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For natural disasters, 2011 started with much of Queensland, Australia, swamped by rain-triggered flooding. Munich Re produced this map showing where 355 natural disasters hit in the first half of 2011. Brazil also saw a natural disaster early in 2011 -- rain-triggered landslides that killed nearly 800 and left 14,000 homeless. Property damage from Japan's disaster was mostly homes and businesses, but included infrastructure like ships, railway lines and other transportation.
April's tornado outbreak was followed by a single twister that flattened parts of Joplin, Mo., on May 24, killing 159 people. Natural disasters across the globe have made 2011 the costliest on record in terms of property damage, and that's just six months in, according to a report released Tuesday by a leading insurer that tracks disasters.
Moreover, that record builds on a trend of recent costly years — which means more expensive insurance for consumers over the long haul.
The first six months saw $265 billion in economic losses, well above the previous record of $220 billion (adjusted for inflation) set for all of 2005 (the year Hurricane Katrina struck), according to Munich Re, a multinational that insures insurance companies. Japan's earthquake and tsunami last March account for the biggest chunk ($210 billion), as well as most deaths (15,500 dead with 7,300 still counted as missing), but even without that cost factored in, overall losses still exceed the 10-year average, the company stated in its half-year review (PDF file). After Japan, the costliest disasters so far this year were New Zealand's earthquake in February ($20 billion), the twister outbreak in the U.S.
2011 is "one for the record books," Bob Hartwig, head of the Insurance Information Institute, told reporters being briefed on the study. For the United States, 98 events (storms, flooding, fires and earthquakes) left $27 billion in economic losses, more than double the 10-year average of $11.8 billion, Munich Re stated. The total number of events is trending up as well: The first half of 2011 has already produced more events than most entire years before 2006, the company found. 2011 will go down as "the year of the tornado," predicted Carl Hedde, a risk analyst at Munich Re. Munich Re wasn't shy about drawing a connection between climate change and what it sees as longer windows for extreme weather.
There is "higher potential of thunderstorm development in the last decade" and "more dates per year during which storms can develop," he added.
Munich Re has factored in increased population, and thus more property, to see if those are behind the rise in economic losses.
But the data show those alone "cannot explain" the increase, "so there is a significant trend in these losses," he said. Natural events like La Nina and El Nino, ocean cycles that alter weather systems, are certainly factors as well, but warming temperatures appear to be adding a layer "on top" of that natural variability, Hoppe said. He also cited a climate connection between Australia's severe floods and rising ocean temperatures off the coast there.
The enormous losses translate into more payouts by insurers, which reduces their bottom lines. While "rates do not bounce up and down based on events in a single year," the previous three years were also costly in the United States, Hartwig said. In the United States, the increase in events is "pushing up the cost of providing insurance in many parts," Hartwig said. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Hot on the heels of Yves Klein's media awareness, the idea of Warhol's approach would be to (ostensibly) politically subvert the symbology of mass consumption in a way which does not so much theaten the 'system' so much as co-opt it or build on top of it.
The appearance of Andy Warhol (born Andrew Warhola) 'on the scene' was generally considered a harbinger of change - an antidote for, and death knell of - a now-tired Abstract Expressionism in the community of the North American (esp.

A massive landslide occurred in the Las Colinas neighborhood of Santa Tecla, El Salvador, Central America as a result of the M=7.6 earthquake of January 13, 2001.
Rescue efforts are still under way at the Las Colinas landslide site, as preliminary reports have as many as 1,200 people missing. USGS has dispatched personnel, already working in Central America, to evaluate the earthquake and landslide situation.
Ed Harp, Landslide Emergency Response Coordinator for the USGS Geologic Hazards Team is currently in El Salvador with Jim Vallance from the USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory. The primary earthquake effect was structural damage to unreinforced masonry residential and business structures. View of headscarp of Las Colinas landslide showing fractures in Balsamo ridge behind the scarp. Rock falls in rhyolitic Tierra Blanca ash deposits near Lago Ilopongo showing location of structures near steep slopes in the ash. Earthquake-induced landslides occur in scattered pockets across the country, but the Santa Tecla landslide is one of the largest and is the remaining hazard of greatest concern. Ed recommends that Santa Tecla slide and the adjacent area be flown at scale of 1:6000 covering an area of about 5 x10 km.
The topographic effects of ridge apparently had pronounced effect of increasing the strength of the shaking intensity. Ministry of the Environment is overseeing effort to do this detailed crack mapping in a 1 x 5 km area.
Salvadoran officials need answers about how to deal with the landslide immediately and in the longer term: When can people move back in? In a general way, the geographic distribution of landslides roughly corresponds to the distribution of young ash, tuff, and tephra deposits on steep slopes incised valley walls and river channels.
In region to east and north of Lago Ilopango and some near Lago Coatepeque (east of Volcan Santa Ana).
PanAmerican Highway Closure: slides have blocked highway in area west of San Salvador, but major slide has blocked it east of Ilopango. South and Southeast have so far this year left $2.1 billion in damage, Munich Re says, and that figure will rise since many areas are still under water. This list is chosen by suggesting other artists, mostly working at the same point in time and whose work might evoke similar questions in the viewer.
Warhol's characteristically cagey responses to questions about his work do not get us any closer to the truth.
Numerous landslides have occurred around other parts of Central America, most notably those which blocked the Pan American Highway, at several points.
Ed, Willie Rodgriguez (USGS Puerto Rico district on special assignment to Guatemala for duration of the Hurricane Mitch Project) and Jim Vallance conducted reconnaissance studies of earthquake effects and landslides Wednesday in San Salvador, surrounding towns, and at Santa Ana volcano, about 60 km WNW of San Salvador. Geological Survey, has received flight support from the US military for 2 days and from the El Salvadoran military for 1 day.
Salvadoran officials want this area mapped in detail to determine what to do about the threat of further slides. They have the assistance of two consultants, (Spanish and Swiss) and some local technical people.
Pockets are scattered and not of as large a concern in terms of immediate threats to people, but they have disrupted transportation routes, in particular the PanAmerican Highway at several locations.
Rock slides and soil slides on flanks of Volcan San Vicente; rock slides on slopes of steep valleys incised into volcanic edifices. Here a steeply dipping joint surface has served as a slide plane and a large mass has collapsed onto the highway.

The death toll reached 280 people and damage spread across five states, including this area in Georgia's Bartow County. A firefighter on June 30 walks through an area burned by the Las Conchas fire near Los Alamos, N.M. Was he simply being playful, hiding a guilty truth or was it simply that he did not understand such relationships as they were purported to exist. The USGS earthquake, volcano, and landslide reconnaissance team had air support from the U.S.
Most buildings had no broken windows and collapse was scattered in the poorly built parts of the city. The team noted widely scattered evidence of liquefaction in the form of sand blows and flows. He spent part of his last day in the country (Saturday, 20 Jan.) on the ground at Santa Tecla (Las Colinas). In rainy season there may be some potential for debris flows that could affect local farms, but probably won't threaten major populations centers. Munich Re, a multinational that insures insurance companies, calculated that the Australia flooding left $7.3 billion in economic losses, making it the fourth costliest natural disaster in the first half of 2011. In Texas, more than 3 million acres burned, destroying some 200 homes and businesses and causing $50 million in insured losses.
According to the NEIC, the focal mechanism of the main shock (M7.6, Saturday, January 13, 2001) was 39 km deep, presumably in the subduction zone or lower plate.
This stronger shaking is also supported by the abundant network of cracks along the ridge crest. East of Usulutan adjacent to channel of Rio Grande; river cuts through small range and abundant flooding of this part of river during Hurricane Mitch.
The global bill was $265 billion, Munich Re said, well above the previous record of $220 billion in 2005.
The earthquake was a tensional event (normal fault dipping about 45 degrees) rather than compressional thrust. The team has heard apparently reliable but unconfirmed reports of landslide dams on streams and rivers.
Extensive network of cracks exists on the ridge crest in areas that did not slide; these are cause for additional concern. One strategy to mitigate this flooding potential was to create a diversion route through an abandoned paleochannel through the range; abundant slides occurred in the paleochannel which may affect the mitigation plan. Groundbreaking though they were, Warhol's machinations can also be seen as being as 'guilty' of the very same crimes that the work purports to criticise or subvert. Liquefaction may have been a factor in the failure of the Las Colinas landslide; possibly related to the tephras resting on less permeable paleosols. Should the area of steep slopes immediately adjacent to the ridge be forbidden for resettlement? The distal end of the landslide showed evidence of being "soupy" even though there didn't appear to be much clay in the deposits. Despite the uneasy relationships, the work endures a timeless symbol of 'the new' and stands to this day to denote 'Pop Art' with as much vigor as anything else possibly can.

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