa€™ approximately correct estimate, a slightly smaller figure arrived at by Indian astronomers, and a still smaller numbera€”though larger than Ptolemya€™sa€”which was apparently agreed on by Sicilian scholars.
On the disk, according to al-Idrisia€™s own account, were incised a€?by skillful workersa€? lines marking the limits of the seven climates of the habitable world, arbitrary divisions established by Ptolemy running east and west and bounded by parallels of latitude, from the Arctic to the Equator.
The map, written in Arabic, shows the Eurasian continent in its entirety, but only shows the northern part of the African continent.
The resulting book and associated maps which took 15 years to amass are, for this and the above reasons, unquestionably among the most interesting monuments of Arabian geography. Modern geographers have attempted to reconstruct the features of the silver planisphere by using a combination of the maps of Rogera€™s Book, which has survived in several texts, and its tables of longitudes and latitudes. Distortions, omissions, and misconceptions notwithstanding, the superiority of al-Idrisia€™s map over the world maps of medieval Europe is striking.
The first division of the first climate commences to the west of the Western Sea, which Idrisi called the Sea of Darkness. Following the Nile, still eastward, we find the nomadic Berbers who pasture their flock on the borders of a river flowing from the east, debouching into the Nile stream.
It is clear that the part of southern Africa which is extended far to the east is a legacy from Ptolemy, but Arabian seafarers had taught Idrisi that the sea was open in the east, and in his own commentaries he writes: a€?The Sea of Sin [China] is an arm of the ocean which is called the Dark Sea [the Atlantic]a€?. To the south al-Idrisi pictured a great river, the Nile of the Negroes, a composite of the Senegal and the Niger Rivers that flowed from Central Africa west to the Atlantic. Sicily, naturally, came in for special praise; it was a pearl of the age, and al-Idrisi told the story of the Norman conquest of the island by Roger da€™Hauteville, the greatest of Frankish princes, followed by the succession of the great king who bears the same name and who follows in his footsteps.
Idrisi was not, however, able to put the countries around the Baltic into proper shape, even though his notes show him to have been familiar with a great many places there, as in the rest of Europe. The impressive assemblage of facts from travelersa€™ accounts and geographical writings was interrupted now and then by fables, some taken directly from Ptolemy, some from popular folklore. Al-Idrisia€™s Rome had an oriental magnificence; ships with their freight sailed up the Tiber to be drawn thus loaded right up to the very shops of the merchants. The Arabs knew these islands through Ptolemy, and called them Jazaa€™ir al-Khalidat [The Eternal Isles], presumably a version of the Greek name.
After telling us that the Canaries had been visited by Alexander the Great and that the tomb of a pre-Islamic South Arabian king, made of marble and colored glass, can be seen on one of them, al-Idrisi gives the names of two of the islands. Even more interesting is al-Idrisia€™s account of an actual voyage of exploration into the western Atlantic, undertaken by 80 brave men from Lisbon whom he calls the mugharrirun, best rendered as a€?intrepid explorers.a€? The expedition must have taken place before 1147 - the date Lisbon fell to the Christians - but it is impossible to be more precise. It was from the city of Lisbon that the mugharrirun set out to sail the Sea of Darkness in order to discover what was in it and where it ended, as we have mentioned before.
The inhabitants of the island of al-Sua€™ali are shaped like women and their canine teeth protrude.
The island of Qalhan is inhabited by animal-headed people who swim in the sea to catch their food. Al-Ghawr makes sense; it means a depression surrounded by higher land, and occurs elsewhere in the Arab world as a place name. Al-Idrisi gives the names of 13 islands in the western Atlantic; a 14th, visited by the mugharrirun, is nameless. On his map, Idrisi shows a long string of islands in the Western Ocean reaching north from the equator to Brittany.
However, Arab geographers and astronomers were much too accurate in their latitude calculations to mistakenly spread the Canary Islands so widely over the ocean.
The three intermediate islands in the chain may be the first cartographic representation of the Azores. Idrisia€™s description of other islands in the Atlantic appear to have more to do with fanciful legends than with reality. Some of these islands resemble the islands of Irish legend, and the Arabs may have incorporated parts of the Celtic tradition into their own legends. At the latitude of Tangier, in the Grand Sea, there are situated islands named a€?The Fortunate Islands.a€? These are spread in the sea, not far away from the west coast [of Africa], the Barbary Coast. Al-Idrisi presented the planisphere, a silver celestial sphere and the book to his patron in 1154, just a few weeks before Roger died at 58, probably of a heart attack; he went on to compose another geographical work for William I, Rogera€™s successor. According to Arab sources, Idrisi composed yet another more detailed text and map in 1161 for Rogera€™s son William II.
In 1160, however, Sicilian barons rose in rebellion against William and during the disorders looted the palace; in a great fire in the courtyard, they burned government records, books and documentsa€”including a new Latin edition of Rogera€™s Book which al-Idrisi had presented to William. Since the barons had attacked the Muslims of Sicily with particular ferocitya€”killing, among many others, a famous poet named Yahya ibn al-Tifashia€”al-Idrisi fled to North Africa where, six years later, he died. As he had brought the Arabic text with him, however, his great work lived on, winning widespread fame, serving as a model for Muslim geographers and historians for centuries and providing the great Muslim historian, Ibn Khaldun, with practically all his geographical knowledge.
It is a curious thought that had Columbus been aware of the true distancea€”from al-Idrisia€™s estimatesa€”he might have hesitated to undertake his epoch-making voyage and might never have discovered that new world which came to light one morning on the far side of the Sea of Darkness. Idrisia€™s works are of exceptional quality when considered in comparison with other geographical writings of their period, partly by reason of their richness of detail, but mainly because of the afore mentioned a€?scientific methoda€™ that was employed, a procedure which was indeed unlike that adopted by most Latin scholars of that era. There is, however, a markedly retrograde character to certain portions of his work, such as East Africa and South Asia; despite his narrative of the Lisbon Wanderers (see above and Beazely, vol.
In view of its modernity and high intrinsic worth, it is difficult to understand why Idrisia€™s work, composed as it was at the chronological and geographical point of contact between the Islamic and Christian civilizations, remained so long un-utilized by Christian scholars in Sicily, Italy, or other Christian countries, until we remember that the primary - we might even say the sole - interest of the Latin West in Arabic literature centered on the preparation of calendars, star tables and horoscopes, and, to some extent, the recovery of ancient lore. Al-Idrisia€™s map places Gog and Magog in northern China, behind a great wall with a tower and a door; at the wall is an inscription, translated as a€?belongs to the Kufaya mountain range which encloses Gog and Magoga€?. The first translation known of Idrisia€™s work was published in Rome only in 1619, and then in a very much shortened form (the translator did not even know the authora€™s name). On the other hand, there is no question but that the Sicilo-Norman enthusiasm for geography exerted an indirect influence on the evolution of geographical knowledge, an influence that was to make itself felt more especially after the close of the Crusades period. Detail of the a€?The large Idrisi Mapa€? showing Europe and North Africa,a€? re-oriented with North at the top.
Reproduction and re-orientation of a map of the world adapted from the Muqaddimah [Introduction] to Ibn Khalduna€™s monumental work, The History of the World, 1381; derived from the 1154 al-Idrisi map. Objects and artifacts which are found in the wrong place and the wrong time which may give evidence of a Pre-Adamite earth. The pyramids of Egypt are among the most enduring and perhaps the most obvious signs of advanced ancient technology.


What’s fascinating is that it was written nearly two thousand years ago, and passed along by word of mouth from ancient times. An incandescent column of smoke and fire, as brilliant as ten thousand suns, rose in all its splendor.
Remember, Ooparts are about out of place artifacts and cannot be classified in any known system of culture. One side shows biological details like male sperm, female egg cells, and genitals, the fertilized egg, and a growing embryo. Researchers are plainly able to recognize the different phases of human gestation on the disk.
Interestingly enough, based on the genealogical list, the time between Adam and Noah’s flood was nearly 1656 years! The Bible makes it clear that the entire antediluvian world was in fact destroyed by the Flood.
Many are tuning into the consciousness of the great Lucifer through his servants, whom many call demons.
Adjust the contrast to low and brightness ( In the Viewer) While holding the Camera Up to the image on the computer screen, That's how I got clear shots as it acts as a magnifying glass and Filter, also tweak the colors in the Viewer settings to clear up any DISTORTIONS that the NASA Engineers installed OVER the IMAGES to HIDE THEM.
But after examining the logic and science YEC (Young Earth Creationists) present, it is clear the earth is not millions of years old. The Jeremiah quotation can’t really be slotted in to any scenario occurring between the Adamite creation and where we are today. Thus, the initial creation, in perfection, as we learn from Isaiah 45, 18, became without form and void, ie an angelic ( I am assuming ) rebellion occurred which was put down by the fierce anger of the Lord. Dr Mary Schweitzer in 2013 uncovered fossilized dinosaurs whose bones when cut open revealed flexible tissues and possibly blood cells. This idea is based on the success and experience gained from the Grey Bruce Children's Water Festival; a similar idea but with our forest resources as the main focus for this new festival.
We will be presenting curriculum based, hands-on, interactive and educational learning opportunities for grade 7 and 8 students from those schools to whom we traditionally provide programs (i.e. Such an undertaking will require planning and the gathering of resources; human, financial and material. The distant croaks of ravens were heard from time to time and a pileated woodpecker called loudly as it flew by. Some who walk 3 or 4 km for exercise a few times a week were amazed that it took us over 4 hours to hike the 5.3 km. Should it be demolished and removed, repaired and restored or just allowed to disintegrate on its own?
In the future it will be necessary to reduce the number of windows and replace those remaining and add new siding to the building. We had a dozen people turn up for the event and were fortunate to find 13 species in the few hours of trying. Further hiking in the area revealed a number of interesting plants and flowers including: Blue Bead Lily in fruit (aka Clintonia), Rattlesnake Fern, King Devil (aka Yellow Hawkweed), Mouse Ear Hawkweed, Goata€™s Beard (aka a€?Jack Go To Bed By Noona€? for the tendency of the flower to close by noon), Bush Honeysuckle, Bladder Campion, Birdsfoot Trefoil, Common Blackberry, False Solomona€™s Seal and our second orchid of the day a€“ Long Bracted Green Orchid (aka Frog Orchid) a€“ another a€?lifea€? orchid for many in the group. We found along the roadside ditches many beautiful species (that would rival many gardens) including: Kalma€™s Lobelia (aka Brook Lobelia), Pink Pyrola, Indian Paintbrush (aka Painted Cup), Wood Lily, Showy or Queen Ladya€™s Slipper, Royal Fern, Marsh Fern, Philadelphia Fleabane and Golden Ragwort. Here we were happy to see many Indian Plantain, a threatened species, doing quite well this year.
Here we saw Yarrow, Wormwood, Ox Eye Daisy, Yellow Sweet Clover, Heal All (aka Selfheal), Wild Columbine, Early Meadow Rue, Shrubby Cinquefoil (not yet in bloom), Bluets, Blue Flag, Common Blue Eyed Grass and the Slender Blue Eyed Grass. Joan and Walter were enthusiastic, knowledgeable and made wonderful leaders for this enjoyable outing.
Mike and Helen Beaulieu, Bob Gray, Natalie Gray, Kevin Kuipers, Charlene McNaughton, James Turland, Simon Turland, Ralph Knowles, Lynn Stoltzfus, Gary Nafziger, Jakob Natziger, Dave and Jean Schaus, Peter Kloestra, Byron Monk, Angus and Kathleen Inksetter, Gayle Schaus, John Reaume, Murray Townsend, Judith King, Clarke Birchard, Dorothy Kings, Kim Sayers, Jerry Asling, Minerva Cook, Sandra Powell. Great Horned Owl and Northern Pintail (last observed in 1983) could not be located on the count day itself, not for a lack of searching.
High school student volunteers would present the activity and adult volunteers would guide and instruct when needed and generally help to run the plans smoothly.
Interested community people and club members are welcomed to become acquainted and volunteer for the second festival. The hike started at Inglis Falls where we went down to have a look at the falls from both sides of the river.
Here we learned about creating a butterfly garden and each participant received a packet of seeds to get us thinking about next spring. We learned how to tell the difference between butterflies and moths (you need to look at their antennae) a€“ a beautiful display of Sunset Moths would rival any butterfly in their colours! A contractor advised that it would cost more for demolition and removal than to fix it up.A  So it was decided to start with the roof including soffits and fascias.
Everyone arrived right after aA  rain shower so everything smelled clean and sharper than normal. With this basis the Muslims combined the accumulated knowledge gained through exploration and travel. As his visitor entered the hall, the king rose, took his hand and led him across the carpeted marble to a place of honor beside the throne. Born in Ceuta, Morocco, across the strait from Spain, al-Idrisi was then in his late 30a€™s. Roger II, son of a Norman-French soldier of fortune who had conquered Sicily at the beginning of the 12th century, was an anomaly among Christian monarchs of his time. Captured by the Arabs in 831, the island had remained in Muslim control until the end of the 11th century. Four years later, he passed the territory on to his son, Roger, who in 1130 was crowned king as Roger II. His energy was a legenda€”one commentator remarked that Roger accomplished more asleep than other sovereigns did awakea€”and his court boasted a collection of philosophers, mathematicians, doctors, geographers and poets who had no superior in Europea€”and in whose company he spent much of his time. Christian Europea€™s approach to map-making was still symbolic and fanciful, based on tradition and myth rather than scientific investigation, and used to illustrate books of pilgrimage, Biblical exegesis and other works. He wanted to know the precise conditions of every area under his rule, and of the world outsidea€”its boundaries, climate, roads, the rivers that watered its lands, and the seas that bathed its coasts. Sicilya€™s busy and cosmopolitan ports provided an ideal place for such an inquiry, and for years hardly a ship docked at Palermo, Messina, Catania or Syracuse without its crew and passengers being interrogated about the places they had visited. This process of collecting and assessing material took 15 years, during which, according to al-Idrisi, hardly a day passed when the king did not confer personally with the geographers, studying accounts that disagreed, examining astronomical coordinates, tables and itineraries, poring over books and weighing divergent opinions. First, under al-Idrisia€™s direction, a working copy was produced on a drawing board, with places sited on the map with compasses, following the tables that had already been prepared. Although Ptolemy had discussed several kinds of projection (Book I, #119), the problem of flattening out the surface of a sphere so that it could be represented on a flat map would not be solved until the 16th and 17th centuriesa€”the Age of Explorationa€”and none too satisfactorily even then. Zach states in 1806 that a€?the oldest terrestrial globe that is known was made for King Roger II of Sicily in the 12th century, and is especially remarkable for the value of the metal which was used in its construction, this being 400 pounds of silver.
Below the Equator, an unexplored southern temperate zone was thought to be separated from the familiar northern one by an impassable area of deadly heat.
Two are in the BibliothA?que Nationale de France, including the oldest, dated to about 1300 (MS Arabe 2221).
From this reconstruction it is evident that, like Ptolemy, al-Idrisi pictured the habitable world as occupying 180 of the 360 degrees of the worlda€™s longitude, from the Atlantic in the West to China in the East, and 64 degrees of its latitude, from the Arctic Ocean to the Equator. Contrasted with the quaint and picturesque, but almost totally uninformative maps of the Christian scholars, the features of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East are easily recognizable in al-Idrisia€™s representationa€”Britain, Ireland, Spain, Italy, the Red Sea and the Nile. He had no doubt met travelers and merchants from Scandinavia at the court of King Roger and received important information from them, but we know that the Arabs too had connections with the Baltic peoples and also those in Russia at that time.
In Russia, winter daylight periods were so short that there was hardly time for Muslim travelers to perform all five obligatory daily prayers. Paris (Abariz) earned a condescending reference as a town of mediocre size, surrounded by vineyards and forests, situated on an island in the Seine, which surrounds it on all sides; however, it is extremely agreeable, strong, and susceptible of defense. The Strait of Gibraltar, according to Rogera€™s Book, did not exist when Alexander the Greata€”as medieval legend had ita€”invaded Spain. Discovered by Hanno in the fifth century BC, they were explored and colonized in 25 BC by Juba II, erudite king of Mauretania and husband of Cleopatra Selene, daughter of Antony and Cleopatra. Some sources speak of these islands as if they were legendary, telling us for example that on each of the six islands - there are in fact seven - there was a bronze statue, like the one in CA?diz, warning voyagers to turn back. The mugharrirun were so famous for their exploit that a street in Lisbon was named after them. A street in Lisbon, near the hot springs, is still known as a€?The Street of the Intrepid Explorersa€?; it is named after them.
It is hard to escape the impression that we owe the preservation of this account largely to the folk etymology in the last line. The Azores are named after a kind of goshawk - in Portuguese, aA§or - prevalent there at the time of discovery. The inhabitants threw stones at the travelers and hurt several of Alexandera€™s companions.
A small fresh-water river runs down from the foot of the mountain, where the inhabitants live. Al-Mustashkin is probably a corruption of al-mushtakin, meaning a€?the complainersa€? - appropriate enough for a population in thrall to a dragon. The Two Brothers could be the two small islands off Lanzarote in the Canaries, Alegranza and Graciosa, or indeed, any two prominent rocks off their coasts. This unnamed island, together with Masfahan, Laghus, The Two Brothers and possibly Sawa, are almost certainly islands in the Canary group. After describing the Canary Islands, Idrisi refers to an island in the Western Sea named Raqa, which is the Isle of the Birds, Djaziratoa€™t-Toyour.
Distinct from the Canary Islands were the Isle of Female Devils, the Isle of Illusion, the Island of Two Sorcerers, and the Isle of Lamentation [Gazirat al-Mustashkin], which was inhabited and fertile, with tilled fields, but controlled by a terrible dragon. An exchange of ideas and reciprocal influences between the two cultures certainly took place. This work is said to have been even more extensive than his earlier one, but only a few extracts have survived.
At the same time, the silver planisphere and celestial sphere disappeared, apparently cut up and melted down.
Although the Arabic text of Rogera€™s Book was published in Rome by the Medici press in 1592, it was not again available to Europeans in Latin until the 17th century. Certainly the influence of Idrisia€™s Geography could not have been great in the world of letters or else traces of it would more easily be detected in Western literature. An explicit reference to Dul-Karnaia€™in (an Arabic name for Alexander, among others) by the gate, leaves no doubt as to Idrisia€™s source.
Displays a Ptolemaic construction with an arrangement of horizontal divisions into seven parallel climate zones, originally oriented with South at the top.
The reason for this designation is that they are artifacts found in geological strata where they should not be found.
The Mahabharata describes the Vimana, which were ancient flying machines, as well as wars where horrendous and mighty weaponry was utilized. It was the unknown weapon, the iron thunderbolt, a gigantic messenger of death, which reduced to ashes the entire race of the Vrishnis and Andhakas. A prehistoric dating has been suggested for the stone, but this disk cannot be classified in any known South American system of cultures. I was given a unique insight and revelation through a very real near death experience, that I was given a 15% chance of survival, that heaven and hell are very real, that there is a Savior, Jesus Christ, and there is also a counterfeiter called lucifer, who’s sole purpose (pun unintended) is to remove every benefit of love God intended for you.
Having said that, it is curious that Jeremiah could go back to a time before the creation of his own species, to see what was going on. Subsequently, the earth was reformed, the lights came back on, and Adam was created to take over the management of earth.
Similarly, the massive stoneworks at Tarxien in Malta; maybe even the pyramids being discovered everywhere, and the cyclopean walls in various South American locations. She is trying to fit this discovery into the standard 65 mya paradigm, but, I feel, unsuccessfully.
Themes there included Forest Resources, Forest Ecosystems and Interactions, Climate Change, Biodiversity and Species at Risk, Stewardship and Conservation.
We stopped numerous times at the lookouts along the escarpment to enjoy views over the forest below and the water and islands of Colpoys Bay, sometimes through mist and fog, and once in filtered sunlight. Some botanical highlights were the abundance and variety of mushrooms including one log covered in oyster mushrooms, a choice edible.
When the old shingles were removed it was discovered that almost all of the sheeting on the west side was rotted and needed replacement. The survival of all of these species has been threatened and people are working on recovery programs for all of them.
Closer to Red Bay we stopped once more and sharp-eyed Luke Reaume was the first to spot the European Common Twayblade a€“ another life orchid for many of us again! The fen had many other wonderful species including: Water Cress, Round Leaved Sundew, Linear Leaved Sundew, Horned Bladderwort, Common Buttercup, many Pitcher Plants, one sedge that was easy to identify a€“ the Bog Cotton was plentiful as was the Cow Vetch along the roadside. The day itself started off with winds blowing from the SW and a fine snow falling through the day, temperatures were comfortable with a high of a€“3.
They searched for similar projects and found the Aylmer community planning to launch their Carolinian Forest Festival in October 2008. 160 high school students had volunteered to present at 31 activity stations, and over 160 adult volunteers functioned in a variety of tasks. Inglis falls is a cascade type of fall which means it hits rocks at several places in its fall.
Luke amazed the group as the only one able to tell the sex of a Monarch butterfly - that Junior Naturalist training is paying off! In addition they had captivating displays on a€?Atlasa€? the worlds largest Moth with a wingspan of 25-30 cm.
Memorable butterflies included the Blue Morpho, Common Mormon, Golden Birdwing, Rice Paper, Owl Butterfly, Rumanzovia Swallowtails, Small Postman, Velvet Rose and Zebra Longwings. Almost at once the two men began to discuss the project for which the scholar had been asked to come from North Africa: the creation of the first accuratea€”and scientifica€”map of the entire known world. After studying in Cordoba, in Muslim Spain, he had spent some years in travel, covering the length of the Mediterranean, from Lisbon to Damascus.
His co-religionists, commenting on his oriental life-style, complete with harem and eunuchs, disparagingly referred to him as the a€?half-heathen kinga€? and a€?the baptized Sultan of Sicily.a€? Educated by Greek and Arab tutors, he was an intellectual with a taste for scientific inquiry, and relished the company of Muslim scholars, of whom al-Idrisi was one of the most celebrated. Like Muslim Spain, it was a beacon of prosperity to a Europe caught in the economic slow-down we call the Dark Ages. In mathematics, as in the political sphere, al-Idrisi wrote of his patron, the extent of his learning cannot be described.
Picturesque and colorful, European maps showed a circular earth composed of three continents equal in sizea€”Asia, Africa and Europea€”separated by narrow bands of water. While medieval Europe had become fragmented and parochial, both politically and commercially, the Muslim world was unified by a flourishing long-distance commerce as well as by religion and culture. The commissiona€™s agents haunted the ports, and if they discovered a traveler who had visited any particularly exotic region, he was conducted to the palace at Palermo to be questioned by al-Idrisi or even by Roger. Then a great disk almost 80 inches in diameter and weighing over 300 pounds was fabricated out of silver, chosen for its malleability and permanence.
The great geographer Gerardus Mercator commented, If you wish to sail from one port to another, here is a chart .
A knowledge of this globe would not have come down to our day had not Idrisi, a famous geographer of that time, given an especial description of the same, under the title Nothatol mostak [Pleasure of the Soul].a€? According to other scholars it is more probable that the reference here is to a circular disc or planisphere made by Idrisi, or an armillary sphere, but not to a terrestrial globe.
Following the rough sketch prepared by al-Idrisi, the silversmiths transferred the outlines of countries, oceans, rivers, gulfs, peninsulas and islands to the planisphere. The planisphere showed the sources of the Nilea€”not explored by Europeans until the 19th century, but evidently known to 12th century Muslim travelersa€”and the cities of central Sudan. Al-Idrisi described the lost city of Ghana (near Timbuktu, on the Niger) as the most considerable, the most densely peopled, and the largest trading center of the Negro countries. Few cities are comparable in the solidity and height of buildings, the beauty of the surrounding country, and the fertility of the lands watered by the Tagus.
The Norwegians had to harvest their grain when it was still green and dry it at their hearths since the sun shines very rarely upon them. Because the inhabitants of Africa and Europe waged continual warfare, Alexander decided to separate them by a canal, which he cut between Tangier and al-Andalus (southern Spain).
A passionate art collector, Juba was also interested in science and technology, inventing a new method of making purple dye from the orchil plant - and the export of orchil from the Atlantic islands was of economic importance until early this century. But al-Idrisi tells of an attempted expedition to the Canaries in the late 12th century, during the reign of the Almoravid amir Yusuf ibn Tashafin. This is probably Tenerife, and the round mountain would be the 3,600-meter-high (12,000-foot) volcano called Pico de Teide. Eighty men, all ordinary people, got together and built a large ship and stocked it with enough food and water for several months.
The sheep are a problem, for the Azores were uninhabited when settled in the 15th century, and even if we slightly stretch the meaning of the word ghanam, which can also mean a€?goats,a€? we are still left with the problem of the origin of the creatures. There are many rivers and pools, and thickets where donkeys and long-horned cattle take refuge. There used to be a dragon in the area, and the people were forced to feed it with bulls, donkeys or even humans, according to the legend; when Alexander arrived, the people complained to him of the dragona€™s depredations.


Al-Sa€™ali is a word that refers to a kind of female demon or vampire; judging by al-Idrisia€™s description of the female inhabitants of the island, it is apt. This story of Alexander and the dragon echoes the Eleventh Labor of Hercules, the Golden Apples of the Hesperides, guarded by the dragon Ladon. It could be argued that the first six islands, spread over three entire climate zones between the equator and the Strait of Gibraltar, represent the six known Canary Islands, forced into this north-south alignment by the physical constraints of the circular map with its narrow band of the Surrounding Ocean.
The first two islands are the Canary Islands, properly shown in the first climate zone and carried forward from Ptolemya€™s map as the Fortunate Islands or Islands of the Blest.
This story may be a borrowing from Greek mythology, where a dragon guarded the golden apples of the Hesperides. In the 1400a€™s, therefore, Christopher Columbus had to rely on other sources of information. Unlike a multitude of Arabic writings of far less intrinsic value, the Rogerian Description found no Gerard of Cremona (translator of Ptolemy into Latin) to put it into Latin, and the authoritative geographical knowledge of the Western world was destined to develop unenriched by the treasures which Roger and Idrisi together had amassed.
Gog and Magog appeared on Arabian maps as Yajoj wa Majoj from the 10th century; they appear on Al-Idrisia€™s map of 1154 under the same names. The climate numbers are given along the vertical axis, and the ten longitudinal divisions are given across the top. The text was accompanied by 71 part maps, a world map and 70 sectional itinerary maps, representing the seven climates each divided longitudinally into 10 sections.
I beheld, and, lo, the fruitful place was a wilderness, and all the cities thereof were broken down at the presence of the LORD, and by his fierce anger. There appearances in these layers of geological strata (which are very ancient) give non-traditional science evidence of a preceding period of technical sophistication extending far beyond the inventive capabilities of the ancient peoples among whose remains they were discovered giving rise to great speculation. Incidentally, the fact that the Pyramids in Egypt have no hieroglyphics within them seems to indicate that they were not built by vainglorious men. Bishop Bell was buried in the 1400s or so beneath a stone slab in Carlisle Cathedral, around whose edges are portrayed obviously dinosaur-like creatures; there are also Roman mosaics featuring dinosaurs being attacked by humans, and bas-relief carvings at Angkor Wat in Cambodia featuring the same sort of creatures. This will be accomplished through over 25 different activity centres designed to allow students to connect and relate to their local natural environment while motivating behavioural changes and encouraging participants to become good local land stewards. The three day event was able to accommodate 30 classes but was overwhelmed when initial invitations revealed more than 90 interested classes. A.'s and other organizations has been organized to ensure access to as many funding opportunities as possible. We encountered several stands of beech drops, a natural rock garden of northern holly ferns and many colonies of maidenhair spleenwort on rocks and in cracks and crevices and numerous others.
Arrangements of Goliath Beetles, Longhorn Beetles, Rhinoceros Beetles, Scarab Beetles, Walking Stick, Leaf Insects and Owl Butterflies were but a few of the many dazzling displays. There were also a number of birds to distract us such as the many Zebra Finches, Ground Dove as well as Common and Painted Quail.
As a young man with poetic pretensions he had written student verse celebrating wine and good company, but in the course of his journeys he had discovered his real passion: geography. The occupying Arabs had built dams, irrigation systems, reservoirs and water towers, introduced new cropsa€”oranges and lemons, cotton, date palms, ricea€”and exploited the islanda€™s mines and fishing grounds.
Nor is there any limit to his knowledge of the sciences, so deeply and wisely has he studied them in every particular. The Garden of Eden and Paradise were at the top and Jerusalem at the center, while fabulous monsters occupied the unexplored regionsa€”Sirens, dragons, men with dogsa€™ heads, men with feet shaped like umbrellas with which they protected themselves from the sun while lying down (see #205, #207, #224, #226). The mission he entrusted to al-Idrisi was intellectually Herculean: to collect and evaluate all available geographical knowledgea€”from books and from on-the-spot observersa€”and to organize it into an accurate and meaningful representation of the world. Muslim merchants, pilgrims and officials used so-called a€?road booksa€?, itineraries that described routes, traveling conditions and cities along the way. What was the climate of the country, its rivers and lakes, mountains, coastal configurations and soil? All creatures are stable on the surface of the earth, the air attracting what is light, the earth what is heavy, as the magnet attracts iron. The mathematician al-Khwarizmi reduced Ptolemya€™s estimate of the length of the Mediterranean Sea from 62 to 52 degrees; the Spanish Muslim astronomer al-Zarqali further adjusted the figure to the correct 42 degrees. Roger II of Sicily had his world map drawn on a six-foot diameter circle of silver weighing about 450 pounds.
The Baltic area and Poland were represented much more precisely than on Ptolemya€™s maps, showing the fruit of the geographersa€™ investigations. In the fourth section of the first climate, al-Idrisi located the sources of the Nile in their approximately correct position, though he pictured the Nile of the Negroes as joining the Egyptian Nile at that point. The gardens of Toledo are laced with canals on which are erected water wheels used in irrigating the orchards, which produce in prodigious quantity fruits of inexpressible beauty and quality.
Juba populated the Canaries with Berber-speaking colonists, perhaps the ancestors of the Guanches. The admiral in charge of the expedition died just as it was about to set out, so the venture came to nothing. Then they set sail with the first gentle easterly and sailed for about eleven daya€™s, until they came to a sea with heavy waves, evil-smelling, ridden with reefs and with very little light.
The a€?sea with heavy waves, evil-smelling, ridden with reefs and with very little lighta€? can probably be ignored, for the passage is influenced by the a€?land of darknessa€? thought to exist in the farthest West, and the reefs may echo a passage in Platoa€™s Timeus which speaks of the shallows in the Atlantic marking the site where Atlantis sank. No large mammals are indigenous to the Azores, and sheep or goats could only have been brought to the island by previous mariners.
In the Arabic-speaking world, popular legend transferred a number of the heroic deeds of Hercules to Alexander - including the building of a land bridge across the Pillars of Hercules.
The wood is deep black, and merchants come to the island to harvest it and then sell it to the kings of the farthest West.
The same linear arrangement of islands appears on 14th century maps such as the 1351Laurentian portolano (Book III, #233), and, a full century later, on the Bartolomeo Pareto map (1455), since it was still impossible to determine longitude. The sixth island, shown opposite the entrance to the Mediterranean, would be al-Ghanam [Island of Sheep], Madeira. I think that Babcock comes close, but, rather than the cormorant, the bird referred to is the goshawk [Afar], a species of hawk that closely resembles an eagle and abounds in the Azores, and from which the entire archipelago gets its name. On the Island of Two Heathen Brothers, two pirates lived until they were turned into rocks, and the inhabitants of the Island of Kalhan had the bodies of men and the heads of animals.
Using a globe prepared by a German cartographer named Martin Behaim (Book III, #258), based on Ptolemya€™s miscalculations, Columbus also added in Marco Poloa€™s equally misleading estimates of distances and concluded, incorrectly, that by sailing west from Spain he could reach Japan or India after no more than a 4,000 mile voyage.
The consecutive numbers sometimes used to refer to the sectional maps are shown in the upper right corner of each section. They that see thee shall narrowly look upon thee, and consider thee, saying, Is this the man that made the earth to tremble, that did shake kingdoms; That made the world as a wilderness, and destroyed the cities thereof; that opened not the house of his prisoners? Evaluation and summaries indicate the Festival was well received and was successful in engaging participants' interest in conserving our forest resources. We saw Grass Pink, Yellow Ladya€™s Slipper, Bog Candles (aka Tall White Bog Orchid), Rose Pogonia (aka Snake Mouth) and another orchid new to the group a€“ Loesela€™s or Bog Twayblade!
The one in Chesley was already in ita€™s10th year and had done well with high school students teaching grade school students.
Nancy was gratified that her idea worked and established itself although she says that if it were not for the 300 plus volunteers, it would not have happened. Our second waterfall was Keefer Falls east of Owen Sound, it is a plunge type of water fall which does not hit rocks as the water falls. The one in Chesley was already in ita€™s10th year and had done well with high school students teaching grade school students.A  Nancy and Donna contacted various organizations of Bruce and Grey counties and came up with a list that might be sponsors and provide representation for an organizing committee.
He is responsible for singular innovations and for marvelous inventions, such as no prince has ever before realized.
His purpose was partly practical, but mostly scientific: to produce a work that would sum up all the contemporary knowledge of the physical world.
Other Muslim scholars, like the Iraqi astronomer al-Battani and the Persian al-Biruni (#214.3), composed tables giving the latitudes of leading cities.
The works of Al-Idrisi include Nozhat al-mushtaq fi ikhtiraq al-afaq - a compendium of the geographic and sociological knowledge of his time as well as descriptions of his own travels illustrated with over seventy maps; Kharitat al-`alam al-ma`mour min al-ard [Map of the inhabited regions of the earth] wherein he divided the world into seven regions, the first extending from the equator to 23 degrees latitude, and the seventh being from 54 to 63 degrees followed by a region uninhabitable due to cold and snow. The British Isles also were treated with a surprising insight, probably due to contacts between Norman England and Norman Sicily. It is a considerable island, whose shape is that of the head of an ostrich, and where there are flourishing towns, high mountains, great rivers and plains. Gradually, knowledge of the location of the Canaries was lost, even though Lanzarote, the island nearest the North African coast, lies less than 100 kilometers [60 miles] west of the mainland. Al-ldrisi says the admirala€™s curiosity was aroused by smoke rising from the sea in the west, probably the result of volcanic activity. Neither name is Arabic, nor do they appear to be transcriptions of Greek, Latin or Romance - but the fact that these two islands had names at all means mariners must have visited them, and the names are either native designations or hark back to some lost, perhaps oral, source. They were sure they were about to perish, so they changed course to the south and sailed for twelve days, until they came to Sheep Island, There were so many sheep it was impossible to count them, and they ranged freely, with no one to watch them.
The Azores lie almost 1,300 kilometers (about 800 miles) west of the coast of Portugal - one-third of the way to America. Some Greek mythographers thought the Islands of the Hesperides lay off the coast of North Africa, and we have already seen how al-Idrisi associates Alexander with two of the Atlantic islands. The island is said to have been inhabited in the past, but it fell to ruin and serpents infested the land. Al-Sua€™ali and al-Mustashkin both sound completely legendary, but there is nothing legendary about Hasran and Qalhan, which sound as if they might belong together. During the period of rediscovery of the Azores under Prince Henry the Navigator, these birds were supposedly responsible for guiding the sailors to these distant islands. According to one historian, friendly relations were established between the Sultan of Spain and the invaders. Helens that were 11 years old were sent to labs to test for their age, the range of estimates ranged from half a million years to 3 million years old.
It was the hope of the organizers of that festival that other Forest Festivals start up throughout the Province. Others belonged to a later tradition of systematic geography, like the 10th century scholars Ibn Hawqal (#213) and al-Masa€™udi (#212), who produced books intended as something more than practical guides for the tax collector or the postman: as additions to the fund of human knowledge.
An element of subjectivity entered into the fact that southern Italy was represented as larger than the north, and that Sicily occupied a substantial part of the Western Mediterranean, in contrast to Sardinia and Corsica, which shrank in scale.
This country is most fertile; its inhabitants are brave, active and enterprising, but all is in the grip of perpetual winter. The Greeks called the Canary Islands TA?n MakarA?n NA“soi [The Islands of the Blessed], and they were regarded as the furthest known land to the west.
In another passage al-Idrisi gives more details of this island - incidentally showing that a longer account of the voyage of the mugharrirun must have existed. In the 19th century, Carthaginian coins were found on the most westerly of the islands, Corvo - 31A° west longitude - and although the find has been questioned, the origin of the coins has never been satisfactorily explained. But if the word is Arabic, one would expect it to be preceded by the definite article a€?ala€?.
Since the only inhabited islands in the western Atlantic just before the coming of the Europeans were the Canaries, Hasran may belong to that groupa€”unless, of course, it is to be sought in the Caribbean! If the isle of Raqa is indeed one of the Azores, then the discovery of these islands occurred as early as the 10th century.
If you examine things, the evidence for a young earth is overwhelming, ita€™s not even close. In addition, scientific expeditions were dispatched to areas on which information was lacking.
Contrary to a still popular misconception that up to the time of Columbus everyone believed the world was flat, many scholars and astronomers since at least the fifth century B.C. Not surprisingly, the best part of both map and text, accurate and detailed, dealt with Sicily itself.
It forms an island 300 miles long by 150 miles wide: this is surrounded by the Nile on all sides and at all seasons .
Al-Idrisi gave the names of many English towns, principally ports, with the distances between them. They caught some of the sheep and slaughtered them, but the flesh was so bitter they could not eat it.
He says Sheep Island is large, shrouded in shadows, and filled with small sheep whose flesh is bitter and inedible. Corvo is marked on the Canterino map of 1351, where the name occurs as Corvini - considerably before its official discovery. Draftsmen and cartographers accompanied these expeditions so that a visual record of the country could be made. The greater part of the country is only habitable on the borders of the Nile for the rest of the country . Hastings was a considerable town, densely populated, with many buildings, markets, much industry and commerce; Dover, to the east, was an equally important town not far from the mouth of the river of London, the broad and swiftly flowing Thames.
In 1402 the Normans partially conquered them, meeting stiff resistance from the indigenous Guanches. They took some sheepskins and sailed on to the south for another twelve days until they sighted an island. Nearby is another island, called Raqa, which is the home of a red bird the size of an eagle, which catches fish in its claws and never flies far from the island. Certain adventures of Sinbad the Sailor, from Tales of the Arabian Nights, are almost identical to those of Saint Brendan. A pretty walk past a babbling brook and past several massive beech, hemlock, birch and maple trees. You may get there sooner or you may not get there as soon as you expected, but you will certainly get there.
In the mid-15th century, the Spanish took control of the Canaries and continued the conquest. The settlers quickly burned down all the forests, so it is now hard to know for certain, but some sort of scented wood may have once grown there.
But whether the Irish borrowed these myths from the Arabs, or vice versa, or if they both obtained them from an earlier common source is a matter of conjecture.
Al-Idrisia€™s silver disk, or planisphere, was a form of projection considerably in advance of others of its time.
Fighting was still going on when Columbus used the islands as the first stop on all four of his voyages to the Caribbean. They headed toward it in order to explore and when they were not far offshore, they suddenly found themselves surrounded by boats, which forced their ship to land beside a city on the shore.
A king of the Franks heard of this, al-Idrisi adds, and sent a ship to the island to bring him that fruit and some of the birds, but the ship was lost and never returned. We ended the day at a restaurant in Owen Sound and promises of a repeat of the waterfall trip in the spring. The Guanches were not finally subdued until the end of the 16th century, when they and their language virtually disappeared.
They saw the men who lived there; they were light-complexioned, with very little facial hair. And in the ninth century, 70 Muslim scholars, working under the patronage of Caliph al-Maa€™mun, gathered in the Syrian Desert to determine the length of a degree of latitude. There are arid wastes where one must walk two, four, five, or twelve days before finding water .
From the few words of Guanche preserved in the Spanish chronicles, we know they spoke a form of Berber, and were therefore probably descended from Jubaa€™s colonists.
Rather than rely on travelersa€™ guesses of distance, as previous astronomers had done, they used wooden rods to measure the road they traveled until they saw a change of one degree in the elevation of the polestar.
Yet when Europeans encountered them, they had no memory of the mainland; having no boats, they were unaware that the other islands in the group were inhabited. Their calculation resulted in a figure for the eartha€™s circumference equivalent to 22,422 miles, an error of 3.6 percent, almost as accurate as Eratosthenesa€™ estimate and a considerable improvement over Ptolemya€™s. On the fourth day a man who spoke Arabic entered and asked them who they were and where they were going and what was the name of their country.
They told him everything and he said not to worry, and that he was the kinga€™s interpreter. The next day they were taken into the kinga€™s presence and he asked the same questions they had been asked by the interpreter. They told him what they had told the interpreter the day before, of how they had embarked upon the ocean in order to find out about it and see the wonders it contained, and how they had come to this place. When dawn broke and the sun rose, we found we were in great pain because we had been so tightly bound.
One of them asked us: a€?Do you know how far you are from your country?a€™ a€?No,a€™ we answered.



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