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YSK what natural disaster is most likely to hit your state and how prepared your state is to handle it. In addition to expert speakers on topics related to insurance, climate adaptation and making cities more resilient, there will be many displays, demonstrations and activities for learning about disaster preparedness, response and recovery. The event will feature a speech from His Excellency Enele Sopoaga, the prime minister of Tuvalu who will describe the impacts and adaptation to climate change and sea level rise. PRiMO began in 2003 as an effort to explore opportunities to enhance communication and collaboration among the ʻohana of organizations involved in risk and emergency management. PRiMO is comprised of hui (working groups) that bridge the information gap between service providers, decision makers and other stakeholders. Today, 46 years later, Agadir has rebuilt and experienced explosive growth, with a population of more than 680,000 people.
Paradise began his study because he had noticed in his work as a geomorphologist and architectural conservator that many countries failed to enforce building standards, even when they had them. Paradise and his colleagues spent a month in Agadir, where they found more than 100 survivors of the 1960 earthquake and about 200 of their children or relatives.
The researchers also asked the residents to fill out forms with questions about the perceptions, judgments and conclusions they drew from the event.
Survivors suggested that others may have died because they were munafiq, hypocrites, and said they believed the Muslim tenets but did not follow these teachings.
Many buildings constructed in Agadir today continue to be built with partial reinforcement or completely without reinforcement, leaving the walls vulnerable to collapse. The researchers found that people got much of their information about earthquakes from television, but that the people who did so were more often men than women. As the generation who survived the earthquake ages, the perceptions of danger continue to fade from the collective consciousness. Photo: Hotel Saada in Agadir, Morocco, before and after an earthquake devastated the city in 1960. We have an collection of Business Continuity And Disaster Recovery Planning And Management in various styles. Some states carry higher risk than others but most states are under-prepared to handle the after effects of an emergency.
For each of the 15 tropical cyclones this season, a daily image was extracted from the period when the cyclone was active in the Central North Pacific basin. Attendees will also have the opportunity to learn from meteorologists and scientists involved with weather forecasting and emergency management. Karl Kim, professor of urban and regional planning, executive director of the National Disaster Preparedness Training Center and vice chair of PRiMO will serve as emcee for the event. Since then, PRiMO has transformed into a collaborative consortium of local, national and regional organizations committed to strengthening the resilience of Pacific communities to climate and weather-related hazards, including events such as oil spills and disease outbreak.
Tom Paradise, director of the King Fahd Center for Middle East and Islamic Studies, and his colleagues will publish their findings in upcoming issues of Environmental Hazards and the Journal of North African Studies. 29, 1960, the second night of Ramadan, the resort town of Agadir, Morocco, experienced two moderate earthquakes that leveled the city and killed at least 15,000 people, about a third of the city's population. The town is a prime tourist destination with 21,000 hotel beds, an international airport and premium beachfront resorts - all built on the faults that shifted in the 1960 earthquake.
Using a combination of Arabic, Italian, English, French and Berber, they conducted extensive interviews that often lasted for hours and brought strong emotions to the forefront. The survivors cited not following the pillars of Islam, eating pork and drinking liquor as examples. William Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences and the coordinator of its new Historic Preservation Program beginning this fall. Here is some inspiring pictures about Business Continuity And Disaster Recovery Planning And Management . However, disaster risk reduction has not been a priority for governments until recently," said Luna Abu-Swaireh, regional programme officer at the Cairo office of the UNISDR. They have found that fatalistic religious beliefs can affect how people perceive risk and recover from natural disasters and how these attitudes shape the way cities are rebuilt.
At least 35,000 people were left homeless, with people living on the beach for lack of shelter. Some of the people they encountered had lost every living blood relative they had in the earthquake. These beliefs were linked to educational level, but even a third of well-educated Muslims with a baccalaureate or higher said they believed that God determined who lived and who died in the Agadir earthquake. But men gather in cafes to play cards and backgammon, and the cafes frequently have televisions.
They tended to roll their eyes and sigh when older relatives brought up the perils of the historic earthquake.
Click image to get bigger picture, and if you find Business Continuity And Disaster Recovery Planning And Management interesting, you might pin it to Pinterest. Based on these two scores, we then ranked each states overall resilience against a natural disaster. In almost all cases, States have under-budgeted for the emergency response and support that would sufficiently sustain their citizens for an extended period.
The region is at risk of earthquakes because the Jordan rift valley system extends from the Red Sea, through Palestine and north across the Dead Sea and Lebanon’s Beqaa Valley. Historic NWS collection.The designations employed and the presentation of materials throughout this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country or territory, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Knowing this, it’s important to not be dependent on state resources and to instead create your own emergency plan. About two-thirds of Jordan’s population, the entire population of Lebanon and a large urban population in Syria live within 50km of a fault line. A food storage supply existing of emergency food and water is crucial for your families survival.
Increasing scarcity of water and arable land are also a threat to food security, while flooding in recent years has increased vulnerability. Be informed of where your state ranks, comment on what you are doing to prepare and be sure to share this info-graphic with friends and family.
Jordan, Syria and Yemen have all recently completed national disaster loss databases and will soon be joined by Egypt and Morocco, it said. Other countries are now in the process of finalizing their databases, while Djibouti and Lebanon are following suit. These databases are nationally owned, managed, maintained and regularly updated by the respective governments.
Lebanon and the occupied Palestinian territory have started assessing hospitals for earthquakes and some schools too, but this is still in its early stages."A number of specialized agencies in the Arab world, according to the ISDR, have also developed sub-regional early warning systems for specific hazards.
According to ISDR, drought has over the years affected the region’s GDP and agricultural production."In the last quarter of 2011, we will bring together all relevant stakeholders [government, civil society, private sector] in the region to discuss how we can put the strategies into action, prioritize issues, and invest in risk reduction," Abu-Swaireh said. Over the last four decades, scientific knowledge about natural hazards and the technological meansof confronting them has expanded greatly. Yet despite the ample availability of knowledge andexpertise, vulnerability is growing because of unsustainable development, climate change and extremesof weather increase the scope and cost of disasters. Disaster reduction therefore is an important part of the United Nations'Millennium Development Goals for abating poverty.


Disaster reduction emphasizes the crucial role of human thought and action in the minimization of risk.This means that we need to educate people ? To mitigate the risks stemming from natural hazards such as earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, floods,windstorms, landslides, volcanic eruptions, droughts and wildfires, those at risk must be informed ofdangers and the protective measures available, and well versed in the skills of prevention and resilience.In this way, there would be fewer deaths, fewer injuries and less destruction when such disasters strike.
For example, populations are often concentrated on natural flood plains or alongknown earthquake fault lines.
The destruction of forests and wetlands is harming the capacity of the environment to withstandhazards, and eliminating defences that nature has evolved over time. UNESCO is strongly committed to the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015, which was adoptedat the 2005 Kobe World Conference on Disaster Reduction.
The United Nations Decade of Educationfor Sustainable Development (2005-2014), which UNESCO is coordinating, is a second strategicinstrument for reducing and mitigating disasters.Disaster reduction requires new partnerships that draw together stakeholders from all levels of society,across different regions, sectors and disciplines. Governments, academic and scientific communities,non-governmental organizations and international organizations, along with the communities at riskand the media are all essential contributors in building a culture of resilience.
These programmes help us understand the mechanisms of natural hazards and to analysewhy some of these hazards turn into disasters. In the case of seismology and oceanography, the organization has contributed to studies going backto the 1960s. Nevertheless, progress in the science and technology of natural hazards, and of related copingmechanisms, have made it possible to introduce significant changes in our response to naturaldisasters.
Major progress has been made in the development of global meteorological models and theirapplication to large-scale weather prediction. Although earthquake prediction is still not possible, considerable ability exists today for more accurateforecasts and advisories of several impending hazard events.
Warnings of violent storms and of volcanic eruptions hours and days ahead save many lives andprevent significant property losses.
Modern technologies have been developed that reducethe exposure to natural hazards of the natural and built environment.Owing to progress in design and construction engineering, earthquake-resistant structures, includinghigh-rise buildings, critical lifelines and industrial facilities, are technically feasible and are becominga reality. DISASTER PREPAREDNESS ANDMITIGATION,UNESCO's role 8A view of the destruction in Moratuwa, Sri Lanka, caused by the 26 December 2004 tsunami.
NOAA News Photo.IntroductionBadaoui Rouhban, Chief, Section for Disaster ReductionDespite the increasing frequency and severity of the catastrophes that strike humankind, it is becomingincreasingly possible to prevent and mitigate the effects of disaster. Yet, while disaster relief captures the imagination of the public, disaster prevention often ranksrelatively low on public agendas. Relief and rehabilitation constitute the primary form of disaster riskmanagement and account for most of spending on disaster-related activities annually, leaving a verylow balance for prevention. This initiative is fully consonant with UNESCO's priorities in contributing to disaster resilience throughknowledge, education, information and public awareness.
The experience of countries prone tonatural disasters emphasizes the highly positive effects of education on disaster risk management. Itproduces children and adults who know what to do when an earthquake strikes and communityleaders who have learned to warn their people in time.DISASTER PREPAREDNESS ANDMITIGATION,UNESCO's role 11Senegalese children run as locusts spread in the capital Dakar, August 2004. On the contrary, changesin global weather patterns and the degrading of the environment mean that such calamities areincreasing in terms of frequency, complexity, scope and destructive capacity.The United Nations called the 1990s the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. This pattern has continued intothe 21st century with spectacular catastrophes such as the Indian Ocean tsunami, the northernPakistan earthquake and the inundation of New Orleans. The doubling of the world's population in the past 40 years and in particular the quintupling of theurban population over the same period has put many more people at risk.
With greater urbanizationand the infrastructure that this entails, economic losses have soared dramatically.
The loss from naturaldisasters in the 1990s exceeded the losses of the four previous decades combined.The August, 2006 report of the UN Secretary-General on implementation of the International Strategyfor Disaster Reduction said that in the period from June 2005 to May, 2006, there were 404 disasterswith nationwide consequences in 115 countries, including the death of 93,000 people and economiclosses totalling 173 billion US dollars. Another UN report, "Delivering as One," issued in November,2006, estimated that 91 million people had their lives devastated by natural disasters in the first eightmonths of 2006.
Hazards are part of nature but often turn into disasters as a result of human actions or inactions.
Failure to imposebuilding codes and use known earthquake-resistant techniques mean that buildings collapse and killpeople even in relatively low-level tremors. Destroying nature's natural defences such as wetlands andcoastal swamps leaves people at the mercy of tropical storms. Looming above all this is the threat of global climate change and rising sea levels as a resultof increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, which the Intergovernmental Panelon Climate Change (IPCC) says is caused by human activity.DISASTER PREPAREDNESS ANDMITIGATION,UNESCO's role 13In the background, painting from Katsushika Hokusai, The Great Wave. The Indian Ocean tsunami, or yet another frightening hurricane season, with the inundation of a majormodern metropolis like New Orleans, gives rise to fears that the magnitude of such events is growingwith time.
Half of humanity lives within 100 kilometres of a sea coast or a sea-navigable waterway while ofthe world's 10 largest cities, eight are located on the coast.
If the predictions of permanent shiftsin weather patterns and significant increases in ocean levels made by the Intergovernmental Panel onClimate Change come to pass, it is clear that today's disasters will be eclipsed in future and that manyother cities and ports will suffer the watery fate of New Orleans. The IPCC studies predict that climatechange will increase droughts, heat waves and fires in some areas. In others, more intense tropicalstorms and higher precipitation will increase floods, landslides and mud slides.What is not generally realized is that many disasters could have been greatly mitigated with adequateforethought and preparation, and that the cost of this mitigation would have been small comparedto the cost of relief and recovery efforts.
Reducing and mitigating disaster risks has not been high onmany governments' agenda because politicians are all too often disinclined to allocate scarce resourcesto preventing something that may not occur during their period of office and that will tend to remaininvisible where prevention is successful.Natural disasters are unjust because they strike hardest at some of the world's poorest countries,which are the least well placed to defend against themselves or to recover afterwards ? In the Indian Ocean, economic development in the Republic of Maldives waspitched back by the 2004 tsunami, and it may take many years before islanders can regain the levelsof prosperity they enjoyed before the disaster struck.
Such disasters are among the biggest obstacles to achieving the UN's Millennium Development Goalsfor poverty reduction. Thus, reducing the risks of natural hazards is becoming an importantdevelopment issue in its own right. The sheer scope of the socio-economic impacts of natural disasters is at last slowly bringing abouta shift in approach away from disaster relief and toward disaster prevention, with risk reductionincreasingly considered as a priority development tool in its own right. There is a growing realizationin the international community that risk reduction, disaster relief and sustainable development areclosely related. DISASTER PREPAREDNESS ANDMITIGATION,UNESCO's role 14UNESCO is closely involved in raising public awareness and improving education about naturaldisasters, two certain ways of helping vulnerable populations to cope with risk. To do this effectively, UNESCO is working inclose coordination with its United Nations partners at international and country levels, and is drawingupon all of its resources ? They adopted what is known as the Hyogo Declaration and agreed upon a Framework for Action forthe decade between 2005 and 2015 aimed at building the resilience of nations and communities todisasters.
The Framework is linked both to the Millennium Development Goals and to the UN Decadeof Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014), which is led by UNESCO. Since the Indian Ocean tsunami, UNICEF,in conjunction with governments and a wide array of partners, has built temporary schools,rehabilitated water systems, organized family care for children who lost their parents, and haskept children healthy through immunization and other health initiatives. A core element of the IAEA?s work is to help countriesto upgrade nuclear safety and to prepare for and respond to emergencies. It concentrates on reconstruction measures that strengthenresilience to future disaster and identify innovations in risk transfer and financing.Other organizationsA number of intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations are engagedin disaster reduction. This includes capacity building in vulnerable nations, research on natural hazards,coordination of early warning systems, the promotion of education and public awareness, andthe integration of disaster reduction into development and anti-poverty programmes.
Working alone or in collaboration with other UN agencies and outside scientific bodies, UNESCOhas been a catalyst for international, inter-disciplinary cooperation in many aspects of natural disasterreduction and mitigation. It plays an important role in several international and intergovernmentalscientific programmes that provide the framework for its current and future strategies.


These includethe International Basic Sciences Programme, the International Hydrological Programme, the Manand Biosphere Programme, the International Geoscience Programme, the Management of SocialTransformations Programme and the programmes of the Intergovernmental OceanographicCommission.
In concert with other United Nations agencies and other parties, UNESCO is facilitating the developmentor strengthening of disaster-management institutions at regional and international level in severalhazard-prone Member States. It pays particular attention to building and strengthening cooperativecapabilities through concerted action among the various UNESCO networks.As the UN's agency for science, UNESCO has been intimately involved in disaster reduction for the past45 years, with studies on earthquakes and oceanography dating back to the 1960s.
Three quarters of the world's population live in areas that were affectedby these phenomena at least once between 1980 and 2000. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions causeon average almost half of all natural disaster casualties, but windstorms and other weather-relatedevents cause the most economic damage. Following are descriptions of the principal kinds of risks and the part UNESCO is playing in reducingthem. EarthquakesSome 50.000 earthquakes occur on average every year as the Earth's tectonic plates shift and adjust,including some of potentially devastating magnitude releasing awesome amounts of energy. But scientistshave no way of knowing beyond the broadest indications when and where tremors will occur next. UNESCO has supported the establishment of international, regional and national centres forthe recording, exchange and analysis of seismological data.
It helps train engineers and scientists andhas been behind the creation of specialized centres for earthquake engineering and seismology in theformer Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Britain, Japan, Peru and Iran.In other regional actions, UNESCO and the US Geological Survey have been jointly involved since 1993in a network of expertise, stations and institutes as part of a Programme for Reducing EarthquakeLosses in the Enlarged Mediterranean Region.
An important feature of this programme is that it makesit possible for countries which are politically antagonistic to one another to exchange scientific data.Likewise, UNESCO since 2001 has collaborated with the US Geological Survey and earth scienceorganizations on the Programme for Reducing Earthquake Losses in South Asia. Similar projects, such as the Programme for Assessment and Mitigation of Earthquake Risk in the ArabRegion, have been funded, equipped and staffed with UNESCO's help.
The huge growth of urban populations along known seismic fault lines makes it increasingly likely thata disaster to surpass that of either San Francisco or Tokyo will occur sooner or later.There are almost 450 cities worldwide with a population of more than one million, and with mostpopulation growth occurring in urban areas, sprawling mega-cities are becoming ever larger, attractingthousands of new inhabitants every day.
Engineers know how to prevent floors pancaking on top of one another and how to createbuildings that can absorb substantial shocks without collapsing, but many authorities fail to enforceearthquake hazard and building safety codes, even where these exist. TsunamisEarthquakes beneath the ocean floor, volcanic eruptions, submarine landslides and even meteoriteimpacts can touch off the monstrous waves known as tsunamis.
Within a month of the calamity, governments at the Kobe meeting agreed to set up a tsunami warningsystem for the Indian Ocean and an initial network is in place since July, 2006 with help from the PacificTsunami Warning Center in Hawaii and the Japanese Meteorological Agency. Going further, Member States of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCOdecided at their General Assembly in June 2005 to coordinate the establishment of a global warningsystem for ocean-related hazards in close cooperation with other UN bodies.Although tsunamis are most common in the Pacific Ocean where also more than half of volcanoes arelocated, the destruction of Lisbon in 1755 and Messina in 1908 are reminders that these events can strikeanywhere in the world.
The complex science serves no purpose unless it can be converted into effective warnings, whichrequires the building of national centres to receive warnings from observation networks and relay themto communities in harm's way.
The tsunami warning systems will eventually form part of a global warning and mitigation networkbeing coordinated by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. The integrated system willkeep an eye on all likely hazards, including tsunamis, storms and floods.Floods Flooding occurs anywhere where rainwater or snow melt exceeds the capacity of the soil to absorb itor rivers to carry it away. Floods range from deadly flash events that carry off people, livestock andproperty to slow inundations that can turn huge areas of land into shallow lakes.
In war-afflicted countries, floods often have the deadly effect of washing land mines out of marked areas.As the leading UN agency for water-related issues, UNESCO in conjunction with the WorldMeteorological Organization inaugurated the International Flood Initiative during the 2005 WorldConference on Disaster Reduction in Japan. The organization participates in all aspects of waterresource research through the International Hydrological Programme. Floods are among the most frequent and deadly of natural phenomena, affecting an average520 million people a year.
Almost half the people killed in the natural disasters of recent decades havebeen victims of floods, which also account for about one third of economic losses incurred worldwide. Several factors explain this toll, particularly the denser occupancy of flood plains and other flood-proneareas, deforestation and unsuitable watershed land use.
Situated in a coastal lowland area andcriss-crossed by 13 rivers and numerous streams, it is frequently inundated.
UNESCO's office in the Indonesian capital has contributed to a flood mitigation project in a districtsubject to recurrent severe flooding. Under the project, community representatives were trained tocommunicate with the community as a whole and show how people could lessen the impact of futureinundations.
This was in line with UNESCO's aim to create communities that are well-informed andadequately prepared for such events. It should be remembered that although floods are the most far-reaching of natural disasters, they arealso often part of nature's pattern. The problem therefore is often notto stop flooding in cases where it is helpful to the environment, but to reduce human vulnerability toflooding.
The International Flood Initiative aims at a holistic rather than fragmented approach to floodmanagement by stimulating research, improving training in both informal and academic settings,networking information, empowering populations at risk of flooding and providing technical assistance.While the program is primarily designed to protect populations at risk, it also seeks to enhancethe benefits of flooding and introduce adaptation strategies appropriate for each area.Tropical cyclonesTropical cyclones ?
A cyclone accompanied by an exceptionally high storm surge sweptover the coastal wetlands of Bangladesh in 1970, killing 300,000 people. A future rise in sea levels associated with global warming may mean bigger storm surges and morevulnerability to them as well as to tsunamis. In addition, increasing population density in coastal regionshas increased human vulnerability to cyclones. The inundation of New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina in 2005 is a harbinger of what could bein store for an increasing number of coastal cities if sea levels rise as feared as a result of global climatechange and the loss of mass from glaciers and ice caps. The IOC is also one of the sponsors and hosts the Secretariat of the Global Ocean ObservingSystem, one of the ultimate aims of which is to mitigate damage from natural hazards and pollution. DISASTER PREPAREDNESS ANDMITIGATION,UNESCO's role 28A tornado that swept across Moore, Oklahoma, on May 8, 2003, left more than 300 million dollars in damage.
The twister, rated F3 on the Fujita scale, struck only four years after the same area was devastated by an F5 tornado.? University Corporation for Atmospheric Research.The IOC sponsors the World Climate Research Programme, which provides critical information tothe Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Together with the WMO, it coordinates oceanobservations that feed into tropical cyclone forecasting.LandslidesBoth meteorological and seismological events can trigger massive movement of rock and soil onunstable slopes. Heat waves have become more frequent, and observationssuggest an increase in tropical cyclone activity.Climate change is a priority issue in many UNESCO programmes, including those concernedwith the oceans, drylands, ecosystems and the management of resources. It alsocoordinates international expertise in landslide risk assessment and mitigation studies and promotes aglobal, multidisciplinary programme on landslides.
Droughts and desertificationChanging climate patterns are also held responsible for the increasing prevalence of drought in many partsof the world, but particularly in Africa, where it contributes to the spread of deserts and land degradation.Climate change will undoubtedly be accompanied by surprising and complex effects that will varyfrom place to place, meaning that even as the risk of flooding increases in some areas, the scourgeof drought will become more prevalent in others. Desertification already threatens over one third of the earth's land surface, directly affects the lives of250 million people and threatens another 1.2 billion in 110 countries. Tens of millions of those affectedin sub-Saharan Africa are expected to swell migratory pressures toward northern Africa and Europe. UNESCO has been involved in drylands research since the 1950s, and emphasizes the need fora developmental rather than a crisis management approach through its intergovernmental Man and theBiosphere Programme and the International Hydrological Programme.



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