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Disaster and ICT Systems in Japan December 2012 Michiko Fukahori Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Japan. Emergence of Network Congestion 12 Carriers restricted voice traffic by as much as 70 to 95 percent.
Locations of Damage to Mobile Networks 13 Area A Area B RNC Base stations collapsed or backup batteries ran out Cables cut off or duct destroyed Backup generators ran out of fuel because of long power outages Base station Communication cable Transmission line relay station Trunk exchange NTT central office (housing building) NTT central office, customer building, etc. Revision to Technical Standards on Measures for Countering Congestion and for Ensuring Important Communications Network design capacity and communications quality reporting, etc. Earthquake Early Warning System 18 Disaster management Organizations Immediate action against disasters Ensure Safety of residents Immediate action against disasters Ensure Safety of residents Ensure evacuation and safety Public Institutions (hospitals, schools, etc. 20 Information flow on Earthquake and Tsunami Seismic data Gathering System 4,200 sites around Japan.
22 Gathering and analyzing information on earthquake and tsunami EPOS Earthquake Phenomena Observation System Analyzes the seismic data for Earthquake and Tsunami.
23 Administrative Organ Telecom Carriers Media Japan Coast Guard Lifeline carriers Transportation facilities WEB Ministry for Land, infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) Fire and Disaster Management Agency CITIZENCITIZEN Delivering Information on Earthquake and Tsunami Local Government EPOS (Earthquake Phenomena Observation System) Japan Meteorological Agency Earthquake or tsunami warnings are instantly delivered to central & local governments, broadcasters, telecom carriers. Broadcasting Station Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) EEW EWBS Alert information in Program only Alert information with Switch-on signal of receivers Automatic activation !! One-seg Mobile TV Saved Many Lives during the 3.11 Disaster A huge earthquake struck on March 11 in the north-east area of Japan. 27 Mobile television – Example 2 - Two policemen saved 40 lives from the train with the tsunami warning alarm from mobile TV(one-seg) right after the earthquake occurred at 14:46 on March 11, 2011. 28 Emergency system for high-speed train Measuring equipment of earthquake on railroad Measuring equipment of earthquake around coast EARTHQUAKE Measuring Equipment of earthquake P-wave Main-wave S-wave STOP!! School children in An Giang Province in the Mekong Delta region in southern Vietnam walk home during flooding in 2005. The project has helped improve the disaster early-warning and forecasting capacity for the Southern hydrometeorology authority and also improved the planning capacity for integrated disaster risk management at both national and provincial level. Natural hazards have resulted in average annual economic losses estimated between 1 and 1.5 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) between 1989 and 2008.
Infrastructure and people have been increasingly concentrated in vulnerable areas such as floodA­plains and coastal areas, suggesting that disaster-related losses will even increase in the future.
Villagers benefited from the implementation of Safer Commune Plans, which have proven effective during floods and typhoons.
Communities are increasingly vulnerable to unpredictable weather patterns Normal 0 21 false false false FR X-NONE X-NONE ACTED has been operational in Karamoja since 2007, focusing its interventions on reducing communities’ vulnerability to drought. The four strategic components comprising the agreement’s first phase have already been completed as per the 2010-2012 timeline, including evaluating current measures, early warning systems, natural disaster prevention and mitigation, and post-disaster recovery. Disaster management and emergency response cooperation between ASEAN and its partners has delivered positive results from specific projects supported byJapan, Australia, New Zealand, the US, and the European Union (EU).
In his speech, PM Dung emphasized the priority afforded to disaster management in cooperation between ASEAN states and their partners.
Adopting the ADDMER will provide an important legal framework for expanding ASEAN’s natural disaster mitigation cooperation in the region.
Dung recommended the conference focus on enhancing coordination between ASEAN’s natural disaster management agencies, resuming regular ASEAN Ministerial Meetings on Disaster Management (AMMDM), ensuring the maximum available resources are mobilised for the proper implementation of projects.
He also underlined the need to formalise and integrate agreements and disaster management commitments into the national development programmes of each ASEAN member country.
The most pressing concerns should be installing early warning systems, raising public awareness, updating legislation, and upgrading natural disaster prevention and control projects, Dung added.
He expressed the hope that all ASEAN states, with political commitments and joint regional efforts, will achieve the goal of building an ASEAN community capable of coping with natural disasters in the most effective manner possible.
The region as a whole has a duty to strengthen its cooperative disaster management efforts in the interests of protecting its most vulnerable citizens. Recommend storiesNha Trang to create ecological beach parkThe central province of Khanh Hoa plans to make Nha Trang Beach an ecological park where seaside buildings can only have 40 floors at most.
High-rises along Nha Trang Beach are said to ruin the natural beauty of Nha Trang - once among the world’s most beautiful beaches. The government members from the 2007-2011 and 2011-2016 tenures met with newly elected government members at a get-together in Hanoi on April 12. Speaking at the event, former Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung and former National Assembly Chairman Nguyen Sinh Hung congratulated new Cabinet members on their recent election.
VGP - Newly-elected Government leaders and their predecessors (in 2006-2011 and 2011-2016 terms) met yesterday in Ha Noi right after the closing of the 13th National Assembly.
The Government has offered financial support to the Vietnam National Textile and Garment Group (Vinatex) for training the labour force in the textile and garment industry this year.
United States President Barack Obama will visit Vietnam in late May, according to Vietnamese Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs Pham Binh Minh. This is going to be the first time Obama comes to Vietnam during his two terms as US President.
Hanoi, April 11 (VNA) – National Assembly deputies approved the dismissal of several vice chairmen and members of the National Election Council and the NA Committee on National Defence and Security through a secret ballot at a meeting on April 11.
A weaving and dying production line of the Thien Nam Sunrise Textile JSC, which is funded by Vinatex, in Nam Dinh Province. An auto production line at Huyndai Thanh Cong Auto Plant in Ninh Binh Province’s Gian Khau Industrial Zone.
It will be a trial run for newly-launched Regional Tsunami Service Providers (RTSPs), located in Australia, India and Indonesia, which will issue simulated "alerts."A They are part of a region-wide tsunami warning and mitigation service, set up by 28 countries after the 2004 disaster, which claimed nearly a quarter of a million lives. Until now, two bodies - the Japan Meteorological Agency and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre - have been in charge of tsunami alerts in the Indian Ocean.A They will end this interim job at the end of 2012, provided the handover goes well. The test will also include the evacuation of coastal communities in several countries, notably India and Malaysia.A So far, 23 countries have signed up for the October 12 test.
They are: Australia, Bangladesh, Comoros, East Timor, France (La Reunion), India, Indonesia, Iran, Kenya, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan, Seychelles, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Thailand and Yemen. The Indian Ocean system was devised by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), a UNESCO body. An extensive severe weather outbreak is targeting the central United States, with the highest risk on Tuesday, April 26, 2016, into Wednesday, April 27. A new study, conducted by scientists from the University of Texas at Austin Jackson School of Geosciences, suggests the volcanic activity related to the plate-tectonic movements could have triggered climate changes in Earth's history. A large landslide triggered by heavy rains has killed at least 16 people in the north-eastern Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh, officials said.
After Atoyac River that disappeared when a huge sinkhole opened up on February 28, 2016, two more rivers in the mountains of the Mexican state of Veracruz are suffering the same fate.
Severe thunderstorms accompanied by heavy rainfall and very large hail have been sweeping the states in northeastern India, since April 18, 2016. A very large earth crack opened on Britain's Jurassic Coast after heavy rains caused thousands of tons of earth to give way on April 13, 2016. Southern and Eastern India are struggling with the consequences of severe drought caused by an early season heat wave and the lack of relief from monsoon rain.
Land and forest (or wildland) fire is a constantly occurring, globally-widespread phenomenon. Most global fire is unmonitored and undocumented so the record of wildland fire disasters is incomplete.

To mitigate fire-related problems and escalating fire suppression costs, forest and land management agencies, as well as land owners and communities, require early warning of extreme fire danger conditions that lead to uncontrolled wildfires.
Early warning of these conditions allows fire managers to implement fire prevention, detection, and pre-suppression action plans before fire problems begin.
The global wildland fire community recognizes that no individual country is capable of solving the problem of increasing fire activity and disaster fire occurrence on its own, and that greater international cooperation is required. FAO (2006) Fire management: review of international cooperation by the Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC). Fire danger rating is a mature science and has long been used as a tool to indicate the potential for serious wildfires. While there are many countries that have implemented fire danger rating systems, there are equally many countries that have no system in place.
The concept of a Global Fire Early Warning System for Wildland Fire (EWS-Fire) has a fairly recent history, and is supported under the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction.
The purpose of the Global EWS-Fire is to link the wide range of uniquely calibrated, national fire danger rating systems currently in operation, with a single set of fire danger indices that have globally-consistent calibration. Long-term early warning products (or seasonal forecasts) provide an indication of anticipated global trends in fire danger over the course of the upcoming fire season. The FWI System (Van Wagner 1987) was used for the Global EWS-Fire since it is the most widely used system, internationally. The Global EWS-Fire uses ground-based and remotely sensed data to prepare early warning products.
Global EWS-Fire products can be used to compare fire danger around the world because they use a globally-consistent calibration. There are a number of satellite data and modeling enhancements to the Global EWS-Fire that are being explored. IWFC (2007) Conference Statement , IVth International Wildland Fire Conference, 14-17 May 2007, Seville, Spain. Reporting to MIC of basic policy for network capacity and measures for usage restrictions and preferential treatment of important communications.
The earthquake monitoring system collates seismic data coming from seismographs installed in 4200 locations throughout Japan.
After receiving this warning, local government deliver alarm through their sirens or microphones.
They got a tsunami warning alarm from the passengers mobile phone with TV when checking if everyone is fine in the train.
It also provided investment support to improve the safety of disaster prevention infrastructure including safety of dams, safe-harbor for fishing boats, flood control works, etc., to make them more resilient. For instance, the Typhoon Xangsane in 2006 caused damage of US$1.2 billion in the 15 provinces in the Central Region. An estimated 70 percent of Vietnamese people are exposed to risks from natural hazardsa€”specifically in rural communities where livelihoods are most threatened. ARMIS also provides useful information on pest control, disease treatments, nutrient management, water conservation, planting dates and cropping patterns. Indeed, although, scientific evidence of climate change in Karamoja is scant, it is undeniable that the population has become less resilient to drought as traditional coping patterns have been eroded by insecurity, inadequate policies and high population growth. It consists of two equally important components: a network of sensors to detect tsunamis and a communications infrastructure to issue timely alarms to permit evacuation of coastal areas.
Such systems are capable of issuing warnings to the general public (via public address systems and sirens) in less than 15 minutes. As of April 22, 2016, more than 10 000 people across all 19 departments of the country are currently displaced due to flooding.
According to residents, more than 2 000 homes in Manipur and other buildings suffered extensive damage. Wildland fires currently burn 330-431 M ha of vegetation around the world, every year (Giglio et al., 2010). However, the existing record indicates that disaster fires occur in every global region, in every vegetated biome, on a regular basis. Fire danger rating is commonly used to provide early warning of the potential for serious wildfires based on daily weather data. The global fire early warning system is one component of A Strategy to Enhance International Cooperation in Fire Management (FAO 2006).
Fire danger rating is the systematic assessment of fire risk and potential impact, and it is the cornerstone of contemporary fire management programs. Where national systems are in place, there is also a wide range in their design and operational use. It is a Project of the Global Observation of Forest Cover and Global Observation of Landcover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD) Fire Implementation Team, which is comprised of numerous international wildland fire, remote sensing, and weather agency representatives.
The Global EWS-Fire is one component of A Strategy to Enhance International Cooperation in Fire Management (FAO, 2006). These global indices allow weather-based comparisons of fire danger across national borders and continents over a spectrum of time scales.
Short-term early warning products (1-2 weeks) provide information for large-scale tactical decision-making that requires 'spool-up' time to implement fire management action plans such as arranging the transfer of helicopters, fixed-wing air tankers, or fire fighters and equipment across international borders. As a brief summary, there are six components in the FWI System that reflect fuel moisture and general fire behaviour at a landscape scale, as influenced by weather (Wotton 2009, Fig. Calibrating the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC) with satellite-detected hot spots to construct a fire start predictor, or 'Ignition Potential' indicator.
As stated previously, this type of information is useful for making large-scale fire management decisions by understanding future fire danger trends across continents and over longer time periods. Advances in measuring spatial precipitation from space likely offer the single largest improvement to the accuracy of fire danger maps and could reduce or eliminate the need for spatial interpolation of precipitation from ground-based point sources. Interpreting and using outputs from the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System in research applications. Regular actual measurement and reporting to MIC of communications quality (connection quality, etc.). Takahashi, Senior Managing Director of TOYO KNIFE, an industrial cutlery company located in Miyagino district, Sendai City, immediately turned on the one- seg TV function on his mobile phone in his office, to which the power supply was cut off. They quickly decided to lead the 40 passengers to the hill to avoid the disaster of tsunami.
The project is aligned with the Vietnamese Governmenta€™s new National Strategy for natural disaster prevention, response and mitigation to 2020. Insecurity and demographic change in particular have led to reduced access to and overexploitation of already limited and fragile resources. Many global regions have reported increasing fire activity in recent decades, which is attributed to numerous factors such as climate change-altered fire regimes, rural-urban population shifts, and land use change affecting vegetation and fuel conditions.
Disaster conditions are defined as any wildfire(s) situation that overwhelms fire suppression capacity to the point that human life, property, and livelihood cannot be protected. Fire danger information is often enhanced with satellite data, such as hot spots for early fire detection, and with spectral data on land cover and fuel conditions. Numerous other weather-based systems and indices have been developed worldwide, although the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System remains the most widely used fire danger rating system internationally. In recent decades, as the severity of fire seasons increased in different regions of the world (FAO 2007), the global wildland fire community recognized the importance of greater international cooperation and sharing of information, skills, and resources (FAO 2006, IWFC 2007).

The primary purpose of the Global EWS-Fire Project is to develop a globally consistent suite of fire danger and early warning products to support international collaboration and reduce wildfire disaster. The objective of the Global EWS-Fire is to provide a scientifically supported, systematic procedure for assessing current and future fire danger that can be applied from local to global scales. They are provided as a supplement to national systems and serve to support large-scale bilateral fire management decisions such as suppression resource-sharing and resource mobilization in advance of disaster conditions, similar to the centralized decision-making of national fire management agencies with nationally calibrated systems. Early warning of 1-7 days provides information for strategic decision-making, such as pre-positioning suppression resources in the most critical areas to most effectively control new fires and contain on-going fires.
This example uses one year of MODIS hot spot data for sub-Saharan Africa and corresponding FFMC data for the hot spot location.
However, a single fire danger value has different meaning (in a fire management context) in different parts of the world because of differences in the local fire regime.
Remotely sensed fuel mapping is also being pursued to develop a global fuel type map, which would be a first step towards developing global fire behavior prediction models. Calibrating the Fine Fuel Moisture Code for grass ignition potential in Sumatra, Indonesia. Assessing variability and long-term trends in burned area by merging multiple satellite fire products.
Small scale experimental testing of fire radiative energy for quantifying mass combusted in natural vegetation fires. Fire radiative energy for quantitative study of biomass burning: Derivation from the BIRD experimental satellite and comparison to MODIS fire products. Disclosure in appropriate form of information helpful to users on basic policy for network capacity and on measures for usage restrictions.
All passengers were safely evacuated from the tsunami area before the tsunami struck the train.
Its ultimate goals are to minimize the loss of human life and properties and the environment, and to contribute to ensure the countrya€™s sustainable development, national defense and security. As a result, false alarms can occur with these systems, but due to the highly localised nature of these extremely quick warnings, disruption is small.
Approximately 86% of global fire occurs in grasslands and savannas, primarily in Africa and Australia, but also in South Asia and South America; about 11% (35-47 M ha) occurs in the worlds forests (Mouillot and Field, 2005). Besides the threat to human safety, these fires can also have serious negative impacts on human health, regional economies, global climate change, and ecosystems in non-fire-prone biomes. Normally, fire danger rating systems provide a 4- to 6-hour early warning of the highest fire danger for any particular day that the weather data is supplied. As a result, it became increasingly apparent that a common system was needed to provide global fire danger information and early warning of disaster conditions. As part of this process, fire danger and early warning information is made widely available to all countries through open access. For the many countries in the world that do not have the internal capacity to develop a national fire danger rating system, the Global EWS-Fire provides an operational fire danger rating system that can be calibrated to regional conditions. There are three fuel moisture codes representing the moisture content of dead fine fuels (Fine Fuel Moisture Code, FFMC), surface organic matter of moderate density, such as the F layer of forest soils (Duff Moisture Code, DMC), and deep, compact soil organic layers, such as the H layer of forest soils (Drought Code, DC). Similar calibrations have been done for SE Asia and for Central and South America resulting in very similar FFMC scale calibrations. The Global EWS currently provides 1-7 day forecasted FWI System data that are calibrated to commonly used threshold values that identify low to extreme conditions. For example, a Drought Code value of 500 may be interpreted as an extreme fire danger condition in northern boreal forests where there usually is frequent seasonal rainfall, but it may be considered a moderate or low value in drier biomes.
Analysis of communications status during usage restrictions Preservation and analysis of data on status of important communications and general communications during usage restrictions in the event of disaster, and continuing review of network design capacity and implementation rules for usage restrictions etc. Regrettably his office was located very near the port (about 500m from Sendai-Shiogama Port), so he and other staff did not have much time to evacuate, but 100 people managed to rush to a shelter on a hill. Then, data from observed sea level height (either shore-based tide gauges orA DARTA buoys) are used to verify the existence of a tsunami.
As well, the Global EWS-Fire Project actively supports projects to assist countries with limited fire management capacity in the local use and application of fire danger and early warning information.
The fuel moisture codes are also used to represent the moisture content of dead woody debris of different diameter classes. By using a globally-consistent scale, the Global EWS provides a means of interpreting and comparing relative fire danger conditions across countries, continents, and biomes. By the time they arrived at the shelter (Tagajyo Public Cultural Center) at 3:30 pm, the TOYO KNIFE office and factory had been completely destroyed by the long-lasting, huge tsunami. This extra time allows for greater coordination of resource-sharing and mobilization within and between countries. The Global EWS-Fire was officially launched and publicly available in May 2011 and system development is ongoing as new products are being designed. FFMC fuels are present in virtually all fuel types, and represent the component of the fuel complex where fires start and spread. All fire danger maps are supplemented with MODIS hot spot data for visual comparison with current fire activity. For that reason, the next stage in development of the Global EWS-Fire is regional calibration to adjust the fire danger scales using historical fire data (primarily remotely sensed) and weather data.
The use of remotely sensed fire radiative energy to estimate fuel consumption and carbon emissions is currently being studied (Wooster 2002, Wooster et al. Disclosure of congestion status Immediate disclosure of status of congestion and usage restriction in the event congestion occurs.
For example, it has been suggested that the duration and frequency content of t-wave energy (which is earthquake energy trapped in the oceanA SOFAR channel) is indicative of an earthquake's tsunami potential. As such, the FFMC serves as a universal indicator of potential fire occurrence, particularly for human-caused fires (de Groot et al.
It is envisioned that Global EWS-Fire products will be tailored in the future to meet specific international information needs for agencies such as the UNISDR, Food and Agriculture Organization, World Health Organization, and the United Nations Environment Program.
This procedure will calibrate the Global EWS-Fire to provide operational-level information such as potential for fire starts and difficulty of control. Announcements and appeals to avoid making inessential and non-urgent calls and to keep call time as short as possible, and to use communication methods other than voice calls, including emergency message services.
Takahashi said We couldnt watch TV because of the power cut, but we could get information on the disaster quickly from our one-seg TVs. Fuel consumption could also potentially be combined with satellite-monitored daily fire spread data to calculate fire intensity. The DMC is used as a lightning fire predictor in northern forests where lightning ignitions can smoulder in the duff accumulated on the forest floor (Wotton and Martell 2004). DMC and DC fuels are not found in the fuel complex of all fuel types, as this depends on vegetation litterfall and dead organic matter decomposition rates. Therefore, the FFMC has global application and the DMC and DC are only relevant in fuel types with significant organic soil development or dead woody debris fuel load.

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