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An examination of Earth tremors in Nigeria shows activity mostly along northwest-southeast lines. The Azores archipelago (Portugal) is subject to several geological hazards, including earthquakes and volcanic activity. Experts and laypersons worked together to map structural damage from the 2010 Haiti earthquake. International Earth observation agencies are cooperating in the creation of online resources to aid rescue efforts and advance scientific understanding in the wake of the Japanese earthquake and tsunami. India is a country that faces food scarcity issues and is vulnerable to disasters brought about by tropical cyclones and tidal surges. The volcanic hazard can involve a sequence of disastrous events, leading to cascading effects in multiple systems.
The terms of risk and disaster are often confused when it comes to natural hazards like floods. The catalysing factor for the overall increase in global temperatures is the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. A new effort is getting underway to monitor and understand one of the least explored regions on Earth: the Atlantic Ocean, from pole-to-pole and from the surface waters to the bottom of the deepest trenches. By Marta Angoloti, National Meteorological Institute of Spain, and Alan Edwards, European Commission.
Technology has made it possible to interlink the world’s observation systems into one “interoperable” Global Earth Observation System of Systems, or GEOSS. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising.
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The Red Cross and Red Crescent National Societies , supported by the International Federation, work with communities to reduce risk, mitigate the effects of, prepare to respond, respond to and recover from disasters.
Disaster Management can be defined as the organization and management of resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies, in particular preparedness, response and recovery in order to lessen the impact of disasters. When the capacity of a community or country to respond and recover from a disaster is overwhelmed, and upon request from the National Society, the International Federation uses its regional and international networks, assets and resources to bring assistance to the communities and National Red Cross Red Crescent Society which is assisting them. The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) is the world's largest humanitarian organization, with 190 member National Societies. The guidelines have identified nine major areas for systematic and coordinated management of landslide hazards.

It is necessary that the hazard must first be recognized, the risk analyzed and an appropriate strategy developed at the national level to mitigate its impact. An aware and vigilant community sensitized to the warning signs of impending landslides is the vital pillar for implementation of an effective early warning system. The issues related to snow avalanches, which affect certain areas in the Himalayas at regular intervals have also been taken up in these guidelines along with landslides.
Developing and continuously updating the inventory of landslide incidences affecting the country. Landslide hazard zonation mapping in macro and meso scales after identification and prioritization of the areas in consultation with the Border Roads Organization, state governments and local communities.
Taking up pilot projects in different regions of the country with a view to carry out detailed studies and monitoring of select landslides to assess their stability status and estimate risk.
Setting pace setter examples for stabilization of slides and also setting up early warning systems depending on the risk evaluation and cost-benefit ratio. Complete site specific studies of major landslides and plan treatment measures, and encourage state governments to continue these measures. Setting up of institutional mechanisms for generating awareness and preparedness about landslide hazard among various stakeholders. Enhancing landslide education, training of professionals and capacity development of organizations working in the field of landslide management. Development of new codes and guidelines on landslide studies and revision of existing ones. Establishment of an autonomous national centre for landslide research, studies and management.
Efficacy in managing landslides and avalanches in the country is expected to improve substantially after all these action points have been addressed on a priority basis with a sense of urgency and duly backed by requisite operational, legal, institutional, and financial support. This is contrary to earlier theories that the tremors occurred in the inland extension of the northeast-southwest oceanic faults. In response, the Centre for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment (CVARG), developed a monitoring network which uses geophysical, geodetic, geochemical and meteorological techniques to provide continuous monitoring and early warning. Case studies of these landslides, and a related landslide stability model, can be used by the Authority of Civil Protection and other experts for managing future risks. Official and open-access mapping technologies can assist in managing the aftermath of natural disasters, but standards are needed. Global warming threatens to exacerbate both of these issues, and proper planning is needed to help decrease these threats to India and its people.

An effective Disaster Operations Management tool should be focused on a dynamic evolution of risk, in order to minimize physical and economic losses. Flemish and European Union authorities each have methods and directives for managing such situations.
The authors (together with three other officials) are co-chairs of the GEO Capacity Building Committee.
Firstly I want to thank KAVITA TYAGI Ma’am who assisted me this project.• I have taken information from wikipedia and pictures from different websites. At an international level the International Federation advocates with Governments, international organisations and humanitarian donors for better practice and accountability in disaster management and greater respect of the dignity of the vulnerable people. As part of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, our work is guided by seven fundamental principles; humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity and universality. To achieve this objective, the NDMA initiated a series of consultations for drafting the national guidelines on landslides and snow avalanches to guide the activities envisaged for mitigating the risk emanating from landslides at all levels. Landslide hazard and risk assessment will be done through landslide hazard zonation mapping and geological and geotechnical investigation of vulnerable slopes and existing landslides.
Early warning systems also comprise a scientific and technological base, mechanisms of dissemination and transmission of information, and response capability on receipt of warning information. A brief summary of the types of avalanches, their causes, their forecasting possibilities and the control strategies is presented.
The results contribute to our understanding of the impact of management strategies and can ultimately improve allocation of firefighting resources.
The Red Cross and Red Crescent National Societies therefore focus on community-based disaster preparedness, which assists communities to reduce their vulnerability to disasters and strengthen their capacities to resist them. The guidelines include regulatory and non-regulatory frameworks with defined time schedules for all activities. It is imperative to execute a few pilot projects as pace setters of early warning systems which will also promote confidence in their operational capabilities.
Proper mapping will be helpful not only for pre-disaster preparedness but also in rescue and relief operations with greater accuracy and speed. It is envisioned that all national and state disaster management plans and policies for landslides will be formulated and implemented keeping in view the overall framework of the guidelines.

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