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Disaster occurs suddenly and unexpectedly,disrupting normal life and infrastructure of social services including health care system. Poverty explains why droughts claim poor peasantfarmers as victims an rarely the wealthy, and why famines more other than not are the resultof a lack of purchasing power to buy food rather than an absence of food.Population GrowthThere is an obvious connection between the increase in losses from a disaster and theincrease in population.
In most disaster pronesocieties, there is wealth of understanding about disaster threats and responses. If there are more people and structures where a disaster strikes, thenit is likely there will be more of an impact. Thisunderstanding should be incorporated into any efforts to provide external assistance.War and civil strifeIn this text war and civil strife are regarded as hazards that are extreme events thatproduce disaster. Disaster are often classified according to their speed of onset (sudden orslow), or according to their cause (natural or man made)CAUSAL FACTORS OF DISASTER-The magnitude of each disaster, measured in deaths, damage, or costs for a givendeveloping country increases with the increased marginalization of the population.


The growth of population has been sospectacular that it is inevitable that more people will be affected by disaster because morewill be forced to live and work in unsafe areas. War and civil strife often results in displaced people, a target population ofthis training programme.The causal factors of war and civil strife include competition forscarce resources, religious or ethnic intolerance, and ideological differences. Other hazards, such as severe snowstorms, often occur in areas that are preparedto deal with them and seldom become disaster.However, from the perspective of a disastervictim it is not particularly useful to distinguish between minor and major disasters. This is causedby a high birthrate, problems of land tenure and economic opportunity, and the lack ormisallocation of recourse to meet the basic human needs of an expanding population.PovertyThe most important single influence on the impact of a disaster.
Increasing numbers of people will becompeting for a limited amount of resources (such as, employment opportunities, and land)which can lead to conflict.Rapid UrbanizationRapid population growth and migration are related to the major phenomenon of rapidurbanization. All other factors couldbe lessened if the affected population were not also limited by poverty. Virtually all disasterstudies show that the wealthiest of the population either survive the disaster unaffected orare able to recover quickly. It is chatagarised by therural poor or civilians in an area of conflict moving to metropolitan areas in search of economicopportunities and security. Across the broad spectrum of disaster, poverty generally makespeople vulnerable to the impact of hazards.


These massive numbers of urban poor increasingly find fewer optionsfor availability of safe and desirable places to build their houses. These transitions are often extremely disruptive and uneven,leaving gaps in social coping mechanisms and technology. These transitions includenomadic populations that become sedentary rural people who move to urban areas, and bothrural and urban people who move from one economic level to another. The destruction ofmangrove swamps decreases a coast line’s ability to resist tropical winds and storm surges.Lack of awareness and informationDisaster can also happen because people vulnerable to them simply didn’t know how toget out of harm’s way or to take protective measures. This ignorance may not necessarily bea function of poverty, but a lack of awareness of what measures can be taken to build safestructures on safe locations.



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