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While natural disasters capture headlines and national attention short-term, the work of recovery and rebuilding is long-term.
We cannot stop natural disasters but we can arm ourselves with knowledge: so many lives wouldn't have to be lost if there was enough disaster preparedness. Disaster preparedness, whether it's in anticipation of potential weather-related incidents or terrorist incidents requires a skill set that in my mind someone has to be trained for,. Below is a number of useful links to help increase your preparedness for the threat of a natural or man-made disaster and advice to assist in the case of disaster recovery.
The Heritage Collections Council's "BE PREPARED - Guidelines for small museums for writing a disaster preparedness plan" guide assists small collecting agencies that have few trained or paid staff in writing their own disaster preparedness plan. Disaster planning and recovery - Guidance and information on minimising disaster, emergency procedures, preventive conservation and public safety and security.
The Records Management Disaster Planning - Guideline and Records Management Disaster Planning - Toolkit are two guidelines for disaster planning offering instructions on how to develop a disaster plan for records and recordkeeping systems and a toolkit which includes a series of templates, checklists and sample sheets relevant to the development of a records management disaster plan. Guidelines for Disaster Preparedness in Museums, put together by ICOM explains various methods for developing security and protection programs and various methods for adapting them to your individual needs and resources. Planning for disaster and managing risk is the National Archives of Australia's own strategy to help their staff prepare for, respond to and recover from disasters.
Disaster Planning for libraries and Archives: Understanding the Essential Issues, written and presented by Dr Jan Lyall during the Pan-African Conference on Preservation and Conservation of Library and Archival Materials, Nairobi (Kenya), June 21-25, 1993. The Northeast Document Conservation Center provides free preservation advice to institutions and individuals worldwide. A RAMP study with guidelines on vacuum freeze-drying, a method used to salvage water-damaged archival and library materials. Disaster prepardness and risk management contains links to online resources about emergency preparedness for heritage collections, risk management and salvaging collections damaged in disaster situations. Preloaded content gives people access to vital information to use during emergencies, even without an internet connection. The American Red Cross of Northwest Ohio encourages people to be equipped with the knowledge, tools, and resources needed to respond in the event of a disaster or emergency. Personalize your online experience to stay up-to-date on news, events and other information. The Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) program was established after September 11, 2001 and is designed to encourage citizens and communities to be diligent in their awareness of neighborhood activity and to become more involved in emergency preparedness. Following a major disaster, first responders, such as police, fire fighters, paramedics and even public utility providers may not be able to meet the demands for public service.
The Creve Coeur Police Department currently partners with several police and fire agencies to provide CERT training throughout the St. CERT training is a program designed to give ordinary citizens the knowledge and basic equipment needed to care for themselves, their families and their community following a disaster or terrorist act. The training concludes with a live disaster simulation where students are given the opportunity to put their skill to work. A background check of all applicants will be completed to ensure the safety and confidentiality of certain material.
Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. BackgroundDisasters occur frequently and often place a substantial burden on affected populations. VulnerabilityVulnerability is defined as a€?the characteristics of a person or group and their situation that influences their capacity to anticipate, cope with, resist, and recover from the impact of a hazardous eventa€? [3]. The HVA team should also evaluate the possible impacts of a disaster on the normal functions of the hospital or community. Conduct an annual HVA in each hospital and other health care faculty, with funding for and designated staff member(s) assigned to the HVA activity. The use of a standardized methodology for collecting information, analyzing data, and interpreting results will ensure the consistency and comparability of the HVA across hospitals and health care institutions. The availability of mental health care for the vulnerable, disaster-affected population should be increased to meet the demand. The results of the HVA process should be distributed both within and outside of the institution.
AcknowledgementsThis work was supported by the General Logistics of PLA in China (Grant No. If you are well-prepared for a range of possible disasters, from storms and power outages to civil unrest, a disease pandemic, and nuclear fallout, you can face these difficulties with a calm confidence. If some severe disaster occurs, or if a set of disasters combines to an overwhelming effect, there may be civil unrest. Natural disaster preparedness and response programs have become trapped in a homeland security bureaucracy.
The recent Midwest Tornadoes swept devastation across hundreds of homes in Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. With myConnection, the profile you create allows you to set up a unique starting point for the tasks and transactions that you want to complete in your time on this website.
Individual neighbors may have to rely on each other for immediate life-saving and life-sustaining needs. There will be a practical on November 19, 2016 where students will be given the opportunity to exercise the skills they have learned. Effective disaster mitigation is the foundation for efficient disaster response and rescue and for reducing the degree of hazardous impacts on the population. Disasters are defined as singular large-scale events that cause serious disruptions of the function of a community or a society and involve human, material, economic or environmental losses or impacts. Vulnerability represents the susceptibility of a given population to harmful effects from exposure to hazardous events. It includes determining the likelihood of a disaster occurring, its intensity and magnitude, and the possible affected areas of a community [4]. Effects caused by disasters include: (1) Human impact, such as the safety of patients, staff, and visiting family members and friends.
Although no indicator can accurately predict the occurrence of disasters, the combination of different risk factors can help to predict the likelihood of disaster occurrence.
An emergency management geographic information system (GIS), including a vulnerability assessment, has been developed and applied successfully. Periodic training will ensure that the most up-to-date information is available to all participants.
Detailed meeting minutes should be recorded during the decision-making process, including minority opinions and overall results. Conditions include, but not limited to, schizophrenia, dementia, post-traumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder, and anxiety or generalized anxiety disorder, as well as general mental health problems such as addictions, aggression, and sleep disorders [29]. They even prepare for nuclear fallout from a nuclear power plant disaster, dirty bomb, or nuclear explosion. You didn’t know that fallout from a nuclear power plant disaster has many of the same radioactive isotopes as nuclear bomb fallout? Not many preppers will be among those causing the unrest, because they will be well-prepared with intangibles, like knowledge and skills, as well as tangible supplies. And when they fail to give you all that you need, protesting is your next best (by which I mean worst) option. The Northwest Ohio Region of the Red Cross provided shelter, food, and comfort to 80 people who were displaced. Use myConnection to gather the information that you most care about from across this website into one central location, giving you greater control over how you connect with your community.
All classes will be held at the West County EMS & Fire Protection District #2 located at 13790 Manchester Rd. Vulnerability refers to the populationa€™s capacity to anticipate, cope with, and recover from the impact of a hazardous event.
Those losses or impacts often exceed the communitya€™s or societya€™s ability to control or cope with the disaster using its existing resources.
For example, according to the Chinese national earthquake relief headquarters, after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, 69,227 people were killed, 374,643 were injured, 17,923 were missing, and millions were affected [15]. Using socioeconomic and environmental data sources in the GIS, risk maps highlighting the potential impact of disasters on people and infrastructure can be developed that can provide guidance in terms of resource allocation and recovery operations. However, in other countries, especially developing and under-developed countries such as China, where population vulnerability is high, there is a lack of effective planning policies. In addition to those required by federal authorities, local priorities need to be considered. Why spend money on food and supplies, when you can depend on FEMA to provide you with food and water? You never heard that you should store antacids (Gaviscon, Tums, sodium bicarbonate) for treatment of internal contamination with radioactive isotopes? I mean what are the odds that, on any particular day, an earthquake, or hurricane, or superstorm, or power outage, or something much worse will strike?
You’ll be spending a lot of time trying to find copies of sold-out books on prepping and survival. If you find yourself unprepared for a disaster, especially one that is severe and long-term, just find yourself a nice Prepping family nearby and go begging at their doorstep.
Red Cross staff and volunteers provided more than 700 meals, opened two overnight shelters in the towns of Cloverdale and Perrysburg, and connected 150 people with mental health support services.


A hazard vulnerability assessment (HVA) systematically evaluates the damage that could be caused by a potential disaster, the severity of the impact, and the available medical resources during a disaster to reduce population vulnerability and increase the capacity to cope with disasters. Hazardous event can directly or indirectly affect the health status of an individual or a population. Other related factors that can be used to describe the probability include: (1) the frequency of the occurrence of disaster-associated factors.
It is of critical importance for these countries to learn from the experiences of other countries and to implement essential procedures.
A standardized and comprehensive HVA can help health care facilities identify and stratify potential hazards.
How can persons, who know nothing of prepping and have made no preparations, handle the disasters that will certainly, sooner or later, fall upon us? So, fingers-crossed, maybe you’ll get the supplies you need before you are glowing-in-the-dark. But you can always search the internet for information — if you have power and the internet is still up and running. Most preppers have a mindset that allows for helping neighbors in need during any disaster. Working closely with dozens of community partners and government agencies, the Red Cross will continue to provide relief and support long tern recovery efforts. In this article, we summarized HVA team membership, content (disaster identification, probability and consequences), and methods and procedures for an HVA that can be tailored to Chinaa€™s needs.
There are two key components of a hazarda€™s definition: the extent of the influence (harm) caused by the exposure to the disaster and the a€?differentiala€? sensitivity to and ability to recover from the disaster.
The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake revealed that building standards for earthquake resistance were generally poor, especially for schools and hospitals. For example, frequent and heavy rainfall indicates a high probability of floods; (2) the location of the hazardous event. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has coordinated and conducted vulnerability assessments, particularly in the area of flood mapping. But isn’t waiting and hoping way better than learning, buying, storing, growing, and then using your own supplies of food and water? They have a Radiation Emergencies Kit, including antacids as a treatment for exposure to nuclear fallout.
However, most hazards occur in developing or underdeveloped regions or in areas with a high population density, poor infrastructure, and a limited or no disaster preparedness plan. Different populations have different levels of vulnerability to a hazardous event that depend on multiple uncertain factors, including hazard intensity, environment, and population characteristics [5]. The closer the distance between the hazard and the community, the more severe the consequence may be to the nearby community; and (3) seasonal or cyclical variations. Maplecroft, A UK-based global risk and strategic consulting firm, developed an index-based map to show vulnerability to climate change. To carry out the HVA in its entirety, designated departments and personnel should be appointed to oversee HVA activities. Just wait until FEMA realizes that people need food and water to survive, then wait for them to find food and water. Minimally, it should include: a three-day supply of water, nonperishable food, a flashlight, battery-powered or hand-crank radio, extra batteries, a first aid kit, a 7-day supply of medications, a multi-purpose tool, sanitation and personal hygiene items, copies of personal documents, mobile phone with charger, family and emergency contact information, extra cash, emergency blanket, and map(s) of the area. Disaster epidemiology studies the underlying causes of disasters to achieve effective disaster prevention and reduction. The consequences of a disaster on the community mainly include three impacts: human, property, and business [13].
The United Nations has collaborated with other entities to develop hazard risk maps for countries that are likely to face future disasters [21].
Later, collaborations between communities, hospitals, and other entities are needed to establish community HVAs.
The development, implementation and maintenance of a robust disaster preparedness plan needs great collaboration and synergy between different operational agencies and academic and training institutions. Next, wait for these supplies to arrive, and finally wait in long lines for your rations of food and water.
We will not be giving away all our preps to the Unprepared, leaving our own families bereft of the necessities for survival.
There is a significant gap between the knowledge level of and skills for disaster medicine and the current needs of disaster preparedness [2]. Environmental and population characteristics are system-resistance factors related to population vulnerability level. However, most emergency management GISs are designed for reaction, not prediction and mitigation.
It is also important to merge academic advancement and expertise with practical field application. The plan should include ways to contact one another and two predetermined places to meet a€“ one near the home in case of a sudden emergency like a fire, and one outside the neighborhood in case circumstances prevent people from returning home due to damage or evacuations. An effective HVA plan is crucial for successful disaster preparedness, response, and recovery.
In China, to respond to a wide range of natural disasters and to reduce disaster losses, models have been developed to conduct assessments of social vulnerability to natural hazards. For example, during the 2003 SARS outbreak, without an effective HVA on emerging infectious diseases, some Chinese hospitals could not effectively response to this severe infectious disease and fell into crisis. For example, good water-soil conservation capabilities can reduce the effects of a mudslide. A data envelopment analysis (DEA)-based model was used to evaluate the relative severity of disasters in each region of mainland China [22].
More recently, the Eastern Star yacht, which was carrying more than 450 people, sank overnight in the Yangtze River during a cyclone in southern China, and only eight people were rescued. Social vulnerabilities are related to environmental and population characteristics, which are influenced by exposure, sensitivity, and resilience. Another method, which was based on the projection pursuit cluster (PPC) model, was conducted to assess social vulnerabilities to natural disasters in the Yangtze River Delta region of China [18]. The First Aid, Team Red Cross, and Tornado apps can be downloaded from the Apple App Store and the Google Play Store for Android by searching for American Red Cross.You can help people affected by disasters big and small by making a gift to American Red Cross Disaster Relief.
The causes were extreme weather conditions and possible human error.It is important for China to learn about successful experiences and current best practices and to integrate available resources to set up systematic and functional disaster preparedness plans. Your gift enables the Red Cross to prepare for, respond to and help people recover from disasters. In this article, we focused on the hazard vulnerability assessment aspect, which is almost nonexistent in China, in relation to disaster preparedness. Sensitivity refers to the ability of an individual or community to protect itself from different types of potential harm, while resilience indicates an individuala€™s or communitya€™s coping and adaptive capacities during and after a disaster [6].
Future studies about the changes in regional vulnerability and its related causes are also of practical value.Several toolkits have been developed to conduct HVAs. We briefly summarized and discussed the current experiences and information that can be tailored to Chinaa€™s needs. A widely used one is the Medical Center Hazard and Vulnerability Analysis, developed by Kaiser Permanente (KP) [23]. Knowledge levels and training needs of disaster medicine among health professionals, medical students, and local residents in Shanghai, China. Contributions may also be sent to your local American Red Cross chapter or to the American Red Cross, P.O. In combination with our own work in disaster medicine, we emphasized the epidemiological component of the hazard vulnerability assessment.
During the acute response phase, which is the first 96 h after a disaster occurs, psychological sequelae coupled with stress may catapult some preconditions into full-blown illnesses that need immediate and specialized medical services.
In addition, the health impact of the disaster may cause an increased or fluctuating demand for health care services throughout the long-term recovery period, which is the secondary surge capacity [7]. Each measure is rated for separate hazardous events and weighted in the final average vulnerability score [24].
In addition to the physical needs of the vulnerable population, the serious and widespread mental health consequences of disasters should receive sufficient attention. The KP HVA toolkit provides a common ground for data sharing and comparing and for prioritizing different hazards. At least some members of the vulnerable population will need post-disaster psychological support, especially in low- and middle-income countries where mental health services are scarce [8].
Studies utilizing the KP HVA toolkits have been conducted to generate assessment reports of the health care systems in the United States and Abu Dhabi and provided valuable information for future HVAs [23, 25]. Another private health care product and service company, HCPro, Inc., developed its own HVA toolkit for hospitals [26]. Measurement, geospatial, and mechanistic models of public health hazard vulnerability and jurisdictional risk. The changes of a populationa€™s living environment will influence the populationa€™s a€?absorbinga€? ability regarding the damage. The factors affecting the a€?absorbinga€? ability are generally classified into two categories. One is at the community level and includes such factors as population growth and distribution, especially increased population density and urbanization, deforestation, dense infrastructure, traffic congestion, river dredging, hospital distribution, socioeconomic status, occupation, and daily activity patterns and habitats.


Despite these efforts, none of the tools have discussed standardized procedures for HVA data collection or were designed for hospitals or communities. For example, with the rapid urbanization in China, the population is heavily weighted toward the eastern part of the country, which leads to a series of issues that include insufficient public health resources and infrastructure. Hospitals are left to develop their own procedures to collect information on probability and severity, analyze the data, and interpret the results.The second World Conference on Disaster Reduction in 1999 emphasized the change from a response culture to a prevention culture to better cope with natural disasters. The second category is at the national and international levels and includes such factors as global climate change, international debt relief policy, domestic land development plan, infrastructure of transportation and communication, government stability, execution of laws, public health policies, and population education level.
All of these factors can be used to assess population vulnerability.Hazard vulnerability assessmentPopulation hazard vulnerability analysis has been extensively studied and proven to be effective. The periodic evaluation of hospital vulnerability can help determine the impact of internal and external environment changes on hospital emergency rescue capabilities and guide disaster risk mitigation, preparedness, and recovery. An effective HVA should generate recommendations for improvement after observation and evaluation by the panel experts. The consequence, or vulnerability, is related to both the impact on the population and the likely service demands created by the impact [10]. Regardless of geographical, cultural, and infrastructure differences, an effective disaster management plan reduces the harmful effects of disasters on hospital emergency rescue capabilities and enables the allocation of medical resources based on the probability of disaster occurrences. Secondary surge capacity: a framework for understanding long-term access to primary care for medically vulnerable populations in disaster recovery. An HVA can be carried out at the community level or at the hospital (and other health care facility) level.
For example, hospitals in the south coastal areas of China should be prepared for typhoons during the summer, while hospitals in northern China should have routine preparations for injuries or other adverse outcomes related to storms and extreme cold weather during the winter. The purpose of optimizing the allocation of hospital resources is to best utilize limited medical resources to rescue more people, which is the core value of disaster medicine.
Because hospitals and other health care facilities are always at the forefront to prepare for and respond to disastrous events, they are now expected to be community organizations instead of standalone institutions. During the Wenchuan earthquake, the Chinese government established a four-level emergency response system that linked the emergency systems at the national, provincial, city, and county levels. Increasing the provision of mental health care for vulnerable, disaster-affected people in Bangladesh. This system coordinated the use of local resources, ensured cooperation, and enabled the effective deployment of medical rescue forces in the 2010 Yushu earthquake [15].The role of epidemiology in HVAAn HVA is an important component of disaster epidemiology. As stated by LeChat in 1979, a€?Studies on the health effects of disasters could show that epidemiological indices can be of value in planning preventive and relief measures and in evaluating their effectivenessa€? [28].
It should be able to methodologically evaluate the degree of impact and provide background information to create a targeted disaster mitigation plan.
Disaster epidemiology is a relatively new field of study and is defined as the epidemiologic investigation of disaster forecasting and warning, emergency responses according to the different phases of disaster, and the short- and long-term adverse health effects of disasters on the population. Prevalence and risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder among survivors five years after the "Wenchuan" earthquake in China.
In addition, a community HVA and a hospital HVA should be designed to complement one another for disaster emergency response and rescue.HVA team membershipHospitals should develop specific plans to respond to their identified top hazards, which are based on community characteristics.
The first is the typical epidemiologic study of the underlying causes of disasters in order to develop prevention strategies. This aspect focuses on the disaster itself, or the mortality and morbidity associated with the disaster.
The second is to investigate mechanisms to alleviate the burden of the disaster once it occurs and is usually applied at the stages of disaster preparedness or relief. A classic example is establishing functionally complete surveillance systems to monitor the possible emergence of infectious diseases. Review article: evacuating hospitals in Australia: what lessons can we learn from the world literature?
Other stakeholders, such as representatives from the local emergency management office, fire officials, police officials, and the community, could also provide valuable input. The prompt qualitative analytic assessment of different infectious disease risks after the Wenchuan earthquake improved the specificity and completeness of post-disaster disease surveillance and effectively prevented an infectious disease outbreak [15]. These stakeholders are very helpful in terms of future mutual aid agreements, collaborations, and coordinated resource sharing. In addition, a mobile-phone reporting system was also proven to be successful for filing information and reporting disease numbers [15].
However, the group size should remain manageable, and regular meetings should be scheduled to discuss the maintenance of and assignments for the HVA team [13].In addition, the military is always at the forefront of a disaster response. On the contrary, due to the low level of economic development, the lack of health resources, and the epidemic of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in developing countries, disasters in these countries tend to have more catastrophic damage.
When disaster strikes, rapid, coordinated and appropriate responses are needed to mitigate the crisis and ensure the effective delivery of relief and aid.
When the degree of disaster exceeds the a€?absorbinga€? capabilities of the public health infrastructure, the mortality rate and property loss will be high. Military forces have the manpower, equipment, training and organization for an immediate and effective disaster response. A lack of the public health assessment of infectious disease risks after the 2010 Haiti earthquake led to a cholera outbreak in mid-October, 2010, causing 4835 deaths [15].
A large-scale population migration caused by a natural or manmade disaster will in turn lead to various diseases caused by food shortage, water contamination, crowded shelters, and other hygienic problems. For example, the Chinese military played a key role in the emergency response and disaster relief during the Wenchuan earthquake [14].
Therefore, disaster epidemiology is of particular importance in planning for, responding to, and recovering from disasters, especially in developing countries. After the earthquake, the Chinese army dispatched 215 medical, epidemic prevention, psychological assistance, and field medical equipment maintenance teams and 7000 servicemen.
The military medical teams and their temporary military field hospital shelters played crucial role in medical rescue and patient treatment in the disaster zone [15]. Coordination between civilians and military personnel is essential, and simulations and training must be conducted on a regular basis.
Military forces should coordinate with civilian authorities, such as the police, fire services and first aid providers, to set up disaster preparedness plans.HVA contentDifferent regions and countries have different priorities for HVA content. Climate change and increased urbanization promote the population vulnerability to natural hazards.
Emergency medical rescue efforts after a major earthquake: lessons from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake.
China is prone to a high frequency of natural disasters because of its complex geography and climate.
Data show that the main disaster types include floods, earthquakes, drought, epidemics, extreme temperatures, storms, and mass movement wet (subsidence, rock falls, avalanches and landslides) [17]. These natural disasters harm humans, lead to significant economic losses, change the environment, and restrict social development. The areaa€™s geographic features, including numerous rivers, lakes, channels, and a low and flat terrain, make it very susceptible to multiple disasters, such as floods, typhoons, and storm surges. With a high population density and growing economy, the Yangtze River Delta region is at high risk for and very susceptible to natural hazards [18].
Earthquakes are another common disaster in China and lead to significant numbers of causalities. Three of the worlda€™s top 10 most fatal earthquakes occurred in China, including the 1556 Shaanxi earthquake, the 1976 Tangshan earthquake, and the 1920 Haiyuan earthquake. The most recent significant earthquakes were the Wenchuan earthquake of 8 Mw on May 12, 2008, and the 6.6 Mw Lushan earthquake on April 20, 2013, which resulted in significant causalities and property losses [19].
On the other hand, increasing population density and a lack of effective prevention and response plans also increase the population vulnerability to manmade disasters, which include terrorist attacks and technological hazards.
A stampede in Shanghai during the 2015 New Yeara€™s Eve celebration left 36 dead and 47 injured, exposing issues in carrying out a proper disaster response plan [20].
Comparison of injury epidemiology between the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China. However, objective data, such as those from academic institutions, disaster and emergency management centers, and meteorology and seismology agencies, should be used as the main references during the assessment of vulnerability. In addition, we should take into consideration secondary hazards to reduce the underestimation of population vulnerability. For example, a significant earthquake could result in various hazardous events, such as fuel shortages, transportation failures, steam failures and floods.
Health care system hazard vulnerability analysis: an assessment of all public hospitals in Abu Dhabi.
Hazard vulnerability analysis toolkit: assessing risk to patients and preparing for all disasters.
Psychosocial consequences of natural disasters in developing countries: what does past research tell us about the potential effects of the 2004 tsunami?



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