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This excerpt from "System Center Operations Manager 2007 Unleashed" helps prepare you for the possibility of a catastrophic failure, and guides you through the process of recovering from a total loss or a downed RMS. This chapter excerpt from System Center Operations Manager 2007 Unleashed, by Kerrie Meyler, Cameron Fuller, John Joyner and Andy Dominey, is printed with permission from Sams Publishing, Copyright 2008. Although we hope you never need to restore Operations Manager from a catastrophic failure, you must be prepared for the possibility that this could happen. Your plan should assume the worst but be able to concisely and efficiently restore Operations Manager at a minimum to the last backup of your databases. Install Operations Manager 2007 from the installation mediaa€”selecting the option for a typical installation and using the same management group name as the original install. You should have a well-documented recovery plan that would work for every conceivable type of disaster that could occur, from hardware failures to a total datacenter loss. This concept would take backups of the physical drives you used when installing and configuring Operations Manager, and convert them to virtual drives. If you reside outside of the United States, you consent to having your personal data transferred to and processed in the United States. Specify the same accounts (SDK and Config service, Management Server Action account) as used by your original installation.
However, for small businesses, disaster recovery may be deemed costly or an unnecessary expense.Disaster recovery is an important aspect of business continuity. Figure 12.23 illustrates a sample disaster recovery solution that includes log shipping for the Operational and Data Warehouse databases. If your RMS is down and you will not be available to meet your SLAs, you will want to promote an existing management server to become the RMS, as depicted in Figure 12.24. If you need to recover your systems, you would restore database backups, promote the management server to become the RMS, and connect the systems. These allow the network to smoothly transition to the redundant server in the event of a main server outage due to traffic spikes, failure, or other issue. Cancer cells until it triggers with you trigger of all the perservatives in them and just even equally. Even if a business wanted to gamble on it never happening to them, some have no choice but to develop a recovery strategy because auditors are frequently requesting business continuity plans as a compliance requirement. Our disaster recovery service starts by reducing the possibility of an IT disaster by reviewing your infrastructure and ensuring preventative measures are taken. Sonny Bennett looks at where organizations can prevent downtime by shifting the focus of their DR plans to events that are more likely to happen and are much easier to prevent. Every organization, irrespective of size or revenue, should have plans in place to ensure they can continue operating in the event of a disaster or disruptive event.
The disaster recovery plan defines the procedures and detailed instructions that are used to bring services back online, as quickly as possible to get the business back up and running. Many BIA and DRPs have sections on how to recover from natural disasters or “acts of god” including avalanches, earthquakes, wildfires, floods, hurricanes, lightning strikes, solar flares, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, etc. Having identified potential threats these can be categorized and prioritized based on their impact and probability as shown by the matrix. There’s no disagreement that “big” threats have the largest impact and need to be addressed and planned for.
However, failing to ignore “small” events that are more likely to happen can cause unnecessary downtime, loss of productivity and business cost.
This would mean duplicating the amount of servers required and providing a clustered solution. Providing a redundant solution will solve many of the issues, but would increase the cost of the solution, these costs need to be weighed up against the cost to the business of a service outage, this may not only be in terms of revenue loss but also what impact it has on business credibility. Delivering resilient clustered solutions that ensure application uptime, data availability and keep businesses running in the event of a disaster require shared storage. SvSAN is a virtual SAN solution that uses the server’s internal disk capacity to deliver the required highly available shared storage, while eliminating single points of failure and reducing the cost and complexity associated with traditional storage arrays. Sonny Bennett A highly capable and passionate storage architect who thrives on producing innovative, yet workable storage solutions that meet business and customer requirements.
In this article we discuss overview of VMware solution for Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery virtualized environment - Site Recovery Manager (SRM).
SRM is an example of orchestrator like another DR products mentioned in another articles: Zerto Replication Manager or EMC Recover Point for Virtual Machines.
Bidrectional Protection - Each site can simultaneously be a protected site and a recovery site, but for a different set of virtual machines. At the protected site, Site Recovery Manager shuts down virtual machines cleanly and synchronizes storage, if the protected site is still running. Disaster Recovery - similar to Planned Migration but both sites does not have to be running.
To be able to failover virtual machines between sites, we need to configure replication between protected and recovery site. When you use array-based replication, one or more storage arrays at the protected site replicate data to peer arrays at the recovery site.
You can configure vSphere Replication to regularly create and retain snapshots of protected virtual machines on the recovery site. The version of vCenter Server must be compatible with the version of Site Recovery Manager. In case of using array-based replication, the same replication technology must be available at both sites, and the arrays must be paired.
A protection group is a collection of virtual machines that Site Recovery Manager protects together.You can include one or more protection groups in a recovery plan. Inventory mappings provide a convenient way to specify how Site Recovery Manager maps virtual machine resources (datacenter, cluster, folder, network etc.) at the protected site to resources at the recovery site. After a recovery, the recovery site becomes the new protected site, but it is not protected yet. An optional embedded vPostgreSQL database that you can use instead of a dedicated external database with minimal configuration. Improved support for Integrated Windows Authentication when using Microsoft SQL Server as the Site Recovery Manager database.
For Applications owners, database admins, Exchange admins, vSphere admins and application architects. A protection group is a group of virtual machines that fail over together to the recovery site. Individual protection groups for Exchange, Infrastructure, Oracle and SQL were created as shown. Each individual application can have its own recovery plan and can be recovered independent of others. The recovery site can have the option to use the same IP address as the primary or completely different IP addresses. Some customers leverage capabilities such as stretched VLANs or re-locatable VLANS to have the same IP address in the primary and the recovery site. It is quite common to have a completely different set of IP addresses at the recovery site for the virtual machines. The screenshot below shows an example IP mapping for the SAP Oracle VM at the recovery site.
Site recovery helps automate the cumbersome process of disaster recovery planning, testing and recovery. One of the major advantages of SRM is the capability to test disaster recovery of business critical applications with no impact to the running production applications. Once the recovery is complete, reports are available to view all the steps and their duration.
After testing SRM makes it seamless to cleanup up the test environment using the Cleanup function. If it were an actual disaster and a recovery, instead of the cleanup a reprotect process would be initiated once the primary site infrastructure is available.
Mohan Potheri is VCDX#98 and has more than 20 years in IT infrastructure, with in depth experience on VMWARE virtualization.
Sharing best practices to virtualize Oracle, Active Directory, SQL Server, Exchange, Sharepoint, Enterprise Java, SAP etc. Traditionally, providers deployed a dedicated infrastructure for each tenant that it hosted. Figure 2-1 represents how each tenant can be logically separated within the Cisco VMDC design. Path isolation defines independent, logical traffic paths over a shared physical network infrastructure. The virtualized network consists of Layer 2 VLANs and Layer 3 VRFs to provide logical, end-to-end isolation across the network.
The Cisco Data Center Services Node (DSN) is a Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Switch with FWSM and ACE service modules dedicated to security and server load balancing functions. Using the virtualization features of the Cisco DSN services modules, you can create separate contexts that represent separate virtual devices. To address some of these new security challenges and concerns, we recommend deploying virtual firewalls at the access layer to create intra-tenant zones. To maintain tighter control and isolation, architects can map storage LUNs per VM using the raw disk map (RDM) filer system.
If a three-tiered application architecture is needed, the tiers can be logically separated on different VLANS. This document addresses the design aspects of the vApp firewalls but does not detail the vShield implementation. The Cisco VMDC architecture proposes VLAN separation as the first security perimeter in application tier separation. At the access layer of the network, the vShield virtual appliance monitors and restricts inter-VM traffic within and among ESX hosts. A logical construct on the Nexus 1000V, called a virtual service domain (VSD), can classify and separate traffic for vApp-based network services, such as firewalls.
Private VLANs (PVLANs) can complement vFW functionality, effectively creating sub-zones to restrict traffic between VMs within the same VLAN. This type of distribution of firewall services and policy to the access layer increases scale in hyper-dense compute environments and leverages VMware cluster HA technology to enhance firewall service availability. To extend secure separation to the storage layer, we considered the isolation mechanisms available in a SAN environment. SAN zoning can restrict visibility and connectivity between devices connected to a common Fibre Channel SAN.
On the EMC Symmetrix V-Max storage array, key software features provide for the secure separation of SAN data. NFS servers often need to authenticate that the source of an NFS request is an authorized client system. The NetApp MultiStore software allows the creation of separate and private logical partitions on a single storage system. This formula provides a measurement of the percentage of time, for the period T (such as a month, a quarter, a year), in which the service was available to one's tenants. A managed security service is a general term for a number of possible services: these include VPNs (SSL, IPSec, MPLS), IPS, deep packet inspection, DDoS mitigation and compliance (file access auditing and data or datastore encryption) services. In addition to the availability components in Table 2-2, service performance components can include incident response time and incident resolution objectives.
Network availability is paramount to any organization running a virtualized data center service. The data center core is meant to be a high-speed Layer 3 transport for inter- and intra-datacenter traffic.
For example, if BFD with OSPF protocol is enabled between the pair of aggregation switches and a BFD neighbor session with its OSPF neighbor router goes down, BFD notifies the OSPF process that the BFD neighbor is no longer reachable. This VMDC 2.0 Compact Pod does not specify a core design as there are several ways it could be deployed. High availability for the services layer can be achieved whether using appliances or the service chassis design.
If using appliances, high availability can be achieved by logically pairing two physical service devices together. The same can be achieved using the service chassis design, but HA would also need to be implemented at the service chassis level. Unified Computing System (UCS) fabric interconnect running in end host mode do not function like regular LAN switches. When UCS Fabric Interconnects operate in End-Host Mode (as opposed to Switch Mode), the virtual machine NICs (VMNICs) are pinned to UCS fabric uplinks dynamically or statically. The Cisco UCS system always load balances traffic for a given host interface on one of the two available fabrics.
If an active physical link goes down, the Cisco Nexus 1000V Series Switch sends notification packets upstream of a surviving link to inform upstream switches of the new path required to reach these virtual machines. Always deploy the Cisco Nexus 1000V Series VSM (virtual supervisor module) in pairs, where one VSM is defined as the primary module and the other as the secondary. Tools such as VMware's Site Recovery Manager, coupled with Cisco's Global Site Selection for DNS redirection and synchronous or asynchronous datastore replication solutions such as EMC's SRDF may be used to create automated recovery plans for critical groups of VMs. In the storage layer, the design is consistent with the high availability model implemented at other layers in the infrastructure, which include physical and path redundancy.
High availability within a FC fabric is easily attainable via the configuration of redundant paths and switches. When designing SAN booted architectures, considerations are made regarding the overall size and number of hops that an initiator would take before it is able to access its provisioned storage. Consolidating multiple areas of storage into a single physical fabric both increases storage utilization and reduces the administrative overhead associated with centralized storage management. Technology such as virtual SANs (VSANs) enables this consolidation while increasing the security and stability of Fibre Channel fabrics by logically isolating devices that are physically connected to the same set of switches.
A PortChannel can be configured without restrictions to logically bundle physical links from any port on any Cisco MDS 9000 Family Fibre Channel Switching Modules. There are at two potential scenarios for disaster recovery, discussed in the next sections.


Import any additional management packs that were loaded to your old management server or changed and backed up after your last Operational database backup. You need to not only develop a detailed plan for the various contingencies, but should also practice the various scenarios in a development environment until you (and others on your staff for when you are not available) are comfortable with the process. Those with on-premises infrastructure will often invest in additional disaster-recovery tools, such as remote backups, archives, etc.
This tool, Operations Manager Inventory, collects information about your installation and saves it to a XML-formatted .cab file. Another approach to use virtualization to provide an off-site disaster recovery solution would be through sending regularly scheduled backups of the virtual hard drives to the disaster recovery location. It will outline several disaster scenarios, define the detailed responses to each while aiming to keep impact to a minimum.
Should the unthinkable happen and a genuine unpreventable disaster hits you, as part of your overall business continuity plan we can tailor the IT disaster recovery aspect to suit your needs and budget.
While these are all important and need to be both addressed and planned for, the probability of some of these events occurring could be extremely low. The two most important documents are the business impact analysis document (BIA) and the disaster recovery plan.
The BIA also includes a risk assessment detailing potential threats and vulnerabilities that could disrupt operations. Typically, this may mean running at a degraded level of performance, depending on the disruption.
These threats will vary depending on where the businesses are located, along with other man made risks that need to be addressed, such as bioterrorism, civil unrest, fire, hazardous material spills, nuclear radiation, power failure and theft. For these kind of threats, potential impact on business operations is high yet probability is low. Concentrating efforts on minimising these threats is often easier too; it’s difficult and expensive to adequately prevent against natural disasters and the majority of man-made events. Risks can range from server failures, network outages, disk failures, data corruption, malicious attacks and human errors. Enjoys sharing this knowledge with others, developing them and helping them to reach their full potential. SRM helps administrators to plan, test, and run the recovery of virtual machines between a protected vCenter Server site and a recovery vCenter Server site in case primary site (protected) goes down. With storage replication adapters (SRAs), you can integrate Site Recovery Manager with a wide variety of arrays.
The vSphere Replication storage replication source and target can be any storage device, including, but not limited to, storage arrays.I have never seen in production a combination of array-based replication and vSphere Replication.
Taking multiple point-in-time (PIT) snapshots of virtual machines allows you to retain more than one replica of a virtual machine on the recovery site.
In case of using vSphere Replication, it's required a vSphere Replication appliance on both sites. A recovery plan specifies how Site Recovery Manager recovers the virtual machines in the protection groups that it contains.
Site Recovery Manager applies these mappings to all members of a protection group when you create the group. If the original protected site is operational, you can reverse the direction of protection (reprotect) to use the original protected site as a new recovery site to protect the new protected site. In order to post comments, please make sure JavaScript and Cookies are enabled, and reload the page. Protection groups contain virtual machines whose data has been replicated by array-based replication or by VR. Most applications have dependencies on certain infrastructure components such as Active Directory and DNS.
SAP application requires the Oracle Database in addition to the application servers and hence the two protection groups are included in the plan. It provides the workflow, run books and automation to make the process of recovery seamless. Disaster Recovery tests are executed by running recovery plans that had been setup for the different applications.
The temporary storage, virtual machine and networking used for the tests are cleaned in a matter of a few minutes. The reprotect process reverses the direction of replication and the roles of the primary and recovery sites. He currently focuses on evangelization of "Business Critical Applications (BCA)" and "Big Data” Virtualization on vSphere.
This approach, while viable for a multi-tenant deployment model, does not scale well because of cost, complexity to manage, and inefficient use of resources. To define these paths, create VPNs using VRFs and map among various VPN technologies, Layer 2 segments, and transport circuits to provide end-to-end, isolated connectivity between various groups of users. Using this technique, each network device and all of its physical interconnections are virtualized.
This effect results from VRF Lite per hop technique that requires every network device and its interconnections to be virtualized.
These groups represent an additional level of segregation and security as no communication is allowed among devices belonging to different VRFs unless explicitly configured. Figure 2-3 shows how the VLANs defined on each access layer device for Gold network container are mapped to the same Gold VRF at the distribution layer.
To achieve secure separation across the network, the services layer must also be virtualized. The Cisco VMDC solution uses the virtualization features of the Cisco FWSM and Cisco ACE modules to distribute traffic across both Catalyst chassis. Additional VLANs are carried over the inter-switch link (ISL) to provide fault tolerance and state synchronization.
This high-density model forces us to reconsider firewall scale requirements at the aggregation layer.
Cisco UCS M81KR Virtual Interface Card (VIC) is a network interface consolidation solution. Using the Cisco VIC features, you can create virtual adapters and map them to unique virtual machines and VMkernal interfaces through the hypervisor. Security zones may be created based on VMware Infrastructure (VI) containers, such as clusters, VLANs, or at the VMware Datacenter level. A vShield checks each traffic session against the top rule in the VM Wall table before moving down the subsequent rules in the table. When a rule is configured at the data center level, all clusters and vShield agents within the clusters inherit that rule.
In this example, the ESX cluster extends across two chassis of B200-M1 blade servers installed with M71KR-E mezzanine cards, and the VMs are in a single Nexus 1000V virtual switch.
Define multiple groups of VSD policy zones and apply them to groups of servers for a specific tenant. However, it also presents challenges: the need to scale policy management for larger numbers of enforcement points, and the fact that vApp-based firewalls are relatively new in terms of understanding and managing firewall performance. Separation occurs both at the switches and the storage arrays connected to the physical fabric. These features include true segmentation mechanisms that typically adhere to Fibre Channel protocol guidelines. By incorporating VSANs in a physical topology, you can include high availability on a logical level by separating large groups of fabrics, such as departmental and homogenous-OS fabrics, without the cost of extra hardware.
It is a built-in security mechanism available in a FC switch that prevents traffic leaking between zones.
Frames directed to devices outside of the originator's zone are dropped by the switching fabric.
Thin pools, device mapping, and LUN masking work together to take extending separation down to the physical disks. The NAS can be configured to use any one of several techniques to provide security for end host connectivity.
The requesting IP address is compared against the list of authorized IP addresses to determine if there is a match. Each virtual storage partition maintains separation from every other storage partition, so multiple tenants can share the same storage resource without compromise to privacy and security.
Eliminating planned downtime and preventing unplanned downtime are key aspects in the design of the multi-tenant shared services infrastructure. It is common for IaaS public cloud providers to offer an SLA target on average of 99.9% or 3 nines availability. A few components, such as managed security services, may be more applicable to the public cloud services context. Performance indicators will vary depending on how these services are deployed and abstracted to upper layer service level management software. The latter varies based on the type of service component (VM, network, storage, firewall, and so forth). It is strategic for disaster planning, as well as everyday operations, and ensures that tenants can reliably access application servers. The core should have redundant paths to the campus and WAN as well as the aggregation layer VDC of any Compact Pods deployed in the datacenter. It sends rapid failure detection notices to the configured routing protocols on the local router to initiate the routing table recalculation process. To reduce failure recovery times, OSPF removes the neighbor relationship to that router and looks for an alternative path without waiting for the hold timer to expire. There may be a separate core layer or the core could be collapsed onto the aggregation layer in a single Compact Pod datacenter design. MEC allows for redundant paths between entities while simultaneously removing the sub-optimal blocking architecture associated with traditional spanning tree designs. Appliances can be directly attached to the aggregation switches or to a dedicated services switch, usually a Cisco 6500 series switch.
VPC allows for redundant paths between entities while simultaneously removing the sub-optimal blocking architecture associated with traditional spanning tree designs. The two-tier vPC design is enabled such that all paths from end-to-end are available for forwarding. In this design four 10Gbps links are used, however for scalability one can add up to eight vPC members in the current Nexus software release. These notifications are sent to the Cisco UCS 6100 Series Fabric Interconnect, which updates its MAC address tables and sends gratuitous ARP messages on the uplink ports so the data center access layer network can learn the new path.
The two VSMs run as an active-standby pair, similar to supervisors in a physical chassis, and provide high availability switch management.
Primary nodes are responsible for performing failover of virtual machines in the event of host failure.
If the cluster consists of more than eight nodes, the maximum number of virtual machines supported for failover is 40 per host. A given host is deployed with a primary and redundant initiator port which is connected to the corresponding fabric. The fewer hops and fewer devices that are connected across a given interswitch link, the greater the performance of a given fabric. Faults within one fabric are contained within a single fabric (VSAN) and are not propagated to other fabrics. Although this is a very simple implementation of Operations Manager, it is intended to show you the steps necessary to recover OpsMgr from a complete hardware failure of the management server. In addition to deploying log shipping, you will need the RMS and SRS encryption keys for a successful recovery. We will assume that our server team has already built a new server using the same NetBIOS name in the same domain, installed SQL Server 2005, and enabled IIS because we will use the OpsMgr 2007 Web console.
The appropriate level of service packs and security patches are applieda€”be sure to be at the same level of software maintenance that you had with your original system.
In the event of a disaster, the backup copies of the virtual hard drives are activated and IP address changes made to reflect their new physical location. If youa€™re maintaining a data center, maintain an off-site failover device to monitor your system health and reroute traffic in real-time, to another data center if your data center experiences failure.ConclusionIn the end, businesses are far safer implementing disaster recovery plans in their operations. Be it a live "hot site" mirroring your business systems or an inexpensive virtual infrastructure, you will have peace of mind knowing that your business has a proven, tested, updated recovery plan, that can stand up to the scrutiny of an audit by the Financial Regulator. Essentially the BIA produces a hierarchy of systems or services and the order that they need to be brought back online for the business to operate.
A simple way to address some of these issues is to build resilient solutions that eliminate as many single points of failure and ensure a single component failure does not lead to extended periods of downtime. This is a solution which lets you define steps to recovery virtual machines in diffrent location (data center, server room etc). An SRA is a program that an array vendor provides that enables Site Recovery Manager to work with a specific kind of array.
The vSphere Replication appliances must be connected to each other and be the same version. After you create a protection group, Site Recovery Manager creates placeholder virtual machines on the recovery site and applies the inventory mappings to each virtual machine in the group.
You can reapply mappings whenever necessary, for example when you add new members to a group. If you want to come back to original primary site, you can run then recovery again (failback).
A recovery plan is a sequence of steps executed to recover virtual machines in a specified sequence and priority. The infrastructure protection group needs to be included in most application recovery plans to ensure that the application is usable after recovery. SRM provides ability to test recovery in an isolated environment without any downtime and helps tune the recovery and learn from the tests.
He has extensive experience with business critical applications such as SAP, Oracle, SQL and Java across UNIX, Linux and Windows environments. Deploying multiple tenants in a common infrastructure yields more efficient resource use and lower costs.


For example, an Ethernet link between two switches provides a single-hop interconnection that can be virtualized using 802.1q VLAN tags. A hierarchical IP network combines Layer 3 (routed), Services (firewall and server load balancing) and Layer 2 (switched) domains.
From a data plane perspective, the VLAN tags can provide logical isolation on each point-to-point Ethernet links that connects the virtualized Layer 3 network devices (see Figure 2-2). Figure 2-4 shows an example of the Cisco DSN directly attached to aggregation layer switches. As Figure 2-5 depicts, the first Cisco FWSM and Cisco ACE are primary for the first context and standby for the second context. If a Cisco ACE fails, the standby context on its peer module becomes active with little traffic disruption.
However, as physical hosts can now contain multiple logical servers; and therefore, policy must be applied at the VM level. As a result, high-density compute architectures may require the distribution of security policies to the access layer. Like firewalling at the aggregation layer, layer 2 firewalling can enforce security among the tiers of an application, as described in Application Tier Separation. Using features found in the Nexus 1000V, you create port profiles and apply them to virtual machine NICs via the VMware vCenter. Traditionally, each VMware ESX server has multiple LAN and SAN interfaces to separate vMotion, service console, NFS, backup, and VM data. In a multi-tenant scenario where distinct tenants reside on the same physical server and transmit their data over a shared physical interface, the infrastructure cannot isolate the tenant production data. Each virtual machine directory is stored in the Virtual Machine Disk (VMDK) sub-directory in the VMFS volume.
However, only 255 LUNs can be defined per host; since all resources are in a shared pool, this LUN limitation transfers to the server cluster.
If communication must occur between tiers of an application, the traffic should be routed via the default gateway where security access lists can enforce traffic inspection and access control. This is essentially a first-match algorithm, however, an additional qualification of rulesets exists that uses a hierarchy of precedence levels.
Low precedence rules include the default rules and the configuration of Data Center Low Precedence rules.
They offer MDS-specific features that work with zoning to provide separation of services and multiple fabrics on the same physical topology.
The VSAN profile is set up so that fabric wide Fibre Channel services, such as name server and zone server, are fully replicated for each new VSAN. Using this feature takes devices and creates a mapping of the device to the front-end ports on the array that connect into the SAN fabric. Three groups are configured; initiators (hosts), storage (devices), and ports (array front end ports) that contain at least 1 member per group.
This section covers availability design considerations and best practices related to compute, network, and storage.
Once BFD is enabled on the interfaces and for the appropriate routing protocols, a BFD session is created, BFD timers are negotiated, and the BFD peers exchange BFD control packets at the negotiated interval. Certain service appliances, such as the ASA and ACE, can load balance by dividing their load among virtual contexts that allow the appliance to act as multiple appliances.
With VSS, redundant modules can be paired across different chassis, but management can be simplified by presenting the two chassis as one to the administrator. The Cisco Nexus 1000V Series VSM is not in the data path so even if both VSMs are powered down, the Virtual Ethernet Module (VEM) is not affected and continues to forward traffic.
You should also use the anti-affinity feature of VMware ESX to help keep the VSMs on different servers. To indicate health, VMware HA agent on each server maintains a heartbeat exchange with designated primary servers in the cluster. For HA cluster configurations spanning multiple blade chassis (that is, there are more than eight nodes in the cluster) or multiple data centers in a campus environment, ensure the first five nodes are added in a staggered fashion (one node per blade chassis or data center). As the environment reaches steady state, the percentage of resource reservation can be modified to a value that is greater than or equal to the average resource reservation size or amount per ESX host.
With a UCS deployment, a dual port mezzanine card is installed in each blade server and a matching vHBA and boot policy are setup providing primary and redundant access to the target device.
Many organizations would like to consolidate their storage infrastructure into a single physical fabric, but both technical and business challenges make this difficult.
Redundant paths from the hosts feed into dual, redundant MDS SAN switches (with dual supervisors) and then into redundant SAN arrays with tiered, RAID protection. In case of a port, ASIC, or module failure, the stability of the network is not affected because the logical PortChannel remains active even though the overall bandwidth is reduced.
Part of any successful disaster recovery plan includes understanding your current configuration. This prevents OpsMgr from writing data to this database, which you will be overlaying as part of your recovery process.
Naturally, from a fiscal standpoint, it makes sense to build disaster recovery into your organization's budget, and with monthly subscriptions that range from less than $100 to a few hundred dollars for a cloud-based DR solution, ita€™s more affordable than you may realize.Disaster Recovery Concepts to Implement in Your BusinessOne reason why many small businesses skip over disaster recovery is a lack of understanding of its basic concepts.
It ensures synchronization of data and backups across distributed infrastructure to keep your business continually running smoothly in the event of hard drive failure, or any other number of IT disasters. To use array-based replication with Site Recovery Manager, you must configure replication first before you can configure Site Recovery Manager to use it. You can select which snapshot to recover when you use vSphere Replication to perform a recovery.
When an actual disaster happens there are very little surprises and the RTO is truly optimized. Mohan Potheri is an expert on SAP virtualization and has been a speaker in multiple VMWORLD and PEX events.
However, each tenant requires isolation for security and privacy from others sharing the common infrastructure. Therefore, the three types of domains must be virtualized, and the virtual domains must be mapped to each other to keep traffic segmented.
VRF information is carried across each hop in a Layer 3 domain, and multiple VLANs in the Layer 2 domain are mapped to the corresponding VRF. The second Cisco FWSM and Cisco ACE are primary for the second context and standby for the first context. Also, new technologies, such as vMotion, introduced VM mobility within a cluster, where policies follow VMs as they are moved across switch ports and among hosts. However, Cisco VIC combined with VN-Link technology can isolate this data via VLAN-based separation.
While a VM is operating, the VMFS volume locks those files to prevent other ESX servers from updating them.
This enhancement provides flexibility in terms of applying rulesets at varying VI container level granularity. These rules must not conflict with higher precedence rules, such as Data Center High Precedence rules. Certain protocols and applications use dynamically allocated port ranges (FTP, MS-RPC, and so forth). In addition, the administrative user interfaces reduce troubleshooting costs and increase productivity.
This replication ensures that failures and interruptions from fabric changes affect only the VSAN in which they occur. A host contains HBAs that act as initiators and are mapped to the port world wide name (pWWN) of a target storage array fabric adapter (FA) port. This mapping creates the equivalent of an access control list within the storage array where the devices can only access ports they are mapped to. When End-Host Mode is enabled, STP is disabled and switching between uplinks is not permitted. However, Nexus 1000V uses the mac-pinning feature to provide more granular load-balancing methods and redundancy.
Implementation details are described in another module of this solution document set, specific to the topic of DR. These ports access the fabric interconnect as N-ports which are passed along to a northbound FC switch. This ratio can vary greatly depending on the size of the architecture and the performance required. RAID 1 and 5 are deployed as two most commonly used levels; however the selection of a RAID protection level depends on the balance between cost and the criticality of the stored data.
The MDS PortChannel solution scales to support up to 16 ISLs per PortChannel and aggregates 1-, 2-, 4-, 8-, or 10-Gbps Fibre Channel links.
In the Save As dialog box, enter a name and location for the .cab file the tool will create. Your actual plan should contain greater detail, including specific hard drive configurations, the exact installation options, the SQL steps necessary to delete and restore the databases, and so forth. The concepts of disaster recovery may have a technical nature, but arena€™t as complex as one may believe.The recovery time objective, or RTO, is the maximum desired length of time between an unexpected failure or disaster and the resumption of normal operations and service levels.
The benefit of a investing either in infrastructure or a monthly subscription a€“ in the case of SME-oriented cloud services a€“ to protect yourself from disaster is definitely worth the investment compared to the potential loss of revenue and the damage to your reputation as a result of downtime or online security issues.
The recovery plan provides the capability to prioritize different applications to create a specified order for the recovery process.
The process for testing and actual recovery are identical with the only difference being in the case of an actual disaster the recovery happens for real with the primary site being down.
Therefore, logical separation is a fundamental building block in multi-tenant environments. Because the Cisco VMDC solution is cloud architecture, this design assumes there is no need to connect the tenant VRFs because each tenant requires isolation and server-to-server communication among tenants is not required. This setup allows modules on both sides of the designs to be primary for part of the traffic, and it allows the network administrator to optimize network resources by distributing the load across the topology. Using the Cisco VIC, you can create distinct virtual adapters for each traffic flow using a single, two-port adapter. VLAN separation is accomplished when virtual adapters (up to 128) are mapped to specific virtual machines and VMkernal interfaces.
A VMDK directory is associated with a single VM; multiple VMs cannot access the same VMDK directory.
Although a 1:1 mapping of LUNs to tenant VMs is technically possible, it is not recommended because it does not scale and is an inefficient and expensive use of storage resources. The vShield Manager organizes virtual machines, networks, and security policies and allows security posture audits in the virtual environment. Therefore, different pools can have different RAID configurations that provide separation at the disk RAID level.
During this process, the user can define a device specific LUN number that is presented to the host.
This can be particularly valuable in a tenant environment where it is desirable to present each tenant with their own appliance to ensure separation.
Upon server failure, the heartbeat is lost and all the VMs for that server restart on other available servers in the cluster's pool. Zoning within the redundant FC switches is done such that if one link fails then the other handles data access. This feature aggregates up to 20,400 MB of application data throughput per PortChannel for exceptional scalability. The moderated business community for business intelligence, predictive analytics, and data professionals. As we discuss in Chapter 10, log shipping automates the process of backing up database transaction logs and storing them on a standby server. The RTO defines the length of time that is allowed to pass between system failure and repair before the consequences of the service interruption become unacceptable.The recovery point objective, or RPO, is the maximum amount of data allowed to be lost, measured in time. In fact, as described in the preceding paragraph, the cluster file system management provided by the hypervisor isolates one tenant's VMDK from another. Monitoring (VM Flow) is performed at the datacenter, cluster, portgroup, VLAN, and virtual machine levels. As ephemeral port ranges above 1,024 are often used by botnets and rogue services, the VMDC design advocates using this feature to lock down these ports and to define allow rules only for specific ports for trusted endpoints. A prerequisite for VMware HA is that servers in the HA pool must share storage; virtual files must be available to all servers in the pool. Multipathing software is installed dependent on the operating system which ensures LUN consistency and integrity.
The MDS PortChannel solution neither degrades performance over long distances nor requires specific cabling.
This serves to reduce or eliminate the impact on users when a system fails.Redundancies are duplicate servers, attached to the network but ran offline.
This coupled with zoning mechanisms and LUN masking isolates tenant datastores within the SAN and at the file system level, serving to limit the effect of VM-based exploits or inadvertent disk corruption. MDS PortChannel uses flow-based load balancing to deliver predictable and robust performance independent of the distance covered. When a zoneset resets, a slight disruption can occur as fabric state change notifications are sent to all switches in the fabric. To simplify initial configuration, all vShield firewalls perform stateful inspection and all traffic is permitted by default. However, the disruption caused by configuration changes occurs on a VSAN level for Cisco MDS switches running VSANs.



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