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The Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act (the Act) includes the provision that the Minister, MCSCS may formulate emergency plans respecting types of emergencies other than those arising in connection with nuclear facilities. The PERP describes the arrangements and measures that may be taken to safeguard the health, safety, welfare and property of the people of Ontario affected by an emergency. While the focus of this plan is on emergency response, it also recognizes the important link to prevention, mitigation, preparedness (plans, training, public education, exercises, and emergency information), and recovery, as proactive components that are critical elements in any emergency response. Emergency Management Ontario (EMO) is the organization charged with responsibility to monitor, coordinate, and assist with the promotion, development, implementation and maintenance of emergency management programs in Ontario. This edition of the PERP supersedes and replaces the Provincial Emergency Response Plan, dated December 2005. An emergency is a situation or an impending situation that constitutes a danger of major proportions that could result in serious harm to persons or substantial damage to property and that is caused by the forces of nature, a disease or other health risk, an accident, or an act whether intentional or otherwise. Emergency management consists of organized programs and activities taken to deal with actual or potential emergencies or disasters. Prevention refers to the actions taken to prevent the emergency itself and can greatly diminish the response and recovery activities required for certain emergencies. Preparedness refers to those measures taken prior to the emergency or disaster to ensure an effective response. Emergency Management Ontario (EMO) is the overall provincial emergency management organization, and is responsible for the promotion, development, implementation and maintenance of effective emergency management programs throughout Ontario, and for the coordination of these programs with the federal government. The PERP is the plan that is used to coordinate overall provincial emergency response and outlines how EMO and the ministries respond to widespread or large-scale emergencies.
Emergencies vary in intensity and complexity depending on factors such as time of occurrence, weather conditions, severity of impact, nature of the affected infrastructure and buildings, and demographics.
Occasionally, emergencies arise that overwhelm the capacity of community authorities to completely carry out the emergency response operations necessary to save lives and protect property.
If necessary, the province can declare an emergency and directly control the commitment and application of provincial resources, and possibly those of affected and unaffected communities. Provincial response support can be provided to the Government of Canada in the event of a national emergency. The aim of the PERP is to establish a framework for a systematic, coordinated and effective emergency response by the Province of Ontario to safeguard the health, safety, welfare and property of its citizens, as well as to protect the environment and economy of the area affected by an emergency, excluding nuclear emergencies. The federal government, through Public Safety Canada (PS) is responsible for the national emergency response system. The Province has exclusive jurisdiction for matters of property and civil rights in the province and for all matters that affect the public health, safety and environment of the province, under this Act.
The federal government has also made arrangements with First Nations and with the province concerning emergency preparedness and response activities in Ontario under which the province agrees to provide assistance in emergency preparedness and response to First Nations communities. The Ontario government is responsible for protecting public health and safety, property and the environment within its borders.
The Minister of Community Safety and Correctional Services (Minister, MCSCS) formulates the PERP under authority of subsection 8.1 of the Act.
References in this plan to the Minister, MCSCS will refer to those powers vested in the Solicitor General by the Act2. Pursuant to section 6 of the Act, ministers of the crown presiding over a ministry of the Government of Ontario and agencies, boards, commissions or other branches of government designated by the Lieutenant Governor in Council shall formulate emergency plans for the type of emergency assigned by the Lieutenant Governor in Council. Declaration of a provincial emergency may also be made by the Premier of Ontario, if the urgency of the situation requires that such a declaration be made immediately. Ministers’ emergency plans shall authorize Crown employees to take action under the emergency plans where an emergency exists but has not yet been declared to exist (section 9(a) of the Act). Ministers of the Crown and Crown employees are protected from personal liability for doing any act or neglecting to do any act in good faith in the implementation or intended implementation of emergency plans such as the PERP (subsection 11 (1) of the Act). Pursuant to section 14 of the Act, ministry emergency plans shall conform to the standards set out in regulations under the Act. Pursuant to subsection 6(1) of the Act, the Lieutenant Governor in Council may assign to a minister, the responsibility for the formulation of an emergency response plan to address a specific type of emergency. Ontario municipalities possess legislated responsibilities to establish emergency management programs under the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act. Coordination of provincial response to emergencies that occur in the North and in unorganized territories is the responsibility of the ministry to which the type of emergency that has occurred has been assigned through the OIC.
Provincial ministries that are assigned a type of emergency by the OIC will produce emergency response plans according to their assigned type of emergency, to enable the Province of Ontario to respond effectively to each emergency. These plans identify issues arising from provincial emergencies that require a broader response than a primary ministry’s response capabilities, and outline how inter-ministerial issues will be coordinated. Denotes a plan which is in the process of development, is subject to change as a result of internal or external review, and is also still subject to various approvals. Denotes a plan that has been extensively reviewed, which may or may not have been exercised or evaluated, and has yet to receive final approvals. Denotes a plan which has completed the review process, has likely been exercised and evaluated, and has received all of the necessary approvals.
The Chief, EMO is responsible for monitoring, coordinating, and assisting with the promotion, development, maintenance, and, through the PEOC, the implementation of these plans. Under certain circumstances, it may be necessary to enhance the coordination of provincial emergency response by implementing provisions from this plan. If the urgency of the situation requires that declaration of a provincial emergency be made immediately such a declaration may also be made by the Premier. 2.3 It is not possible, without the risk of serious delay, to ascertain whether the resources normally available can be relied upon.
Therefore, an emergency could be declared if operational information indicates that existing government resources and legislative powers are insufficient to address the emergency. The process leading to a provincial declaration of emergency will vary depending on the situation.
When a provincial declaration of emergency is made, the Premier (or minister designated to exercise the powers conferred on the Premier by the Act,) will ensure that the federal government is informed. Once a provincial declaration of emergency has been made the LGIC has the power to make emergency orders and may delegate these powers to a Minister or to the Deputy Minister of Emergency Planning and Management. A Minister to whom powers have been delegated may delegate any of his or her powers to the Deputy Minister of Emergency Planning and Management. These orders are only made if they are necessary and essential, would alleviate harm or damage, and are a reasonable alternative to other measures. The decision-maker must determine whether it is reasonable to believe that the order will alleviate harm or damage.
The decision-maker must believe the order represents a reasonable alternative to other measures that are available to address the emergency.
This part of the test requires the consideration of options that may be available before an emergency order is made. The order must apply only to the areas where it is necessary and should be effective only for as long as necessary. Orders generally prevail over all Ontario statutes and regulations, with limited exceptions (E.g. It is important to note that this criterion does not require that all other alternatives be attempted prior to making an emergency order. An order made by the LGIC or a Minister is revoked 14 days after it is made unless revoked sooner. A provincial emergency declaration may include the Province of Ontario in its entirety or any portion or area thereof.
During an emergency, the Premier, or a Minister to whom the Premier delegates the responsibility, is required to regularly report to the public with respect to the emergency.
The Premier is required to submit a report in respect of the emergency in the Assembly within 120 days after the termination of an emergency. The Deputy Minister of Emergency Planning and Management is required to make a report to the Premier in respect of any orders that he made, within 90 days after the termination of an emergency, for the Premier to include in his report.
The basic structure established for the response to a provincial emergency, following the IMS model, is illustrated in Figure 4.1. The LGIC and the Premier of Ontario provide overall direction to the management of the emergency response. The mandate of the Cabinet Committee on Emergency Management (CCEM) is to ensure that the province is prepared to address emergency situations and assume other responsibilities, as Cabinet deems appropriate.
The PEOC provides overall coordination of the provincial response, based on the strategic direction from the Deputy Minister and CCEM. During all stages of response, EMO (through the Deputy Minister of Emergency Planning and Management) will ensure that both the Cabinet Committee on Emergency Management (CCEM) is kept fully informed of the emergency situation and receive current assessments and updates on which to base operational decisions. The PEOC coordinates with the primary ministry to ensure that there is no duplication of effort, and that the operation runs smoothly. Decisions regarding operational emergency response requirements will be conveyed by the PEOC to those Ministry EOCs and community EOCs that are involved in the emergency response.
The purpose of this article is to explore how the Sri Lankan government has improved the Tsunami Disaster Prevention Systems in Sri Lanka. One of the world’s worst natural disasters, causing more than 300,000 deaths affecting over 15 nations in two continents occurred in December 26th, 2004. Much of these deaths would have been avoided if early tsunami detection and warning systems were in place as the earthquake occurred nearly 3 hours before the tsunami reached Sri Lanka.
Most geologists and decision makers have underestimated the potential of tsunami threat from the highly active “Northern end of the Sunda Trench” (earlier known as the Java Trench located in the northeastern Indian ocean, near Indonesia). Even if the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) was aware of the tsunami threat, they had no contact person in India, Sri Lanka or Thailand to communicate such a warning. Many lives in the southern and western coasts could have been saved if they were informed of the danger when the waves hit the east coast of Sri Lanka nearly 30 minutes earlier. This lack of awareness is unpardonable as Sri Lanka’s local tradition hold that, overflow of the ocean occurred several times during its history, submerging large areas of the country. The Sri Lankan government and the scientific community were harshly criticized for their failure to warn the coastal people. The above table shows that, the Sri Lankan government has been playing a key role on disaster management from the 1970s. According to the framework-1, the Ministry of Disaster Management has five divisions, each division connected with each other and focuses on various issues with regard to disaster management. The Disaster Management Center (DMC) was established under the National Council for Disaster Management (NCDM) in accordance with the Sri Lanka Disaster Management Act No. According to the framework-2, the Mitigation Development Division (MDD) is responsible for the national level disaster mitigations, risk reduction based on structural and non-structural activities. Media can play a significant role in creating awareness about disasters among common masses and thus reduce disaster risks.
Media plays a prominent role in Sri Lanka, covering the entire island through television and FM radios with more than 50 channels. Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) is an important pre-requisite for effective and coordinated response to any emergency. Disaster Management Centre (DMC) is the main focal point responsible for coordinating early warning messages, along with the relevant technical agencies and technical committees. According to the framework-3, the national emergency operation centre receives information from various sources such as international & regional disaster warning centers, tsunami multi-hazard warning centers, disaster management centers, emergency service providers, civil society, NGOs, police, military etc, and communicates with relevant agencies or authorities to inform the people in case of disaster or tsunami. The followings are some of the key responsibilities of EOC: (1) Maintaining and operating early warning towers and other early warning dissemination equipments, (2) Dissemination of early warning messages and ensure the reception at remote vulnerable villagers, (3) Co-ordination of donor assistance to strengthen capacity of technical agencies for early warning, (4) Initiating awareness on activities related to early warning among the various agencies and public, and (5) Guiding district disaster management units in coordinating and implementing warning dissemination-related activities in the province, district, and local authority levels. The establishment of a tsunami early warning system in the Indian ocean is promoted mainly by UNESCO in response to the UN World conference on disaster reduction held in Japan in January 2005.
In the case of Sri Lanka, the department of meteorology and Disaster Management Centre (DMC) are responsible for receiving tsunami early warnings. Regarding the national level, there are seven national TV stations which have early warning units, seven national radio stations which have 24×7 emergency operation centers, 34 national early warning towers which pass the early warning signals to the Meteorology department and telephone call services are responsible to inform to the people about the disaster prevention in Sri Lanka. However, after the tsunami, the Sri Lankan government focused more on the disaster management and established some emergency teams that include broadcasters and newspaper reporters. Apart from the relief assistance, the broadcasters also began to collect some information about the tsunami and telecasted a tsunami awareness programs via the State-owned television called Sri Lanka Rupavahini Cooperation. International organizations have been playing a key role on the issue of tsunami disaster prevention in Sri Lanka.
There are more than 20 national projects launched by the Sri Lankan government and international organizations to strengthen the disaster management systems in Sri Lanka. According to “A Road Map” for disaster management in Sri Lanka (2005), there were 50 community level projects that were marked by the government and international organizations.
The Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004 clearly demonstrated that the population of Sri Lanka was not prepared to deal with the hazards threatening them. Many foreign countries and international organizations financed for these workshops and seminars. Moreover, the above project also focused on establishing the first aid team in many schools in case of emergency or disaster. According to a school principal in Galle district, the first aid team conducts at least one workshop every two months and educate the children how to protect themselves in case of disaster. The overall conclusion of this research is that the Sri Lankan government has established a good network system from national level to grass root level via various departments and authorities. Regarding the media, it is noted that during the tsunami attack, the role of media was very limited. Regarding the disaster management projects, it is reported that both the Sri Lankan government and international organizations introduced many disaster management projects at various levels in Sri Lanka. Manfred Domroes (2008).After the Tsunami, Relief and Rehabilitation in Sri Lanka – Restoring Towards the Future. The inquiry into the disaster led by Lord Chief Justice Taylor established that main cause was a failure of police crowd control. By about 1450, pens 3 and 4 - those directly behind the goal - were full, but outside the ground thousands of fans were still waiting to get in. Supporters continued to climb perimeter fences to escape, while others were dragged to safety by fans in the upper tiers. In 1963, during a simple renovation in the town of Derinkuyu, a cave wall was opened, revealing a passage way to an underground city, thousands of years old, extending more than 280 feet deep.
The Province of Ontario Emergency Response Plan, also referred to as the Provincial Emergency Response Plan (PERP), fulfils the above provision of the Act.
It sets out the basic mechanisms, organizational structures, responsibilities, and procedures to guide Ministers and their staff when involved in a coordinated provincial response to emergencies in Ontario. EMO was also charged with the responsibility for writing the PERP, and it is an avenue through which to fulfil its mandate for emergency management across the province. These situations could threaten public safety, public health, the environment, property, critical infrastructure and economic stability. It can also greatly diminish the response and recovery activities required for certain emergencies and may result in a long-term, cost-effective reduction of risk. Preparedness measures include plans, training, exercises, public education, alerting and notification systems, procedures, organization, infrastructure protection, and standards. The aim of these measures is to ensure that a controlled, coordinated, and effective response is quickly undertaken at the outset of the emergency to minimize its impact on public safety. The aim of these measures is to assist individuals, businesses and communities to return to a state of normalcy. In most instances, for emergencies outside the capability of the individual, families or businesses, communities1 manage emergencies. On these occasions, direct provincial government assistance may be necessary to support emergency response activities.
In the event of a national emergency, the federal government will implement its emergency response plans and, under the following legislation, will consult with the Province of Ontario. The federal Governor in Council can declare a public welfare emergency, which includes an emergency caused by a real or imminent accident or pollution resulting in danger to life or property, social disruption or breakdown in the flow of essential goods and services, so serious as to be a national emergency.
While a declaration of a public welfare emergency is in effect, the Governor in Council may make necessary orders or regulations that are necessary to deal with the emergency. The Governor in Council must consult the provinces that are affected by the emergency before issuing a declaration of public welfare emergency. This assistance is provided on request from Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) or a First Nations community. The following sections outline the legislative and regulatory framework associated with this responsibility. 1990, ChapterE.9, (hereafter referred to as the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act or the Act). In that respect, this plan may be used for all types of emergencies other than those arising in connection with nuclear facilities. Such emergency declaration is subject to the criteria set out in the legislation governing emergency declarations.
The current Order in Council (OIC) assigning responsibilities to ministers is included as Annex A. The Act also defines the relationship between the Province and municipalities during actual emergencies.
Pursuant to section 3 of the Act, municipalities shall formulate plans to respond to emergencies and adopt these plans by by-law. Municipal plans should reflect the coordination of services provided by all levels of local government in a given community. Pursuant to section 5 of the Act, the plans of lower-tier municipalities in an upper-tier municipality, excluding a county, shall conform to the plan of their upper-tier municipality. Municipal emergency plans shall authorize municipal employees to take action under emergency plans where an emergency exists but has not yet been declared to exist (subsection 9. Members of council and municipal employees are protected from personal liability for doing any act or neglecting to do any act in good faith in the implementation or intended implementation of emergency plans such as the PERP (subsection 11 (1) of the Act).

Counties, with the consent of their municipalities, may coordinate the emergency plans for their municipalities under subsection 3. Pursuant to section 14 of the Act, municipal emergency response plans shall conform to the standards set by the Minister, MCSCS. MNDM is only responsible for abandoned mine emergencies and for providing support to the primary ministries for all other types of incidents. These provisions also apply generally to agencies, boards and commissions (ABCs) designated by the Lieutenant Governor in Council5. It is accepted that a nuclear emergency may nevertheless require the simultaneous implementation of the PERP to address many non-nuclear outcomes of such an emergency.
Such emergency management programs include emergency plans, and to that end the PERP outlines general coordination requirements that all provincial ministries and municipalities should incorporate, as appropriate, into their emergency plans.
In such a case, all other ministries would be expected to act in a supporting role, within their competencies. This would include, for example, provision for participation in emergency training and exercises. EMO will monitor, coordinate and assist with the development and maintenance of such plans.
It describes both Ontario’s structure and processes for managing emergency responses, as well as the structure to be used by EMO in coordinating a provincial emergency response. These MERPs will be expected to support provincial emergency response, and be supporting and complementary to the PERP.
Pursuant to section 8 of the EMCPA, the approval authority for the Provincial Emergency Response Plan (PERP) is the Minister, MCSCS.
The PERP shall be fully reviewed, amended and brought forward for Ministerial approval at least once every four years.
Regulations mandate that the members of each Ministry Action Group (MAG) and Municipal Emergency Control Group (MECG) complete the annual training that is required by the Chief, EMO.
The Chief, EMO may also provide advice and assistance to ministers and municipalities for the development of their emergency management training programs. It will be risk-based and include a range of exercise activities of varying degrees of complexity and interaction. An Interim Plan is considered a working document and would be used to respond to an actual emergency.
Depending on how plan development and approvals proceed, it may not always be necessary to have an Interim Plan.
The Provincial Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (HIRA) Report, which provides a methodology for analyzing hazards and assesses the province’s vulnerability to potential hazards, forms the basis for the PERP. A disaster can occur with little or no warning and can cause an extreme emergency condition in any area of the province. Emergencies vary in scope and intensity, from small, localized incidents, with minimal damage, to multi-jurisdictional disasters with extensive devastation and loss of life. Communities have capabilities, plans and procedures to provide for the safety of their citizens in a time of emergency. The Province of Ontario has emergency resources and expertise that may be used to satisfy emergency response needs that are beyond the capabilities of communities. The province may provide emergency response assistance that is supplemental to, and not a substitute for, community resources. Provincial assistance to communities is not dependent on a formal declaration of emergency by a community, except where prior agreements are in place.
Should the emergency exceed community capabilities, the LGIC or the Premier may declare a provincial emergency and the premier or a designated minister may coordinate all emergency responses. Should the situation exceed the provincial capability the Premier or a designated minister may request emergency response assistance from the federal government. Mitigating hazards that pose further threat to life, property, the economy and the environment. Resources from the province or even the federal government may also be required, depending upon the nature and severity of the incident.
Should an emergency require a coordinated provincial response or should a ministry require assistance in responding to the emergency, the necessary provisions of the PERP will be implemented.
All affected levels of government should remain fully engaged in the emergency response despite the involvement or declaration by other levels of government. Accordingly, it should seldom be necessary to declare a provincial or federal emergency even though resources from these jurisdictions will frequently be provided in support of an emergency declared by a municipality or a First Nation.
In some cases, prior warning may come from outside organizations that have access to scientific methods of predicting floods, forest fires, and severe weather. In these situations, each community would be expected to respond using its resources in accordance with its own plan. If they are well coordinated, the plans of a regional municipality and its area municipalities should be mutually supporting. Counties may also, with the consent of their constituent municipalities, coordinate planning and response activities with those lower-tiers. However, the provision of resources alone from the provincial or federal government would not in itself necessitate any change in jurisdictional arrangements.
These plans, governing the provision of necessary services, together with the procedures by which Crown employees and other persons are to respond, constitute the initial provincial emergency response. These MERPs should identify the resources and the procedures that are necessary to recognize, contain and then resolve the cause of any emergency that falls within their assigned type of emergency.
Management of the emergency in accordance with the provincial Incident Management System (IMS). When appropriate, actions to be taken upon the declaration of an emergency by the LGIC or the Premier. This does not imply that ministries should not deal with municipalities, First Nations communities or the federal government within their ministries’ emergency response plans, but that the overall coordinating authority for plans is the Chief, EMO. This plan may also be implemented in conjunction with other emergency response plans that address specific hazards. Providing a copy of their most current emergency plans to the Chief, EMO under subsection 6.2 of the Act. Requesting assistance if necessary, in accordance with this PERP and established guidelines.
Supporting a coordinated provincial emergency response in accordance with this plan and the ministry emergency response plan for the types of emergencies assigned to other ministers. Supporting emergency response operations of First Nations communities, the Nishnawbe-Aski Nation, or in other federal jurisdictions, if requested. EMO is available to assist in the development of such plans for First Nations, and to assist in emergency response operations pursuant to agreement with Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC).
Communities should advise the PEOC when an emergency occurs or if an emergency seems imminent. This sharing of emergency information will facilitate a more rapid emergency response and will reduce planning time. The emergency requires immediate action to prevent, reduce or mitigate the dangers posed by the emergency.
The declaration notification is passed to the PEOC, which will in turn inform the Regional Director, PS, of the emergency declaration.
This declaration can be renewed for one further period of 14 days given that it meets the test of the declared emergency. The orders must only apply to the areas where it is necessary and should be effective for only as long as is necessary. For example, if the matter could be addressed by an order under the Health Protection and Promotion Act (HPPA), the availability of the HPPA order should be considered to determine whether an emergency order is a reasonable alternative to address the emergency.
In other words, it does not require that an emergency order is the only alternative available. If the Assembly is not in session, the Premier is required to submit the report within 7 days of the Assembly reconvening. Organizational structures for incident management, including the provision for common response functions - Command, Operations, Planning, Logistics, and Finance and Administration. Develop the overall provincial emergency management response strategy of the Government of Ontario.
Conduct high-level briefings and discussions of strategic issues with appropriate ministries. In this role, the Deputy Minister will ensure information and decisions are relayed between the CCEM and the PEOC, and vice versa in a timely and effective manner.
The PEOC is responsible for implementing and monitoring the operational strategy decided on by the Cabinet Committee on Emergency Management.
While the primary ministry executes its ministry emergency response plan for the type of emergency assigned to it based on the existing emergency, the PEOC will operate as the provincial coordinator, with a focus on coordination issues outside of the scope of the primary ministry. A special focus will be given to the role of Broadcasters and international organizations on disaster management.
The 1st wave, which was less ferocious, instead of treating as a warning sign, sadly brought in a much larger crowd of curious onlookers to the beach to observe this unusual phenomenon resulting in much larger loss of lives by the most ferocious 2nd wave that followed 30 minutes later.
According to Jayantha Ranatunga (2005), the absence of early warning system was one of the main causes for the large number of deaths in the country. Even the 1941 tsunami that caused over 5,000 deaths in the eastern Indian coast was mistaken as a “storm surge” (Ibid. Due to the absence of a tsunami preparedness program they could not inform the people and request them to follow an effective safety procedure to be away from the tsunami tidal waves. Even the comparatively weak 1st wave and the receding of water from the coast were completely ignored as a warning signal. The media was particularly critical of the role played by the Pallekele seismological station (early warning center). The author has conducted a few interviews and gathered data at various levels such as the Ministry of Disaster Management, Disaster Management Centre, Sri Lankan broadcasting corporation, United Nations Development Programs, and some school principals, community leaders, religious leaders and fishermen both in Colombo and Galle districts in Sri Lanka. The country is prone to natural disasters caused by floods, cyclones, landslides, droughts and coastal erosion with increasing instances of hazards related to environmental pollution. However, the role of Sri Lankan government has been dramatically increased particularly in the aftermath of the tsunami.
The main purpose of this Ministry was to facilitate harmony, prosperity and dignity of human life through effective prevention and mitigation of natural and man-made disasters, while promoting human rights in Sri Lanka. The National Council for Disaster Management (NCDM) is in charge for social services, rehabilitation and reconstruction.
Preparedness Planning Division (PPD) is in charge for preparation, reviewing and updating national disaster management plan and national emergency operation plan.
During disaster situations, media should not only inform the public with timely and factual information but also to advice the public about actions to be taken (e.g. Prior to the tsunami in 2004 there was no such network or emergency broadcasting centers in Sri Lanka.
The EOC is operating on 24×7 basis and coordinates all incident information of disasters and resources for management. The multi-hazard early warning dissemination division of the DMC will be in constant coordination with all technical agencies responsible for natural and man-made hazards, and in instances of any imminent disaster it will take action to inform the responsible officers for onward communication to the sub-national levels and communities. Different government institutions are mandated to monitor and issue early warnings in the case of different hazards. The above table shows that within 30 minutes the early warning can be reached to the Meteorology department in Sri Lanka. The first two early-warning buoys were deployed in the coastal waters of Sumatra in mid-November 2005. At the provincial level there are some regional radio centers, telephone operators, disaster management coordinators, police and military communicators that are responsible for passing the message to the people. It is reported that broadcasters should educate people about the natural disasters and calm them down after a natural disaster strikes, as well as prevent panic and the spread of rumors.
In fact, there was no special committee or group among the broadcasters to educate the people or assist them to evacuate from disaster areas. The main purpose of this recruitment is to educate the people and direct them toward safe evacuation. Moreover, the broadcasters also began to contact some foreign media and mobilized their support for the immediate assistance from various countries.
It is reported that more than 50 organizations both local and international engaged on the disaster prevention and provided a huge amount of money to build houses and improve their livelihood issues.
The followings are some of the national level projects: technology projects on disaster management, coastal zone management projects, and mangrove projects. The purposes of these projects were to improve the livelihood issues and increase their capacity building.
Sri Lanka is a multi-religious country where Buddhist (72%), Hindu (15%), Muslims (9%), and Christians (4%) have been living for a long time in almost every parts of the country. The populace did not recognize the risks, did not know how to protect them, and in decisive moments often responded inappropriately. For example, UNESCO, UNDP and GTZ conducted various projects among the students in Sri Lanka.
It is reported that the above project financed the establishment of a first aid team in more than 100 schools in many parts of Sri Lanka. He further added that when an earthquake happens, children are asked to hide under the table and then go to school ground with an emergency bag, which includes food, clothes and medicines.
This research found that many people lacked tsunami knowledge prior to the tsunami of 2004. In fact, the media were unaware of the tsunami approaching or hitting since there were no media unit responsible for broadcasting early warning messages.
For example, the school safety education project (first aid project) is important for raising awareness of disaster reduction among the school children. Operational Recovery after the Sumatra Earth quake and Disaster Prevention Systems in Sri Lanka.
Restoring Livelihood and Improving Quality of Life of People Affected by Tsunami: The Role of a Sri Lanka University. Derinkuyu is 13 stories, with 15,000 little ventilation shafts that bring air to even the deepest of levels.
It is an umbrella emergency response plan for the coordination of provincial response to any emergency. It also serves as the foundation for the development and coordination of provincial plans with those of municipalities, First Nations, and the Government of Canada and its agencies.
Prevention measures are broadly classified as either structural or non-structural and include capital improvements, regulations, building codes and public education programs. Similar to prevention, mitigation measures are broadly classified as either structural or non-structural and include capital improvements, regulations, building codes and public education programs. When an emergency occurs, the immediate focus of operations is on meeting the emergency needs of people, saving lives, and protecting property and the environment.
Recovery measures include environmental clean-up, return of evacuees, emergency financial assistance, and critical incident stress counseling. They do this either as a matter of routine by emergency responders (including police, fire and Emergency Medical Service (EMS)), or by implementing their emergency response plan, with or without declaring an emergency.
The orders or regulations made by the Governor in Council should not unduly impair the ability of the province to take measures, under provincial legislation, for dealing with the emergency. However, where the effects of a public welfare emergency are confined to one province, the federal government will not issue a declaration of a public welfare emergency or take other steps unless the Lieutenant Governor of the province has indicated to the federal Governor in Council that the emergency exceeds the capacity of the province to deal with it. Services provided by both upper and lower tiers, as well as municipal boards, should be included. 0.3(2) (b) of the Act, during a declared emergency the Premier, by order, may require any municipality to provide necessary assistance to an emergency area outside the jurisdiction of said municipality, and may also direct and control the provision of such assistance. If an emergency that has not been identified within the OIC occurs, MCSCS will be the primary ministry.
The concepts and procedures for use by provincial and municipal officials in their respective emergency response plans are outlined in this plan. Those that have been assigned, under the OIC, the responsibility for a type of emergency, are expected to ensure that their emergency response plans are consistent with the PERP and coordinated in so far as possible with the emergency plans of other ministries. In addition, all Agencies, Boards and Commissions (ABCs) and any other branch of government would also be expected to provide a supporting role within their competencies.
It is designed to integrate the efforts and resources of the Province of Ontario, municipalities, the private sector, and other nongovernmental organizations. Additionally, MAGs and MECGs must conduct an annual practice exercise for a simulated emergency incident in order to evaluate the respective ministry and municipal emergency response plan and their own procedures. A copy of the Provincial Glossary of Terms is included as Annex D, with a list of Acronyms at Appendix 1. Duplication and confusion can be kept to a minimum and the ability to conduct comprehensive, coordinated operations may be enhanced through the implementation of multi-disciplined actions that may be carried out irrespective of the hazard involved. They can escalate more rapidly than individuals or community response organizations are able to handle. In responding to an emergency, a ministry may implement provisions from its ministry emergency response plan formulated for the type of emergency assigned to it.
Where reliable prediction is possible, action can be taken before the onset of an emergency. Figure 3.1 depicts the normal two-way flow of emergency information between communities, ministries, other organizations and the PEOC. Therefore, an emergency could be declared if operational information indicates that immediate action is needed because of danger to individuals or property. Rather, it merely requires that the decision-maker give consideration to the reasonableness of an emergency order in relation to other options that may be available.

The CCEM is the only Cabinet Committee for which membership has been specified by portfolio. The economic loss has been estimated at US$ 2.2 billion, disregarding the cost of social disorder. The 3rd and 4th waves killed even more people who were either rescuing the drowned or salvaging valuables. He further added that this was partly due to the fact that no tsunami warning system existed in the Indian ocean, which was considered as a safe region, unlike the more tsunami prone Pacific ocean. The lack of awareness and preparedness were the causes of large number of deaths in Sri Lanka.
Tragically, this unusual ocean phenomenon brought in much more curious onlookers to the beach from safer areas to succumb to the more ferocious 2nd wave. According to Mahawansa (a historical book about Sri Lanka), mighty waves submerged several villages for miles around Kelaniya, the capital of the king Kelanitissa’s principality. They could not understand that the automatic unmanned station could not predict the tsunami waves.
The following section will explain the role of Sri Lankan government on disaster prevention systems in Sri Lanka. The devastation caused by the Indian ocean tsunami of 2004 has highlighted that Sri Lanka is also vulnerable to low-frequency, high impact events which cause extensive damage and reverse years of development gains.
It is noted that in 2005 right after the tsunami, the Sri Lankan government passed a legislative act (Parliamentary Act No.13) and established a Cabinet Ministry called as the Ministry of Disaster Management and Human Rights and created a couple of parliament committees and development authorities for the disaster management in Sri Lanka. The key activities of the ministry are categorized into three main areas: (1) Disaster prevention, mitigation, preparedness and early response for population vulnerable to disasters, (2) Overall coordination of post-disaster activities such as relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction and (3) Promotion of human rights of all Sri Lankans.
The aim of DMC is to create a culture of safety among communities and the nation at large through systematic management of natural, technological and man-made disaster risks.
Emergency Operations Division (EOD) is an important pre-requisite for effective and coordinated response to any emergency. However, after the tsunami the Sri Lankan government has established an Emergency Operation Centre (EOC) and introduced various early warning systems in the country.
It receives, analyzes, and display information about the incident to enable decision-making. The following framework-3, explains the structure of National Emergency Operation Centre (EOC) in Sri Lanka.
For example, Meteorology Department (MD) for weather related issues, the National Aquatic Resources Agency (NARA) for Oceanic, Geological Surveys and Mines Bureau (GSMB) for seismological and National Building Research Organization (NBRO) for landslides. The seven-meter buoys are connected to pressure sensors on the seabed and will send information to a central station on the Indonesian mainland by satellite.
13 in 2005, the Disaster Management Centre (DMC) is responsible to release the early warnings to the public via the media and relevant authorities. At the village level, telephone calls, early warning subcommittee, police vehicles, NGOs and CBO workers, temple and church bells, push bicycle and motorcycle messengers are responsible to inform the people.
A journalist from India said broadcasters there had not carried a tsunami warning during the tsunami.
Some broadcasters pointed out that when tsunami happened most of the broadcasters were out of the station and there was no connection or networks among them. In fact, it is important to educate the people and direct them to a safe area and mobilize the outsiders so that the victims can get assistance from the outsiders.
In order to bring back the normalcy among the tsunami victims many international organizations and institutions began to work with the Sri Lankan government. According to a Buddhist monk in Galle district, there are several religious groups that conduct preaches and workshops about the disaster prevention in Sri Lanka. For example, many Sri Lankans actually ran out onto the beach as the sea receded dramatically in the drawback just before the flood wave came crashing ashore, and were thus lured to their deaths. The first aid team includes five units, namely the alarm team, evacuation team, security team and search-and-rescue team.
The purposes of these workshops are to train the school children how to react in case of disaster. The school interviews revealed that there are still some school children that do not understand what causes a tsunami and what is a disaster prevention system.
The game was to be a repeat of the 1988 semi-final, in which Liverpool had faced Nottingham Forest at the same venue. It was later discovered that this should have been reduced to 1,600 as crush barriers installed three years earlier did not meet official safety standards. In the chaotic aftermath, supporters tore up advertising hoardings to use as makeshift stretchers and tried to administer first aid to the injured. Jack Straw accepted the findings and ruled out a new inquiry, but in August 1998 the Hillsborough Family Support group brought charges of manslaughter against David Duckenfield and his deputy, Superintendent Bernard Murray, in a private prosecution. This effort may last from a few hours to several days or longer, depending on the situation.
Recovery activities usually begin almost as soon as the response begins and continue after the response activities cease. Provincial resources deployed to deal with a significant hazardous materials incident could fall under the Provincial Counter-Terrorism Plan (PCTP)7 and the Supporting Plan for Terrorism Consequence Management (SPTCM)8, should there be a subsequent determination that the incident is terrorist related. This plan includes planning assumptions, roles and responsibilities, concept of operations, and plan maintenance instructions.
Ministry plans generally require their Minister’s approval whereas municipal non-nuclear plans require passage of a by-law by council. In many cases, these multi-disciplined actions parallel the normal day-to-day responsibilities and functions of provincial ministries and communities. Assistance may expand to the provision of personnel, equipment and other resources to assist a community in dealing with the cause of an emergency.
People in the southern coast completely ignored the tsunami destruction that occurred in the eastern coast nearly 40 minutes before it hit the southern coast (Ibid. This appalling situation of the absence of early warning system and a way of communicating the danger was well demonstrated in Sri Lanka (Ibid. Even the 3rd and 4th waves caused loss of lives indicating complete ignorance of the dangers of tsunami waves. According to Rajavaliya (a historical narratives about Sinhalese kings in Sri Lanka), 100 seaport towns and 970 fisherman villages were overrun by the sea waves. This station recorded the tremor 7 minutes after the earthquake and immediately transmitted the data. In the past few years, the Sri Lankan government has been taking significant steps towards strengthening the legislative and institutional arrangements for the disaster risk management. The following section will explain the role of Ministry of Disaster Management and Human Rights in Sri Lanka. The following framework-1 shows the organizational structure of the Ministry of Disaster Management and Human Rights.
Education & Public Awareness Division (EPAD) generally provides training and public awareness for relevant agencies in Sri Lanka. During an emergency, the media should be sensitive to the needs of the public in affected areas and should avoid misinforming and broadcasting unconfirmed reports that may lead to despair and panic. According to a media spokesperson in Sri Lanka, the role of domestic media was very limited during the tsunami in 2004. The process of early warnings goes from national level, provincial level, district level, and village levels. The following table shows some TV and radio channels, news alert, and news websites that provide early warnings to the people in Sri Lanka. It took nearly 10 hours to gather some broadcasters and have primary meeting with them (Interview with several broadcasters in Sri Lanka, December 15th, 2012). It is reported that when tsunami happened in 2004 in Sri Lanka, the preliminary meeting held with the broadcasters decided to open an emergency operation center within the premises of Sri Lanka broadcasting centre and send broadcaster team to collect food, clothes and basic needs from other parts of Sri Lanka and send the assistance to the tsunami victims. As a result the Sri Lankan government introduced “A Road Map” for disaster risk management toward a safer Sri Lanka in 2005. It is reported that there are 34 early warning towers and centers built by the government from 2005 to 2012.
Regarding the fishing community, the Sri Lankan government has introduced some projects among the fishermen and created some networks among them so that they can pass the messages and make precautions in case of emergency. Education is deemed to play a key role in this context as a vehicle for communicating the knowledge and skills necessary for reducing vulnerability and achieving a culture of disaster safety or prevention. The main purpose of this project was to promote knowledge and skills of personnel employed in the education sector with respect to disaster preparedness and school disaster safety. The first aid team conducts workshops on disaster management from time to time in their schools and educates the children about disaster prevention. Apart from the first aid teams, there are some stage dramas and street dramas by the school children meant to educate the people about the tsunami disaster prevention in Sri Lanka. Liverpool fans had begun arriving at the ground from midday, but had to enter their designated stand at Leppings Lane through a small number of decrepit turnstiles. At 1452, police ordered a large exit gate - Gate C - to be opened to alleviate the crush outside the ground. There is evidence of Religious centers, store rooms, wine presses and stables for livestock.
As response activities begin to taper off, the operational focus begins to shift from response to recovery.
The plan description should include the term Approved Plan and the date approved for implementation, e.g. 98,000 dwelling houses and 75% of the fishing fleet, which was the main livelihood of the coastal population, were damaged.
The tsunami triggered by the eruption of the Krakatoa volcanic island in Indonesia on the 27th of August, 1883 reached Sri Lanka around 1.30 pm. However, due to the lack of awareness and limitation of media coverage it did not reach the people. National Building Research Organization (NBRO) is in charge for disaster mitigation, preparedness and safety through innovative disaster education & research. Following section will explain the role of media on tsunami disaster prevention in Sri Lanka.
Reliable and timely information provided through the media can help people overcome unnecessary fear and fatalism during and after an emergency.
Most of the tsunami related videos were documented and telecasted by the foreign media when compared to local media in Sri Lanka. Department of Meteorology was designated as the tsunami early warning centre for Sri Lanka.
But there was no system to give us a warning.” In fact, television is an essential witness to this reconstruction. This tsunami assistance has become to known as “tsunami sahana” (special relief for tsunami victims). This road map is focused on seven thematic components and focuses in more than 100 disaster management projects that aim to provide services on human rights, conflict resolution, and capacity building.
Apart from this, there are some NGOs and CBOs such as Sarvodaya, Rural Development Organizations, and Seva Lanka that are also working for disaster management at the community level.
The Sri Lankan government and many international organizations launched several projects on disaster management. The project’s direct target group was teachers, who were to be enabled to instruct students in disaster preparedness and how to respond to emergencies. Around 2,000 fans then made their way into the ground and headed straight for a tunnel leading directly to pens 3 and 4. After six weeks the jury found Mr Murray not guilty of manslaughter, and said it could not reach a verdict on Mr Duckenfield.
Derinkuyu is the largest excavated underground city in Turkey and is part of a network of several underground complexes found across Cappadocia. More than 500 tourism related business, which was the main source of income in this area was damaged.
This indicates that the early warning message was not transmitted at the time of tsunami in Sri Lanka. The sea receded exposing the seabed for 20 to 70 fathoms from the shore for few minutes, but fortunately the tidal waves did not return. National Disaster Relief Centre (NDRC) is in charge for planning and implementation programs to meet impact of disasters.
For the media to fill these roles most effectively, the government, the scientific and disaster mitigation organizations need to establish and strengthen working relationships with the media.
Meteorology department is connected with the following authorities: Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre (PTWC), Japanese Meteorological Centre (JMC), and California Integrated Seismic Centre (CISC). Broadcasters are in a position to help the people who are suffering by letting the world know of their situations and needs. Even now many broadcasters and TV channels conduct this program when natural disaster happens in Sri Lanka. These projects can be divided into three categories: short-term projects, mid-term projects, and long-term projects.
In 2005, right after the tsunami, the Sri Lankan government declared that the residents should build and own their houses and properties 100 meters away from the beach. It is noted that the community level projects have improved the knowledge of disaster management among the people. It is also reported that both the Sri Lankan government and some international organizations have conducted some workshops and seminars among the university lectures, graduates, teachers and school children in many parts of Sri Lanka.
In order to generate this knowledge and build methodological competency among teachers, the project worked with 17 national colleges of education as well as 100 teacher-training centers in Sri Lanka.
Fencing had been put up by many football clubs during the 1970s and 80s to control crowds and prevent pitch invasions. The judge, Mr Justice Hooper, ruled out a majority verdict and refused a retrial on the grounds that Mr Duckenfield had faced public humiliation and a fair trial would be impossible. The waves were only 4 feet above the sea and only two deaths were reported, with no records of property damage.
Although there are five divisions function under the Ministry of Disaster Management, the Disaster Management Centre (DMC) is important and plays a central role on disaster management in Sri Lanka.
He further added that the media can be divided into two categories: electronic media and social media.
It comprises one full-fledged operation room, one control room that is 24×7 operational and one communication room to manage all communication equipment.
The following table-2 shows how the early warning message passes to the Meteorology department from various authorities and departments within a few minutes in Sri Lanka.
More lives may be saved in the future by raising awareness of natural disasters and precautionary measures.
Short-term projects mainly focus on the relief assistance such as food, shelter (temporary), and livelihood issues. These 100 meters are considered as a buffer zone where nobody can own a business or physical property.
The main purpose of these workshops and seminars are to educate the people about the tsunami and reduce the vulnerability during the disasters. Fans began climbing over side fences into the relatively less packed pens 1 and 5 to escape.
Report findingsIn his interim report on 4 August 1989, Lord Justice Taylor wrote that the key element of police control at fault was the failure to close off the tunnel leading to pens 3 and 4 once Gate C had been opened. In 2006, Anne Williams, the mother of 15-year-old victim Kevin Williams, took a case to the European Court of Human Rights challenging the verdict of the original inquest. 200 education institutes were damaged and 450 others were used as temporary camps for Internally Displaced People (IDPs). The above examples show that tsunami was not a new phenomenon in the Sri Lankan history, but most of the Sri Lankans did not know what it is exactly and how much damage it can do to the people.
Electronic media is a media that use electronics or electro-mechanical energy for the end-user (audience) to access the content where as social media refers to the interaction of people in which they create, share, exchange and comment contents among them in virtual communities and networks.
He went on to criticise police for their failure to handle the build-up of fans outside the ground properly, and their slow reaction to the unfolding disaster. Family support groups and campaigners believe that if the court decides that there is a case to be heard, it will place pressure on the British government to open a new inquiry.
In the case of Sri Lanka, both media (electronic and social) have improved a lot in the post tsunami period (after 2005). It is reported that the Sri Lankan government has allocated US$ 28,000 for the projects on tsunami disaster management from 2005 to 2015. Five minutes later a crush barrier in pen 3 gave way, causing people to fall on top of each other.
Despite the Taylor report, which was also critical of Sheffield Wednesday Football Club and Sheffield City Council, on 14 August 1990 the director of public prosecutions decided not to bring criminal charges against any individual, group or body on the grounds of insufficient evidence.
The implementation of projects can be divided into three sections, namely at the national level, community level, and school levels. Inquests into the deaths of the victims returned a majority verdict of accidental death, but many families did not accept this and began to campaign for a fresh inquiry.

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